IS Test 1 Study Guide
IS Test 1 Study Guide IS 2080C
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brady Zuver on Wednesday September 14, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to IS 2080C at University of Cincinnati taught by Prof.Rapien in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 231 views. For similar materials see IS 2080C in Business at University of Cincinnati.
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Date Created: 09/14/16
IS 2080C Prof Rapien Exam 1 Study Guide Ch 1 1) DIK Model a) Data i) Discrete elements: words, numbers, codes, tables database ii) Can categorize, calculate, collate, and quantify b) Information i) Linked Elements: Sentences, paragraphs, equations, ideas, and questions ii) Can contextualize, compare, connect or filter information. c) Knowledge i) Organized information: chapters, theories, axioms, frameworks and stories ii) Can structure, interpret, evaluate and collect knowledge 2) IT reduces the number of middle managers a) Fewer promotions=more competitions b) Let’s workers do work 3) Changes the manager’s Job a) More decision making responsivity because you can manage more people b) More real-time information=better decisions c) Supervising people you may rarely see 4) Workers with Disabilities a) IT empowers visual, aural, and motor-impaired i) Can have computer talk to you if you cannot look at a screen all day 5) IT affects our quality of life a) Robots i) Warehouse robots ii) Drones (1) Military Pilots do recon missions from safe places, using drones with cameras to do these missions instead of flying over enemy territories themselves iii) Telepresence Robots iv) Healthcare (1) Pill Cam (2) daVinci Surgical Robot (a) extremely precise robot (b) Surgeon is in a machine that controls the robot and can be anywhere in the world. (i) Allows a surgeon in the US to operate on someone in Europe Chapter 2 1. Market Pressures a. Globalization and Strong Competition i. Change in the terms of relative size of the world 1. World is “getting smaller” due to advances in Technology and as world trade increases 2. 3 “Phases” of Globalization a. Phase 1: 1492-1800 i. European Colonization, Rise of Exploration ii. Brawn, Horsepower, Wind Power, Steam Power b. Phase 2:1800-2000 i. Multinational Companies drove change 1. First Half: through transportation such as Railroad and Steam Engine 2. Second Half: integration- falling telecommunications costs with telephone, PC, satellites and fiber- optic cable c. Phase 3: 2000-Now i. Competitive Playing field 1. Software and Global Fiber-optic and wireless networks b. Friedman’s 10 Flatteners i. Fall of Berlin wall ii. Netscape Goes Public 1. Stocks grew 1000% iii. Development of work-flow software iv. Uploading 1. Allowing information to get out extremely fast. a. Do not have to wait till the 6 o’clock news for info v. Outsourcing 1. Sending work outside of your company a. Not necessarily out of country vi. Offshoring 1. Sending jobs out of your country’s boarders vii. Supply Chaining 1. Ensuring suppliers are providing quality products to you viii. Insourcing 1. Bring jobs into company that were not originally there ix. Informing 1. Making employees know all about parts of their jobs 2. Not relying on Managers- Managers become facilitators x. Information and Communication Technologies 2. Changing nature of the Workforce a. More Diverse b. Powerful Customers 3. Technology Pressure a. Technological Obsolescence and Innovation b. Information Overload 4. Societal/Political/Legal Pressures a. Social Responsibility i. “Go Green” Carbon footprint management ii. International and US environmental Laws b. Digital Divide c. Government Regulation and Deregulation i. US Patriot Act ii. Sarbanes Oxley iii. Gramm-Leach-Bailey Act iv. Health Insurance Probability and Accountability Act (HIPPA) d. Ethical Issues i. Email Monitoring (Privacy) ii. Consumer Data Collection iii. Copyright Protection and Infringement iv. Digital Rights Management 5. Responses to Business Pressures a. Strategic Systems b. Customer Focus c. Make-to-order and Mass Customization d. E-business and E-commerce 6. Porter’s Competitive Forces a. Rivalry b. Threat of Entry of new competitors i. High when easy to enter Market ii. Need barriers to entry iii. Internet increased threat c. Threat of Substitute Products i. High when there are many substitutes ii. Information-Based industries at greatest risk 1. Continual new developments in technology d. Bargaining Power of Buyers i. High when buyers have many choices ii. Internet Increased buyer power iii. Switching costs e. Bargaining Power of suppliers i. High when buyers have few choices ii. Internet Impact is mixed 7. Strategies for Comparative Advantage a. Cost leadership (Walmart) i. Strategy that