Psy 222 Study Guide1
Psy 222 Study Guide1 PSY 22200
Popular in Introduction To Behavioral Neuroscience
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by AM on Wednesday September 14, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 22200 at Purdue University taught by Kimberly P. Kinzig in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Introduction To Behavioral Neuroscience in Health and Human Sciences at Purdue University.
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Date Created: 09/14/16
Monism: belief that the universe consists of only one kind of substance Mind-body problem: question about the relationship between mental experience and bran activity Biological psychology: the study of the physiological, evolutionary, and developmental mechanisms of behavior and experience Dualism: belief that mind and body are different kinds of substance that exist independently Physiological explanation: understanding in terms of the activity of the brain and other organs Ontogenetic explanation: understanding in terms of how a structure or behavior develops Evolutionary explanation: understanding in terms of the evolutionary history of a structure or behavior Functional explanation: understanding why a structure or behavior evolved as it did Mitochondrion: structure that performs metabolic activities Ribosomes: sites for cell synthesization of new protein molecules Dendrites: branching fibers from a neuron that receive information from other neurons Astrocytes: star-shaped glia that synchronize the activity of the axons Radial Glia: cells that guide the migration of neurons and the growth of axons and dendrites during embryological development Glucose: a simple sugar Dendritic spines: short outgrowths that increase the surface area available for synapses Microglia: cells that remove waste material and other microorganisms from the nervous system Schwann cells: glia cells that build myelin sheaths Thiamine: aB1 vitamin necessary to use glucose Cell body: structure containing the nucleus, ribosomes, and mitochondria Intrinsic neuron: neuron whose axons and dendrites are all confined within a given structure Neurons: cells that receive information and transmit it to other cells Membrane: structure that separates the inside of the cells from the outside environment Nucleus: structure that contains the chromosomes Endoplasmic reticulum: network of thin tubes that transport newly synthesized proteins to other locations Motor neuron: neuron that receives excitation from other neurons and conducts impulses to a muscle Sensory neuron: neuron that is highly sensitive to a specific type of stimulation Cell body (Soma): structure containing the nucleus, ribosomes, and mitochondria Axon: thin fiber of constant diameter; the neuron’s information sender Myelin sheath: insulating material that covers vertebrate axon Nodes of Ranvier: interruptions in the myelin sheath of vertebrate axons Presynaptic terminal: (end bulb or button) point where an axon releases chemicals Afferent axon: axon that brings information into a structure Efferent axon: neuron that carries information away from a structure Interneuron (intrinsic neuron): neuron whose axons and dendrites are all confined within a given structure Glia: type of cell in the nervous system that, in contrast to neurons, does not conduct impulses over long distances Oligodendrocytes: glia cells that build myelin sheaths Blood-brain barrier: mechanism that excludes most chemicals from the brain Active transport: a protein-mediated process that expends energy to enable a molecule to cross a membrane Resting potential: condition of a neuron’s membrane when it has not been stimulated or inhibited Action potentials: messages sent by axons Myelin: an insulating material composed of fats and proteins Selectively permeable: ability of some chemicals to pass more freely than others through a membrane Sodium-potassium pump: mechanism that actively transports sodium ions out of the cell while drawing in two potassium ions Propagation of the action potential: transmission of an action potential down an axon Graded potential: a membrane potential that varies in magnitude in proportion to intensity of the stimulus Electrical gradient: difference in electrical charges between the inside and outside of the cell Polarization: difference in electrical charges between the inside and outside of the cell Concentration gradient: difference in distribution of ions across the neurons membrane Hyperpolarization: increased polarization across a membrane Depolarize: to reduce polarization toward zero across a membrane Threshold: a minimum amount of membrane depolarization necessary to trigger an action potential Voltage-gated channels: membrane channels whose permeability to sodium depend on the voltage difference across