Psychology Exam 2 Study Guide
Psychology Exam 2 Study Guide PSYCH 1101
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by chanelkim on Wednesday September 14, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYCH 1101 at Georgia State University taught by Jennifer Herrig in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 128 views. For similar materials see Intro to General Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Georgia State University.
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Date Created: 09/14/16
Study Guide Exam 2 -What are the 4 major issues in developmental research? Know related terminology and be able to recognize examples. 1) Nature and Nurture: to what extent is our development due to heredity and to what extent the product of the environment 2) Sensitive and Critical Periods: the sensitive period is an optimal age range for certain experiences; the critical period is an age range during which certain experiences must occur for development to proceed normally or along a certain path 3) Continuity vs. Discontinuity: the development that is continuous or gradual or is discontinuous, progressing in stages 4) Stability vs. Change: do characteristics remain consistent as we age? -What are the different stages of prenatal development? What are teratogens? When are they of most concern? The Germinal Stage: the first 2 weeks of conception to implantation; the cells specialize into cells that will become the body and support structures) The Embryonic Stage (2 weeks to 8 weeks where development is critical; Organogenesis: by the end of the 8 week, organ development is complete; *Teratogens could affect organs) Fetal Stage: final stage, 8 weeks to birth; most of the fetal growth occurs during this stage and may attain viability; at 24 weeks, there is a 50/50 chance of survival and increases every week) *Teratogens: external factors that cause abnormal development such as drugs, alcohol, etc.) -What are Piaget’s stages of cognitive development? What abilities characterize each stage? Know ALL related terminology and be able to recognize examples. Schemas: actions or mental representations that organize knowledge (Behavioral and Mental) Assimilation: occurs when children use their existing schemes to deal with new information or experiences Accommodation: occurs when children adjust their schemes to take information and experiences into account -What is Theory of Mind? How does it develop? The Theory of Mind is the awareness of one’s own mental processes and the mental processes of others; 18 Months (understand that people operate with goals and intentions); 3 Years (understand mental states, thinking, feeling, behavior with perceptions emotions and desires); 4-5 Years (realize that people can have false belief, begin to understand how other people think to a degree, underestimate when mental activity occurs); Beyond 5 (understand that the mind is an active constructor of knowledge, same event can lead to multiple interpretation, understand inference) -How do we study infant cognition? With cognitive processing, a child is staring; the child is trying to figure it out because it is new; stops staring when the object makes sense, however if it doesn’t make sense, the child will most likely upset; does not drastically respond to familiar objects -What are Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development? What approximate ages does he propose that we are in each stage? What happens during each stage? Be able to recognize examples. 1) Infant (Trust vs. Mistrust) 2) Toddler (Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt) 3) Pre-schooler (Initiative vs. Guilt) 4) Grade-schooler (Industry vs. Inferiority) 5) Teenager (Identity vs. Role Confusion) 6) Young Adult (Intimacy vs. Isolation) 7) Middle-age Adult (Generativity vs. Stagnation) 8) Older Adult (Integrity vs. Despair) -What is attachment? What is oxytocin? How does it influence attachment? Attachment: strong emotional bond that develops between children and their primary caregivers Oxytocin: bonding hormone that creates a sense of attachment and is mostly released during skin to skin contact Contact Comfort: the body comfort felt from contact with the caregiver (releases oxytocin) -What are the basic attachment styles? Be able to recognize examples. Secure Attachment: caregiver is readily available when needed, emotionally responsive, meets needs Insecure Attachment: caregiver is either over intrusive/over stimulating or rejecting of the child Insecure Resistant/Ambivalent Attachment: caregiver is inconsistent or unreliable -What are the different parenting styles? Be able to recognize examples. Authoritarian: military style parenting; “I’m boss”; usually a cold relationship and may cause rebellion; the child may have trouble making their own decisions in the future when they leave home Authoritative: high standards and guidelines, however there is more reasoning to the rules; more warmth and flexibility Uninvolved: no rules, no structure, no guidance, no emotions, nobody is there Permissive: very warm loving parent relationship with no rules or structure; no consequences for actions; more of a friendship than a parent -What are the stages of moral development? Be able to recognize examples. 1. Preconventional reasoning: lowest level of moral reasoning- good & bad interpreted in terms of external rewards & punishments 2. Conventional reasoning: intermediate level of moral reasoning, individuals apply certain standards, but they are standards set by others such as parents or government 3. Postconventional reasoning: highest level of moral reasoning, individual recognizes alternative moral courses, explores the options & then decides on a personal moral code -What is important to aging successfully? Understanding the negative changes in your body such as sensory decline and slower cognition; Taking care of yourself and ultimately being happy -What are Kubler-Ross’s stages of dying? Be able to recognize examples. 1. Denial- “I’m not sick”, “The doctors are wrong”, etc. 2. Anger- towards doctors, family, God, etc. 3. Bargaining- “If I just start doing healthier things I’ll live longer”, making deals with God, etc. 4. Depression- over past losses, missed opportunities, and future losses 5. Acceptance- come to terms and grieve for own death
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