Bio1107K, Exam 1 Review Guide
Bio1107K, Exam 1 Review Guide BIOL 1107K
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Bethany B. on Wednesday September 14, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 1107K at Georgia Gwinnett College taught by Latanya Hammonds in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology I w/Lab in Biology at Georgia Gwinnett College.
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Date Created: 09/14/16
9.16.16 Exam 1 (9/19/16) EXAM 1 REVIEW GUIDE CHAPTER 1 CONTENT KEY TERMS: Experimentation—a disciplined and controlled way of learning about the world and testing hypotheses in an unbiased manner Hypothesis—a tentative explanation for one or more observations that makes predictions that can be tested by experiments or additional observation Variable—the feature of an experiment that is changed by the experimenter from one treatment to the next Test group—the experimental group that is exposed to the variable in the experiment Control group—the group that is not exposed to the variable in an experiment Scientific Method—a deliberate, careful, and unbiased way of learning about the natural world; observation, hypothesis, predictions, experiment, theory, and law Theory—a general explanation of a natural phenomenon supported by a large body of experiments and observations First Law of Thermodynamics—the law of conservation of energy: energy can neither be created nor destroyed—it can only be transformed from one form into another Second Law of Thermodynamics—the principle that the transformation of energy is associated with an increase in the degree of disorder in the universe Entropy—the degree of disorder in a system DNA—deoxyribonucleic acid; a linear polymer of four subunits; the information archive in all organisms Proteins—the key structure and functional molecules that do the work of the cell, providing structural support and catalyzing chemical reactions; often used as a synonym for “polypeptide” RNA—ribonucleic acid; a molecule chemically related to DNA that is synthesized by proteins from a DNA template Transcription—the synthesis of RNA from a DNA template Translation—synthesis of a polypeptide chain corresponding to the coding sequence present in a molecule of messenger RNA Central Dogma—the theory that information transfer in a cell usually goes from DNA to RNA protein Gene—the unit of heredity; the stretch of DNA that affects one or more traits in an organism, usually through an encoded protein or noncoding RNA Valency—the number of electrons an atom needs to have to be “fat and happy” LESSON OBJECTIVE FOR CHAPTER 1: 1.Explain the steps ofthe Scientific method An observation provokes a question which leads to the generation of a hypothesis. The hypothesis can be tested by an experiment. Compare your expectedresults (basedon the hypothesis) with the actualresults (of the experiment) and form 9.16.16 Exam 1 (9/19/16) a conclusion. If your hypothesis is supported, interpretation provokes a new question and the cycle begins again. If the hypothesis is not supported, testalternative hypothesis by asking a new question about the variables of the experiment. 2.Experimentaldesign- Givenanobservation, outline anexperiment basedonscientific methodto investigate it. Experiment: You wantto see whatlight is bestfor plant growth. Observation: Plants seemto grow better whenexposed to sunlight. Hypothesis: If a plant is exposed to only black light, the growth rate would be less than if it were exposedto white light. Experiment design: 10 plants of the same kind and same age are potted in same kind of soil. The control group consists of 5 of these plants are placed in a dark room with only white lights (using a lamp) shines on the plants for 12 hours a day. The other 5 plants (the experimental group) are in a dark room with only ultra violet light for 12 hours a day. The plants will continue in these conditions for one or two months and the length of stem andamount of leaves is recordedregularly. The results of the control and experimental group will be compiled in a graph to show the rate of growth over the time of the experiment. 3. Understandhowthe experimentalvariables helpwithexperimentaldesign. In anexperiment, you usually have two variables, the independent and the dependent. The dependent variable is usually the thing being measuredsuchas change in mass. The independent is the variable that is changed or manipulated. In experiments, the experimental group receives the independent variable while the controlled group does not. You canonly change one variable ata time in order to have results that a viable conclusion could be drawnfrom. 