the membrane Local anesthetic: drugs that attach to the sodium channels of the membrane, stopping action potentials All-or-none law: principle that the amplitude and velocity of an action potential are independent of the stimulus that initiated it Refractory period: time when the cell resists the production of further action potentials Absolute refractory period: a time when the membrane is unable to produce an action potential Relative refractory period: time after the absolute refractory period that requires a stronger stimulus to initiate an action potential Myelinated axons: axons covered with myelin sheaths Salutatory conduction: the jumping of action potentials from node to node Local neurons: neurons without an axon Reflexes: automatic muscular responses to stimuli Temporal summation: a cumulative effect of repeated stimuli within a brief time EPSP: graded depolarization Synapse: a specialized gap as a point of communication between two neurons Reflex arc: a circuit from sensory neuron to muscle response Presynaptic neuron: neuron that delivers transmission to another neuron Postsynaptic neuron: spatial summation IPSP: temporary hyperpolarization of a membrane Spontaneous firing rate: a periodic production of action potentials even without synaptic input Gap Junction: a direct contact of one neuron with another, enabling electrical transmission Peptide hormones: hormones composed of short chains of amino acids Endocrine glands: hormone-producing glands Acetylcholine: a chemical similar to an amino acid G-protein: a protein coupled to GTP, an energy-storing molecule Amphetamine: a drug that blocks reuptake of dopamine and other neurotransmitters Cocaine: a drug that blocks reuptake of dopamine Endocrine glands: hormone producing Posterior pituitary: portion of the pituitary gland, which releases hormones synthesized by the hypothalamus Oxytocin: hormone released by posterior pituitary; important for sexual and parental behaviors Releasing hormones: hormone released by the hypothalamus that flows through the blood to the anterior pituitary Transmitter-gated channels: ion channel that opens temporarily when a neurotransmitter binds to it Neurotransmitters: chemicals released by neurons that affect other neurons Amino acids: acids containing an amine group Monoamines: chemicals formed by a change in certain amino acids Neuropeptides: chains of amino acids Purines: a category of chemicals including adenosine and several of its derivatives Gases: one of the categories of neurotransmitters, including nitric oxide and possibly others Nitric oxide: a gas releases by many small local neurons Catecholamine’s: compounds that contain a catechol and an amine group Vesicles: tiny nearly spherical packets filled with neurotransmitter molecules MAO: enzyme that converts catecholamine’s and serotonin into synaptically inactive forms Exocytosis: a release of neurotransmitter from the presynaptic neuron into the synaptic cleft that separates one neuron from another Ionotropic effects: synaptic effects that depend on the rapid opening of some kind of gate in the membrane Transmitter-gated: ion channel that opens temporarily when a neurotransmitter binds to it Ligand-gated: channel that opens when a neurotransmitter attaches Metabotropic effects: a sequence of metabolic reactions that produce slow and long-lasting effects at a synapse Second messenger: a chemical that, when activated by a neurotransmitter, initiates communication to many areas within the neuron Neuromodulators: chains of amino acids Hallucinogenic drugs: drugs that distort perception Nicotine: a stimulant drug that stimulates certain acetylcholine receptors Opiate drugs: drugs derived from the opium poppy Reuptake: reabsorption of a neurotransmitter by the presynaptic terminal Transporters: special membrane protein where reuptake occurs in the neurotransmitter COMT: enzyme that breaks down the excess dopamine into inactive chemicals that cannot stimulate the dopamine receptors Methylphenidate: stimulant drug prescribed for ADHD that increases the stimulation of dopamine synapses by blocking the reuptake of dopamine by the presynaptic neuron Autoreceptors: receptor on a presynaptic neuron that responds to the released transmitter by inhibiting further release of it Anandamide: chemical that binds to cannabinoid receptors Vasopressin: hormone released by posterior pituitary; raises blood pressure and enables kidneys to conserve water Neuroanatomy: the anatomy of the nervous system Pons: hindbrain structure that lies anterior and ventral to the medulla Tectum: roof of the midbrain Ventral: toward the stomach Hindbrain: the posterior part of the brain Medulla: hindbrain structure located just above the spinal cord; could be regarded as an enlarged extension of the spinal cord Midbrain: middle of