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Astronomy Test 1 Study Guide pt. 2

by: Danie Kwong Moses

Astronomy Test 1 Study Guide pt. 2 ASTR 1010K (, McGimsey, Astronomy of the Solar System)

Danie Kwong Moses
GPA 3.4

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About this Document

This is an updated study packet that provides more clarification, in laymen terms, about the key terms and definitions of what scientist did what, who developed which theory or law, and what that ...
Astronomy 87548 Lab
Ben McGimsey
Study Guide
Physics, Astronomy 101
50 ?




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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Danie Kwong Moses on Wednesday September 14, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ASTR 1010K (, McGimsey, Astronomy of the Solar System) at Georgia State University taught by Ben McGimsey in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Astronomy 87548 Lab in Physics and Astronomy at Georgia State University.

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Date Created: 09/14/16
Astronomy1010 not Astrology (: notes by Danie Moses , (the girl who sits in the front row wearing the beret) (and always comes in late) (and has a streak of white hair) Chapter1 What is our local adEarth is part of our Solar System in the Milky Way galaxyinthe Local Group clusterin the Laniakea supercluster *Light yeis a measure of distancelight travels/yr. (10 trillion miles).Becauseofthe speedof lightis finite,we are able to look out into the sky and seethe small twinkles of dying stars that existedso many years agoin the past ScientificMethod –mainly,usingobservationandtheorytoexplaintheworld aroundus.Allideasare empiricallyevolving,where the newideasreplace oldones.Ifa resultis replicableoverandoveragain,a theoryis saidto become fact.  Ocums Razor– is two equallyplausibletheoriesexist,usetheone that includeslessassumptions Chapter2 Motions of Earth-  The earth’saccelerationdecreaseswhen itis in closer proximity to thesun (closer to thesemi-minoraxis,andon the long-ways ofthe elasticellipse)  Ptolemy attemptedtoexplainthisideawiththeadditionof semi-circles intohiscircular geocentricmodelofthe universe Parallax –the misconstruedobservationofmotionthatoccursbecause the observeris in motionwhiletheobject ofobservationisalsoin motion.  Apparent Daily Motion - dueto the fact thatearthis constantlymoving,our perceptionofother movingobjects suchas the Sun andthe moonare effected bythis. Celestial Sphere – theideathatall ofthe celestialbodiesand we observefrom earthis cloakedinsideofa completelysphericalshroud,andwe onlysee the insideofthisshroud.Allofthestars we see, in thismapof thesky, wouldbe our celestialsphere.It is onlyrelativeto whatwe can see from earth.  Angles –similarconceptstheseto the northpoleandthe equator. There is a 90 anglebetween theNorthPole and theEquator,justas there is a 90between the celestialpoles(North=Zenith, South=Nadir)andthecelestialequator. Motions of Stars –  at the poles… o Zenith– a center-axisofthe absolutemostoverheadthatabody wouldlookstraitupwardsandsee, given,thatthis personwas centered inthe absolutecorecenter between theMerdian and the Horizon o Nadir– thebottomcenter-axis,theconverse ofthe zenith  at the equator… o Horizon-a horizontalwrappingbeltaroundthecelestialsphere thatencompassesallvisiblestars  …and in between o Meridian– a verticalringthatfollowsthe outermostperimeter ofour visiblecelestialsphere  Reason for the Seasons –  Althoughwe dohavea NorthandSouthpole,Earth’saxis is tilted23in an hour-glassshaped“wobble”.Overtime, this causes differentfaces ofthe earthto be exposedcloseror furtherfrom the sun.Thiscreatedour wintersand summers. “ If Earth’s tilt were larger than 23.5°, the seasonal variation would be even stronger ”-Norton textbook Definitions:  Line of Nodes – area inwhich the orbitalplaneofthesun intersectswith theorbitalsphereofthe moon.Whenthisline ofnodesis in a certainorientationata certaintime, we get to see the moonin itseclipse season.“Moonis crossingthe earths orbit”  Solstice-four differentdaysmarkingchange ofseasons. o Winter Solistice - Dec 21 approx. th o Summer Solistice - near June20 , when the sunrises “ farthest north of east”,and“sets farthest north fromwest”…accordingtothetextbook  Equinox- the 4days where the medianisalignedwith the horizon o Autumnal Equinox – based on summer solace and winter solace o Vernal Equinox – occurs halfway between the summer and thewintersolace  Ecliptic-the paththe sunappearstotake throughthestars Opposition when theearth andmoonare alignedinfrontofthe sun(greatest) Lunar Eclipses Solar Eclipses & their Types when the moon is inbetween the sun and earth. & their Types Can be total or partResulting from the Total – position if its orbit around our earth earth is positioned directly Total within the path of the sun and the moon, with the moon on the far Partial side Partial- occurs when earth only partially covers the moon Prenumerial When the moon is within 1,000km distance (v. close) of the umbra Review the Moon’s Phases -The Moon takes one siderealmonth to complete one revolutionaround Earth and one synodic month to go through a cycle of phases. New Waxing Crescent 1st Quarter Waxing Gibbous 3rd quarter Waning Crescent Full Synchronous Rotation – themoonorbitsearth,but thesame side ofthe moonis always visible.Thisishowwe havea “darkside” so the moon.The moonandearthinterdependentupontheirproximitiesto synchronizetheirrotations.Sinceourmoonachieves a singlerotationonits access for everysynodicperiodaroundourearth(amountoftimea planetarybodywouldtaketo returnto thesame startingpoint),we know thatis is in synchronousrotationtotheearth Check your understanding: We see the moon rising just as the sun is setting. Whatphase is the moon in? waxinggibbious? Chapter3 Retrograde Motion- planetarybody’smovementgoingfrom West to East,then changingtoEast to West,but onlyfor a shortperiodoftime before revertingbackto theWest to Eastpattern.  