4.Characteristics oflife: a. Made of one or more cells b. Exhibit complex organization, grouping molecules together to form cells; ata higher level, cells are organized into tissues, organs, and organ systems c. Evolutionary adaptation d. Respond to environment e. Reproduce f. Grow and develop g. Obtain anduse energy h. Maintain internal balance (homeostasis) KEY NOTES FROM LECTURE: Characteristics of Life 1. Complex and ordered 2. Able to change in response to environment 3. Able to reproduce 4. Have the capacity to evolve 5. Processes hereditary information 6. Able to harness energy 7. Homeostasis 8. Composed of one or more cells 9. Order/complexity 3 Major Types of Bonds: Covalent, Ionic, Hydrogen o Covalent—strongest bond in biology; one in which the electrons are shared o Hydrogen— the weakest type of bonds; bonds form between a hydrogen molecule and either a fluorine, oxygen, nitrogen, or sulfur molecule o Ionic—electrons are stolen or given away Properties of Water 1. Surface Tension 2. High Specific Heat 3. Evaporative Cooling 4. Density 9.16.16 Exam 1 (9/19/16) 5. Solvent of Life 6. Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Substances CHAPTER 2 REVIEW KEY TERMS: Element—a pure substance that cannot be further broken down by the methods of chemistry Atom—the basic unit of matter Nucleus—the dense central part of an atom containing protons and neutrons Protons—a positively charged particle in the atomic nucleus Neutrons—an electrically neutral particle in the atomic nucleus Electrons—a negatively charged particle that moves around the atomic nucleus Atomic Mass—the mass of the atom determined by the number of protons and neutrons Isotopes—atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons Orbital—a region in space where an electron is present most of the time Chemical bond—any form of attraction between atoms that hold them together Valence electrons—the electrons farthest from the nucleus, which are at the highest energy level Covalent bond—a chemical bond formed by a shared pair of electrons holding two different atoms together Electronegativity—the ability of atoms to attract electrons Polar Covalent Bond—bonds that do not share electrons equally Nonpolar Covalent Bond—bonds that do share electrons equally (between two equally electronegative atoms) Ionic Bond—the association of two atoms resulting from the attraction of opposite charges Polar—a molecule that has regions of positive and negative charge Hydrophilic—“Water loving”; describes a class of molecules with which water can undergo hydrogen bonding Hydrophobic—“Water fearing”; describes a class of molecules poorly able to undergo hydrogen bonding with water Solvent—a liquid capable of dissolving a substance Hydrophobic Effect—the exclusion of nonpolar molecules by polar molecules, which drives biological processes such as the formation of cell membranes and the folding of proteins Hydrogen Bond—a weak bond between a hydrogen atom in one molecule and an electronegative atom in another molecule Acidic—a solution in which the concentration of protons is higher than that of hydroxide ions Basic—a solution in which the concentration of protons is lower than that of hydroxide ions Proteins—the key structural and functional molecules that do the work of the cell, providing structural support and catalyzing chemical reactions. Used as a synonym for “polypeptide.” 9.16.16 Exam 1 (9/19/16) Carbohydrate—an organic molecule containing C, H, and O atoms that provides a source of energy for metabolism and that forms the starting point for the synthesis of all other organic molecules. Nucleic Acid—a polymer of nucleotides that encodes and transmits genetic information. Lipid—an organic molecule that stores energy, acts as a signaling molecule, and is a component of cell membranes. Polymer—a complex organic molecule made up of repeated simpler units connected by covalent bonds. Amino Acid—an organic molecule containing a central carbon atom, a carboxyl group, an amino group, a hydrogen atom, and a side chain. Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. Nucleotide—a constituent of nucleic acids, consisting of a 5-carbon sugar, a nitrogen-containing base, and one or more phosphate groups. Sugar—the simplest carbohydrate molecule; also called a saccharide. Monosaccharide—a simple sugar. Polysaccharide—a polymer of simple sugars. Polysaccharides provide long-term energy storage or structural support. Glycosidic Bond—a covalent bond that attaches one monosaccharide to another. Fatty Acid—a long chain of carbons attached to a carboxyl group; three fatty acid chains attached to glycerol form a triacylglycerol, a lipid used for energy storage. Functional Groups—groups of one or more atoms that have particular chemical properties of their own, regardless of what they are attached to. Enzyme—a protein that functions as a catalyst to accelerate the rate of a chemical reaction; enzymes are critical in determining which chemical reactions take place in a cell. Peptide Bond—a covalent bond that links the carbon atom in the carboxyl group of one amino acid to the nitrogen atom in the amino group of another amino acid. Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)—a linear polymer of four subunits; the information archive in all organisms. Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)—a molecule chemically related to DNA that is synthesized by proteins from a DNA template. Pyrimidine—in nucleic acids, any of the bases thymine, cytosine, and uracil, which have a single-ring structure. Purine—in nucleic acids, either of the bases adenine and guanine, which have a double-ring structure. Phosphodiester Bond—a bond that forms when a phosphate group in one nucleotide is covalently joined to the sugar unit in another nucleotide. Phosphodiester bonds are relatively stable and form the backbone of a DNA strand. Triacylglycerol—a lipid composed of a glycerol backbone and three fatty acids. Glycerol—a 3-carbon molecule with OH groups attached to each carbon. Saturated—describes fatty acids that do not contain double bonds; the maximum number of hydrogen atoms is attached to each carbon atom, “saturating” the carbons with hydrogen atoms. Unsaturated—describes fatty acids that contain carbon–carbon double bonds. Phospholipid—a type of lipid and a major component of the cell membrane. Steroid—a type of lipid KEY NOTES FROM LECTURE: pH equation: + − ????2???? ↔ ???? + ???????? ???? +]= 1????10 −7???? + ???????? = 7 = −log[???? ] 2???? ???? ↔ ???? ???? + −???????? 2 3 − ???????????? = −log [ ???????? ; ???????????? = 7 ???????? + ???????????? = 14 Macromolecules: o Proteins (amino acids) o Lipids (fatty acids) o Nucleic Acid (nucleotides) o Carbohydrates (sugars) Polymers are disassembled to monomers by hydrolysis, a reaction that is essentially the reverse of the dehydration reaction The seven functional groups that are the most important in the chemistry of life: o Hydroxyl o Carbonyl o Carboxyl o Amino o Sulfhydryl o Phosphate o Methyl Isomers have the same chemical formula but the structure is different. Levels of Protein Structure: o Primary—sequence of amino acids (covalent bonds) o Secondary—coils/folds in polypeptide chain (hydrogen bonds) o Tertiary—interactions among the R-groups (covalent, ionic, hydrogen, van der Waals) o Quaternary—coils/folds in multiple polypeptide chains (covalent, ionic, hydrogen, van der Waals) Nucleic Acids o Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) C=G A=T Double Stranded Helix Deoxy (has just H) The sugar is deoxyribose o Ribonucleic acid (RNA) C=G A=U Single-stranded. Doesn't mean it doesn't have secondary structure, it would just be folded. Ribose (has the OH group) The sugar is ribose o Central Dogma—theory that DNARNAprotein DNA transcribed to RNA. RNA translated to protein. DNA and RNA are in the same “language” (nucleotides) Protein is a different “language” (amino acid). So when going from RNA to protein, it is being translated. Bonds o When you join two carbohydrates together, you take out water and form a Glycosidic bond with oxygen o When you join two amino acids takes out water and forms a peptide bond o When you join two nucleotides together, you take out water and form a phosphodiester bond. See notes for Protein, Lipids, and Carbohydrates, and Nucleic Acids for more review. o CHNOPS—Protein o CHNO—Carbohydrate o CHNOP—Nucleic Acid o CHO—Lipid LESSON OBJECTIVES FOR CHAPTER 2: 1. Describe the basics of atomic structure. The nucleus contains protons (positive) and neutrons (negative). Electrons (-) orbit around the nucleus. Different elements have a certain amount of protons and neutrons (the atomic mass). The electrons travel in orbital levels that are determined by the element’s electronegativity/period number. 2. Describe how covalent, ionic, and hydrogen bonds are formed and discuss their relative strengths in biological systems. Covalent bonds are the strongest bonds in biology. In this bond, the electrons are shared between two atoms. If the electrons are shared evenly (the dipoles cancel out) the bond is nonpolar. If one of the atoms is more electronegative and does not share electrons evenly, the bond is polar. Ionic bonds are formed when electrons are transferred/stolen from one atom to another. Typically, elements on the left (s) give electrons while elements on the right (p) take electrons. These bonds are very stable. Hydrogen bonds are the weakest type of bond. These bonds form between a hydrogen molecule and either a fluorine, oxygen, nitrogen, or sulfur molecule. Remember FONS. In other words; a hydrogen bond results when a hydrogen atom covalently bonded to an electronegative atom interacts with an electronegative atom of a different molecule. 