Anthropology Exam 1
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This 22 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emily Mason on Wednesday September 14, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANTH 2010 at Clemson University taught by Dr. John M. Coggeshall in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 102 views.
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Date Created: 09/14/16
1 EXAM 1 A. What is Anthropology? Anthropology: Study of human beings in all times and places o Making the strange familiar and the familiar strange ● Cultural relativity- when comparing societies, don’t pass value judgments on cultures different than our own ○ Understanding cultures in their own contexts ● Ethnocentrism- passing value judgements on other cultures; when one culture thinks they are better than another ● Holism- when you pull the topic out of context, analyze it, and then relate it back to its cultural context. B. Special Features of Anthropology: How is it different from other social sciences? Anthropological Tool Kit: ● Method of data collection is field work ○ Study the entities in their natural context Having an insider perspective: emic approach o Allows you to see things from other people’s eyes o Try to maintain the balance between an insider and outsider view o Difficult to differentiate between being too subjective or objective ● Study human behavior from both social and biological point of view 2 o Must find balance between these types of behavior ● Anthropology is comparative (cross cultural approach): interested in humans in ALL times and places ● Idea of universalism: as we compare societies, keep in mind we are all equally human ● Concept of culture- rules people have in their mind about how the world works. These rules generate behaviors as they follow the rules. C. Subfields/Specializations of Anthropology 1. Biological Anthropology 2. Archaeology 3. Cultural Anthropology 4. Linguistics BIOLOGICAL ANTHROPOLOGY A. Introduction -Biological Anthropology: Studies what it means to be human by focusing on biology or scientific evidence >Relies on geneticists, zoologists, psychologists, doctors, and legal experts B. Evolution: Scientific evidence to show how we came to be human; the idea of how life changes while accumulating favorable traits over long periods of time 1. Intro to Evolution -Darwin created the best way to account for life’s diversity -Used Uniformitarianism: says the geological processes that occur on earth today happened at the same rate they always have. 3 >This means that the earth is much older than we originally believed, because it has taken a very long time for everything to form -Darwin’s Observations that developed his theory: >That there are too many humans for the earth to support (applied this idea to other animals >That coral reefs must have taken a long time to develop (uniformitarianism) >That if you look at the surface of the earth there are similarities and differences between life today and in the past >That you can save the best traits of plants to grow better crops (if man can do it artificially, man can also do it naturally!) 2. Darwin's Theory of Evolution: 1. There are too many individuals born in each generation for everyone to survive 2. Within and between every generation, there is diversity >Since #1 and #2, individuals with favorable traits tend to survive and pass on those traits -This implies not all favorable traits will survive and that the traits must pass somehow -Shows favorable traits accumulate within a population over long periods of time ● Social Darwinism- Since complex societies are “better” than small societies, we will eventually eliminate these small scale societies. ○ This was used as a justification for taking over others However, it is not the strongest that will survive, the best adapted will survive 4 3.Modern Synthesis and Modifications. > Modern Synthesis- improvement over Darwin’s original idea; the best way to explain life’s diversity: 1. The addition of new information: ● Mendel added to how genetics can vary a population, how genetics shows the mechanism that passes down these favorable traits, and how to test hypotheses in evolution ● Paleontologist evidence ● Physics allowed us to date more accurately the history of life on earth 2. Doing away with old ideas: ● Evolution does not go from simple to complex: stays simple. Only a fraction of life gets more complex ● Life does not change gradually through time ○ Actually is punctuated equilibrium- long periods of equilibrium punctuated by rapid speciation, then equilibrium again ● Must get rid of determinism ○ History of life on earth is a series of random events ● Must get rid of thinking life forms are perfectly adapted to their environment ○ The environment is constantly changing, so life forms can’t keep up ○ There are random genetic variations Evidence for Evolution: ● Paleontology- fossil evidence ● DNA