gets products cheapest ii. Buying so much in bulk they get better deals on goods b. Differentiation (Southwest Airlines) i. No seat assignments, first come first serve seating ii. No baggage fees c. Innovation (Citibank) i. ATM d. Operational effectiveness (Amazon) i. Same day delivery to Amazon Stores, Next Day (or 2 Day) shipping e. Customer orientation (Dell) 8. Alignment Characteristics a. IT viewed as an engine to continually transform business, creating new revenue streams b. Organizations view internal and external customers and their customer service functions as supremely important i. Customers, Employees, Suppliers, Etc. must be serviced best and are happy c. Rotate business and IT professionals across different job functions and departments d. Provide overarching goals that are clear to each IT and business employees e. Ensure the IT employees understand how the companies make and lose money f. Create a vibrant and inclusive company culture g. Only 16% of C-level executives say their business and IT are aligned i. Age gap, older executives might not understand new technologies causing misalignment Chapter 3 1. Managing Data a. Difficulties of Managing Data i. Data is exponentially increasing over time and is scattered throughout organizations ii. Obtained through multiple Internal, Personal and External Sources iii. New sources of data arise and data degrades over time (Data Rot) iv. Security quality and integrity of data is crucial, however easily jeopardized v. Systems do not communicate with each other leaving room for inconsistencies vi. Federal Regulations on data b. Data Governance i. An Approach to managing information across an entire organization involving a formal set of clear rules for creating, collecting, handling and protecting information. ii. Master Data Management 1. A strategy of data governance that provides companies with the ability to store, maintain, exchange and synchronize a company’s Master Data iii. Master Data 1. A set of core data that spans the enterprise information system 2. The Database Approach a. Database Management System (DBMS) i. will minimize the following 1. Data redundancy, data isolation, data inconsistency ii. Will maximize the following 1. Data security, data integrity, data independence (from applications) b. Data Hierarchy i. Bit (Binary Digit): represents the smallest unit of data a computer can process, consists of only 0 and 1 ii. Byte: A group of 8 buts that represents a single character (letter, number or symbol) iii. Field: A column of data containing a logical grouping of characters into a word or small group of words (last name, social security number etc) iv. Record: A logical grouping of related fields in a row (a name, course taken, the date and the grade) v. Data File: Logical grouping of records, called a data file or a table similar to an Excel spreadsheet with multiple columns and rows vi. Database: Logical grouping of related data files (database tables) c. Database Management Systems i. DBMS collection of programs to store, delete, access and analyze data ii. Relational database model 1. Structured Query Language (SQL) 2. Query by Example (QBE) d. Database Relationships i. Database Management Systems (DBMS): A set of programs that provide users with tools to create and manage a database ii. Relational Database Model: Based on two dimensional tables that contain records (in rows) and attributes (in columns) iii. Data Model: A diagram that represents the relationships between entities in the database iv. Entity: A person, place, thing or event v. Record: Describes an entity in an instance and refers to each row in a relational table vi. Attribute: Each characteristic or quality of a specific entity vii. Primary Key: A field in a database that can uniquely identify each record to be used viii. Secondary Key: Has some identifying information, but does not identify the record with complete accuracy ix. Foreign Key: a field (or group) that uniquely identifies a row of another table 1. Used as a link between two tables 3. Managing Data a. Database Relationships i. Database Management Systems (DBMS) ii. Relational Database Model iii. Data Model iv. Entity v. Record vi. Attribute vii. Primary Key: A field in a database that can uniquely identify each record to be used viii. Secondary Key (Same as foreign Key) 1. Used as a link between two tables b. Entity-Relationship Modeling i. Database designers plan the database design in a process called (ER Modeling) ii. ER Diagrams consist of entities (tables), attributes (can change for the most part) and relationships iii. Relationships described by: 1. Cardinality: Maximum number of times an instance of one entity can be associated with an instance of another entity (1 to infinity) 2. Modality: Minimum number of times two entities can be associated (0 or 1) 3. Examples of this on slide 21 in notes c. Normalization i. Occurs when attributes in the table depend only on the primary key 1. Minimum redundancy 2. Maximum data integrity 3. Best Processing performance ii. Data only primarily related is stored in that table iii. Why Normalize? 