brain Thalamus: a pair of structures in the center of the forebrain Ventricles: four fluid filled cavities within the brain Meninges: membranes that surround the brain and the spinal cord The Cells of the Nervous System Separate but interconnected between neurons and cells Attempting to understand how it exactly works Central Nervous System (CNS) Brain and spinal cord Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) Outside of the skull and spine Job is to bring information to the CNS and carry signals out of the CNS Somatic Nervous SystemSoma: Body o Voluntary body systems o All neurons that relate to the body, skin, and muscles o Afferent nerves Sensory; move towards brain Approach CNS o Efferent nerves Motor; move away from brain Exit CNS Autonomic Nervous SystemAuto: Automatic o Regulate the body’s unconscious actions o In control of heart rate, perspiration, salivation o Sympathetic vs Parasympathetic Nervous Systems Sympathetic: fight or flightreact Parasympathetic: breath and feedrest o Involuntary body movements Neural connectivity’s between brain, spinal cord, organs and glands Neurons and Glia Human nervous system cells Human brain contains 100 billion neurons o 12-15 billion neurons in cerebral cortex o 70 billion neurons in cerebellum o 2 billion neurons in spinal cord Anatomy of Neurons take place in the reception, conduction, and transmission of electrical and chemical signals in the brain/body vary by shape, size, length, and function dendrite soma axon presynaptic terminal buttons o receive and transmit information between neurons Dendrites looks like tree branches, at the front of a neuron receive information from other neurons through synapses greater surface means more information can be received dendritic spines (short outgrowths) increase the surface area Soma cell body: nucleus, mitochondria, ribosomes o nucleus DNA, mRNA (protein synthesis, structure, enzymatic activity), non-protein coding DNA (ncRNA: increases with complexity of organisms; humans have more ncRNA than plants prominent in tasks of splicing, organization, and regulation of expressed proteins) o Cytoplasm: jelly like, mostly water Cytosol, mitochondria nutrients from ATP (adenosine triphosphate) o Cytoskeleton: gives neurons the shape microtubules comprised of a bundle of 13 protein filaments axoplasmic transport moving molecules from the cell body to the axon terminal anterograde- kinesin (like two little feet); transports from cell body to terminal buttons o much faster retrograde- dynein; transports from terminal buttons to cell body o ½ as fast as anterograde metabolic work of a neuron synapses on the surface to receive and move information Axons transporter/connector surrounded by myelin sheath insulates and speeds up the rate of transport o Nodes of Ranvier (in between sections of myelin sheath) the electrical signal sent down the axon jumps from myelin sheath section over the Nodes of Ranvier to the next myelin sheath section, thus increasing the rate of transport Axon hillock junction between an axon and the soma Neurons Types of neurons o Unipolar neuron only one dendrite extends from soma o Multipolar neuron several dendrites extend from soma o Bipolar neuron two dendrite extensions o Interneurons neuron connectivity Motor Neurons o Cause and action or movement o Goes to soma in spinal cord o Receives excitation from other neurons which acts as a stimulus for movement o Conducts impulses along the axon to muscle neurons Sensory Neurons o Receive one type of highly sensitive, specialized stimulation o Transmitted to CNS Glial Cells For every 10 glial cells there is 1 neuron in the human body Basically act as support neurons o Neuronsmake myelin sheath, act as a buffer/protection, metabolism, no energy storage, ½ the volume of the CNS o Glia nutrition, support, insulation, housekeeping 4 different classes o oligodendrocytes support, insulation, and produce myelin sheath in the CNS o Swann Cells Myelin sheath production in single axons in the PNS Digest dead neurons Signals neurons to elongate Tubes of axon regrowth arranged in series of cylinders o Astrocytes Act as the structure or “glue” Physical support Transport chemicals reuptake and release Break down glucose wraps around anything in need Stores glycogen Phagocytosis Nutrition and gets rid of waste o Microglia Phagocytes Protect brain from invasion of microorganisms and disease Ex: inflammation after injury More research today due to questioning in the possible auto toxic loop in Alzheimer’s disease Cellular debris (inflammation) microglial activation (inflammation in brain) release of cytokines, but if too much cytokines are released then neural death occurs (endless cycle) o Random—Radial Glia Found in things like embryonic development
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