3. Diagram and explain how chemical compounds are formed from atoms. The intermolecular forces are what bind specific atoms to each other within a chemical compound. There are four: hydrogen bonding, dipole-dipole forces, ion—dispersion forces, and London dispersion forces. Some of these forces (like ion-dispersion) are stronger than others. The function of the chemical compound is determined by the atoms within it and the structure/bonds formed. 4. Describe and diagram the polarity of a single and multiple water molecule(s). H 2O is a polar covalent bond. The two hydrogen atoms only require a single bond to have a full octet while oxygen (more electronegative) requires the full eight electrons. Each hydrogen atom gives one electron to oxygen making the two hydrogens positively charged and the oxygen negatively charged. When bonded to two hydrogens, oxygen still has two lone pairs of electrons that create a negative region on the molecule. If another water molecule comes near it, the positive hydrogens will form a hydrogen bond with the negative oxygen. 5. Describe the four emergent properties of water with examples a. Cohesion—the property that molecules of water are attracted to each other. The positive hydrogens attract to the negative oxygens just as two opposite poles of a magnet attract; hydrogen bonds do the same. b. High specific heat—the amount of energy it takes to break the hydrogen bonds between two water molecules is more than other compounds. c. Universal solvent—water is a very good solvent because it is polar. When an ionic compound is dissolved in water, the water molecules break apart the anion and cation. (NaCl + H O) d. Density of water—the mass/size of molecules in a liquid and how tightly they are packed together determine its density. Waters density is: D=1g/cm 3 6. Explain how buffering systems maintain pH and homeostasis in biological systems. The purpose of a buffer is to buffer the change in pH. If a solution is becoming more basic, the buffer has to release more H ions. If the solution becomes more acidic, the buffer needs to release more OH ions. If there are sudden changes in pH within our bodies, cells cannot function correctly, so the buffers help to balance it out. 7. Explain why elemental carbon is considered a versatile atom and thus the building block for all organic molecules. A carbon atom can form up to four covalent bonds with another atom. The geometry of these covalent bonds helps explain the structural and functional diversity of organic molecules. 8. Define the major functional groups and their importance to organic chemistry. Functional groups—the group of atoms in a compound that determines the chemical behaviors of the compound. Amino—NH 2 (found in amino acids)Amines Carbonyl—CO (found in steroids, waxes, and proteins)Ketones or Aldehyde Carboxyl—COOH (found in amino acids and fatty acids)Carbonic Acids Hydroxyl—OH (found in steroids, alcohol, carbohydrates, some amino acids)Alcohols Methyl—CH 3 (found in DNA, proteins, and carbohydrates)Methylated Compounds 2- Phosphate—PO 4 (found in nucleic acids, ATP, and attached to amino acids)Organic Phosphates Sulfhydryl—SH (found in proteins that contain the amino acid cysteine)Thiols 9. Compare and contrast geometric isomers, structural isomers, and enantiomers. Geometric isomers—two chemical compounds have the same molecular formula but different geometric arrangement. An example is cis and trans fat configurations. Structural isomers—two chemical compounds have the same molecular formula but differ in the sequence in which the atoms are linked. They hold hands differently. An example is propyl alcohol and isopropyl alcohol. Enantiomers—a pair of optical isomers that are mirror images of each other QUIZ QUESTIONS: 1. What bond forms between Carbon and Nitrogen? It’s a nonpolar covalent bond. 2. What is an isotope? An element with the same mass number but different neutrons. 3. T of F: Only some living organisms are made up of carbons. It’s is false because all living organisms contain carbon. 4. A Hydrogen bond is formed between which 4 atoms. Fluorine, Oxygen, Nitrogen, and Sulfur 5. Define electronegativity. 6. What is the strongest bond in biology? The strongest bond for biology is covalent, not ionic. The majority of the body is water and water breaks ionic bonds. 7. How do you calculate the neutron number? Mass – Atomic = Neutron # 8. What is the difference (structurally) between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids? Saturated has single bonds. Unsaturated has double bonds. 9. What makes the elements different from each other? The unique number of neutrons. (Isotopes) INFO FOR TEST: The test will be 30 multiple choice questions.For extrareview,do the additional problemworksheet sets,the “Practice Exam1” sheet,and the “Name that Molecule” power point onD2L. Review the PowerPoints,class notes,and online textbook quizzes.
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