1. Minimize redundancy 2. Maximize data integrity 3. Processing efficiency 4. Big Data a. Characteristics of Big data i. Volume: a very large volume of data ii. Velocity: The rate that data flows is increasing and is critical iii. Variety: formats change rapidly b. Issues with Big data i. Untrusted data sources ii. Dirty Data: inaccurate, incomplete, incorrect, duplicate or flawed data iii. Changes in Big Data: Data quality can change, or the data itself can change 1. Caused by conditions under which the data captured can change c. Managing Big Data i. Can reveal valuable patterns, trends, and information previously hidden ii. First Step: Integrate information silos into a database environment and develop data warehouses for decision making iii. Second Step: making sense of their increasing data iv. NoSQL databases are being used to process big data d. Putting Big Data to Use i. Making big data available 1. Data needs to be available for relevant stakeholders so the company can gain value ii. Enabling Organizations to Conduct Experiments 1. Conducting experiments allows companies to improve their performance iii. Micro-Segmentation of Customers 1. Dividing customers into groups of shared characteristics iv. Creating New Business Models 1. Allows companies to monitor and use data collected to improve the way the business is operated v. Organizations Can Analyze Far More Data 1. Sometimes organizations can look at all data and not need to sample as much 5. Data Warehouse and Data Marts a. Data Warehouse: A storage system of historical data that is used to support decision making in an organization (large scale) i. Created by using transactional data from all divisions of business ii. Data Mart: A small scale data warehouse, designed for the individual departments b. Characteristics of Data Warehouses and Data Marts i. Organized by subject such as Customer, Vendor, Product, Price Level and Region ii. Use online analytical processing (OLAP) 1. Integrated: Collected from multiple systems and integrated around subjects 2. Time Variant: Maintain historical data 3. Nonvolatile: Data cannot be changed or updated (added or removed only) a. Historical data is never changed because it is historical 4. Multidimensional: Tend to use a multidimensional data structure a. Categorized c. Data Warehouse vs. Database i. Data Warehouse: Captures Data, clean data, Data does not change (only inserted or deleted), Used for mining data fir historical trends and patterns ii. Generic warehouse environment 1. Source Systems: Systems that provide a source for organizational data 2. Data Integration: Taking data from a system and using it with other systems and putting them together in a proper way 3. Storing the Data: Set up into a large scale data warehouse 4. Metadata: Characteristics used to better understand customers 5. Data Quality: have to make sure the data is good data 6. Governance: What is meant by legal expense, what is define as customer 7. Users: Who is using 6. Knowledge Management a. Concepts and Important Definitions i. Knowledge Management: A process that helps manipulate important knowledge 1. Intended to help an organization cope with turnover, rapid change and downsizing by making the expertise of the organization’s human capital widely accessible 2. Six Steps a. Create Knowledge: created as people find new ways to do things or develop know-how i. External knowledge is sometime brought in b. Capture Knowledge: Knowledge needs to be identified as valuable and represented in a reasonable manner c. Refine Knowledge: Knowledge must be placed into context so it is actionable i. Tacit qualities (human insights) need to be added to explicit facts d. Store Knowledge: Knowledge must be stored in a reasonable format and somewhere that can be accessed by others in the organization. e. Manage Knowledge: Knowledge must be kept current by being reviewed regularly to verify its relevance and accuracy f. Disseminate Knowledge: Must be made available to anyone in the organization who needs it anywhere, anytime b. Knowledge Management: the process that helps organizations manipulate knowledge in the organization’s memory, usually unstructured i. Types of Knowledge 1. Explicit: Knowledge that can be articulated and written (Know-what) 2. Tacit: Knowledge that is difficult to encode, and one cannot be fully written down (know-how)
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