Ptlomys earth-centered(geocentric)modelof theuniverse,he attemptedtoaccountfor this phenomenawith Epicycles (even tiniercircles thatwouldexist uponhiscircularrenderingsofplanets orbits).He was wrong Parallax - of the planets is and why the Greeks explained it incorrectly (they didn’t see) Since early Greek philosophers did not recognize that the earth is spinning on a rotational axis, GreekAstrologers’ ContributionstoAstronomy Ptolemy determineddiameterofthe Earth,explainedretrogrademotionby complexorbitalmotionofplanetsaroundtheEarth Copernicus – heliocentricviewofthe solarsystem;however hismodel assumedcircular orbits andthereforewas flawed Tycho – compiled detailed observations of planets’ (primarily Mars) positions over decades. Also observed a supernova and proved that comets are outside the Earth’s atmosphere Kepler – Using Tycho’s observations as a check, derived the three laws of planetary motion by trial and error. Laws 1. Orbits can be circles, ellipses, parabolas,or hyperbolas 2. No change, but Newton was ableto show that the reason planets speed up and slow down in their orbit is conservationof angular momentum (or, alternatively, conservationof energy) 3. P2 = 4 2 a3 / G (M + m) Important Note: the content of online quizzes that were originally assigned but not graded focused on likely provide key direction as to what content will be on the test. Important QuizConcept:  The relationshipbetweena planet’s A.U (Astronomical Unit – using the earth’s distancefrom the sun as a unit of measurement)anda planetaryorbit eccentricityhas a positiveanddirect relationshipwiththe eccentricityof that planets orbit.The largerthe A.U would be highereccentricity, usually. 1. Orbits of planets are ellipses with the Sun at one focus (and NOTHING at the other foci): see image. The followingimage is a screenshot of one of the online simulations that I hope you didnot take the pains to workwith. 2. “Law of Equal Areas” – on the path of a planets orbit,even thoughan oval may be larger andwider thana circle,the planet will be speeding up to cover moreof the distancein order to “sweeps out” (travelacross distance) equal areas of the orbit inequal times. In otherwords, the velocityof a planetdoes alterdependingon whereit located. Planets speedup as they approach the sun. 3. P2 = a3 Where P is orbital period in years and a is the semi-major axis (average distance from the Sun in A.U.) Galileo – telescopic observations – discovery of sunspots, mountains and craters on the Moon, Jupiter’s moons, Venus’ phases. All of these were observations in favor of the heliocentric model, but the last two conclusively proved it. synodic vs sidereal period of a planet The Best Time to view a planet… …is dependent on if this planet is… Superior (AU greaterthan 1; is ‘past Earth’: Mars, JupiterSaturn, Uranus, Neptune) or Inferior. (AU less than 1; is closer to the sun thanEarth is: Mercury, Venus) Configuration Opposition (for superior planet) Greatest Elongation (for inferior planets) Understandthefollowing: velocityvs.speed velocityaccounts for thedirectionthat the object is movingin,while speedmeasures the amountof distancedisplacedwithina certainamount of time.If no forces act upoun an object to stopor retardthe movement (E.G frictionalresistance,gravity,)the object will stayin motion acceleration a changein directioncounts as a change inacceleration,just as we also more commonlyknow that change in speedis the more common understandingof thisterm refers to. This measurementmultipliedbythe mass of an object will yieldthe measurementof force that is acting upon the object, and thisis Newtons 2 Law of Motion momentum mass * velocity an object can onlybeginto have momentumwhen it is in motion. Every object that is in motionis inthis state because a force acted upon it.The force was equallymet with an equal andopposite force…whichis Newtons 3 Law of Motion Angular momentum Mass x velocityx [distance from centerof motion] Force is simply a push or a pull. Newton’s Law 1. Objects in motion will stay in uniform motion unless acted upon by an outside force (Law of Inertia) The term “universe” is not used inthe hierarchy of our address description: Local Group LakiaSupercluster Galaxy Solar System The universe is approximately 3 billion years old Distance is measured by LightYears PRINCIPLE VS THEORY Astronomy is an Observational science, not a physical one To Edit/Delete your notes, simply follow these steps! - After logging in to your StudySoup account, click on the three horizontal lines at the top left side of your window. - Click on your name to go to your profile. - You will be able to see all your uploaded notes. Click 'Edit' on the notes that you wish to delete. On the bottom left side, you will see a small, gray trash can. Once you click on that, the entire material will be removed. - If your notes have 2 or more sections/chapters, you can also edit/delete notes per chapter or page by clicking the red circle with x in it, directly located on the right side of that particular section. - To add your notes, click the green 'Upload another document' button.


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