supports genetic variations that match in fossil evidence ● Bodies show that we have changed over time 5 ● Human beings have been selecting for favorable traits for thousands of years ● We have evidence of animals that evolve within the human lifespan C. Science and Intelligent Design/Creationism. This is war between religions: either literally interpret the bible vs believing in theological evolution 1. Problems with Creationism/Intelligent Design ● They are not experts in the areas they criticize ● They prey on the misunderstanding of the public such as: ○ They say evolution cannot be true because it contradicts the second law of thermodynamics (because going from simple to complex) ■ Wrong because they ignore the second part of dynamics: water runs from a higher to a lower state if you input something into the system ○ They say nobody ever saw evolution happen ■ Wrong because fossils show change ■ Ex: Language evolution ○ Say modern life is so complex it must have been a created by a designer ■ Simplicity just as easily indicated a designer ■ Parts evolve with each other ■ Life seems complex, so it disguises earlier forms ○ Say evolution is a theory in crisis ■ 95% of scientists accept evolution of life’s change through time ○ Says evolution cannot be observed or tested ■ It actually can be observed directly or indirectly ■ Evolution has been corrected and modified 6 ■ Evolution can be tested 2. Reasons why ID/Creationism are not science What makes something scientific? ● Science is bounded ● Science is testable ● Science is correctable ● Science is peer-reviewed 3. Reasons Against Teaching Creationism ● Creationism promotes one religious interpretation over another religious interpretation ● Creationism is NOT a scientific theory ● Why waste time in class teaching ideas that are not scientifically supported ● Our scientific education falls further and further behind 4. Reconciling Science and Religion Science and religion are not conflicting ideas: they are two completely different ways of understanding the world PRIMATOLOGY A. Introduction: Primatology- How we are different from out primitive relatives o Studies how we as humans started o Studies how we are different from our primitive relatives Human belong to the order of animals called primates B. Primate Characteristics: All primates share certain features in common (arboreal—tree-like—adaptations) o All primates have grasping hands and feet, nails instead of claws, and thumbs 7 o Have a reduced sense of smell and emphasis on sight o Our sight is stereoscopic-we see in 3 dimensions and in color o Increased brain to body size- greater capacity for learned information Behavioral Plasticity- ability to size up a situation and figure out the best option. You have a range of choices based on learned information o Primates have a tendency toward upright posture (stand on 2 legs) o Typically have a reduced number of offspring: born helpless and dependent The longer the dependency, the longer the infant has to extend their knowledge (behavioral plasticity) o Tend to live in social groups Benefit: More people to help take care of children Benefit: More people to learn from (behavioral plasticity) Disadvantage: must compete for mates and food C. Types of Primates. **See Primate Taxonomy D. Future of Primates: o Many of the great ape species are highly endangered o Face habitat loss or are captured o Once the apes are extinct, we will never be able to discover the boundary as to where humans started HUMAN EVOLUTION A. Controversies with the Story of Evolution Carbon-14 or radiocarbon dating: Measure the amount of C-14 there is to C-12 inside of organisms to see how long it has been decaying ➢ Only dates things that are organic 8 ➢ Only works on things that are relatively recent (50,00years) Potassium Argon dating: The more argon gas trapped within, the older it is. The more K40, the younger it is. ➢ Half-life of potassium is very long, so can be used to date things billions years old ➢ Works on inorganic material These methods have been consistently tested over and over again. This is how we know how old things are in the evolution of life. B. Dating Methods: Carbon-14 or radiocarbon dating: Measure the amount of C-14 there is to C-12 inside of organisms to see how long it has been decaying ➢ Only dates things that are organic ➢ Only works on things that are relatively recent (50,00years) Potassium Argon dating: The more argon gas trapped within, the older it is. The more K40, the younger it is. ➢ Half-life of potassium is very long, so can be used to date things billions years old ➢ Works on inorganic material These methods have been consistently tested over and over again. This is how we know how old things are in the evolution of life. C. Fossil Forms in Human Evolution/The Story of Evolution: 8-6 million years ago, a hominoid existed in Africa, which was ancestral to chimps and humans Genetic evidence showed that we must look deeper into time to understand evolution 9 o Geneticists can see how much long 2% of difference of DNA between chimps and humans must change to be ape-like o Found it was indeed 8-6 million years ago Climactic change made it so that walking on two feet was needed 1. Ardipithecus (5.7 – 4.2 mya) o Since we have such an abundant sample of these, we can split them into old and young species o First known hominin o Have a very low forehead, a brow ridge, a forward jutting face, longer canine teeth, have a ‘u’ shaped jaw, slight increase in cranial capacity, habitual upright posture, complex social organization The foramen is towards the base of the skull, indicating this habitual upright posture o These features show the transitional nature to humans Around 4.2 million years ago, we have smooth transition between Ardipithecines and Early Australopithecines 2. Early Australopithecines (4.5 – 3.0 mya) o This smooth transition makes it difficult to tell exactly when this transition begins o Have ape-like characteristics: Low sloping forehead, brow ridge, forward jutting face, slightly longer canines, a ‘u’ shaped jaw, sexual dimorphism, arms longer in proportion than legs o Human-like: more cranial capacity, have similar pelvic bones (shows they are habitually upright), big toe slightly off from the others o No evidence of increasingly complex culture 10 3 to 2.4 million years ago, there is a transition to a new clump of Australopithecines to late Australopithecines 3. Late Australopithecines and Paranthropus (3.0 – 2.4 mya) o Cranial capacity is slightly larger, forward brow ridge, forward jaw, ‘u’ shaped jaw o Must use cranial capacity to adapt to new environment (African grassland) Living at the same time, a species called Paranthropus existed o Extremely different from late australopithecines o Are not on the road to human evolution o Characterized by a massive skull, massive jaw muscle, forward jutting face, large cheekbones, molars larger than humans’ Shows they used the open grassland of Africa in a different way Scientist were worried that human evolution occurred in Africa because Europeans always asserted their dominance/thought they were better About 2.4 and 1.6 million years ago, another transition between late australopithecines and homo habilis 4. Early Homo (Homo habilis, e.g.) (2.4 – 1.6 mya). o In order to be included in our genus, homo habilis must be more ‘on the road’ to human than any other species previously o Beginning of human-like behavior o Evidence of this: increased cranial capacitymore complex social behavior First species to make tools out of non-perishable substances: stone Oldowan tool- used to scrape scavenged meat off of bones or to cut a carcass 11 A logical mechanical process/ ordering of events is necessary to make Oldowan tools, which is also applicable to communication More complex communication and trust in order to get to the scavenged food In human life, there is always a place to call ‘home:’ collections of animal bones and Oldowan tools hint at such a place 5. Homo erectus (1.6 – 600k ya). Transition is so smooth that it is impossible to see the boundary between the two Now 2 or 3 species alive at the same time Are hunters/scavengers/gatherers First hominin to use fire Possibly the first species to leave the boundary of Africa (Southeast Asia, China, Europe): very human-like Increased cranial capacity (but still 2/3 size of the modern human), humanlike from the neck down Acheulian Hand Axes- used to butcher animal carcasses and found all over the Old World o Since they remain the same across generations, the skill to make that tool is passes down o Since they remain the same across the Old World, indicates more complex communication Definite evidence of ‘home bases’: groups of animal bones, fire pits, stone tools Collected other forms of rocks not made for tools: symbolic purpose o Indicates more human-like behavior 12 6. Homo heidelbergensis (600k – 200k ya). Problem: do we lump homo heidelbergensis into homosapiens or split them into a separate species? How different do two populations have to be before they are classified as different species? Majority say that they are a completely different species Found in Africa and in the New World 7. H. sapiens, Homo neanderthalensis, and Homo floresiensis (200k to present). H. sapiens Most Homo sapien fossils come mostly from Africa How did we escape the bound of Africa? Competing Theories: o Out of Africa Theory- homosapiens evolve first and only in Africa at a faster rate, then replace earlier forms like homo heidelbergensis Composite tools- tools composed of different parts: blades Tools are traded over different areas and the tools vary in style by region Since material differs regions, these materials are traded regionally: economic exchanges! o By exchanging materials, we exchange ideas and information o Also allows for the exchange of genes and mates over other regions Many more symbolic objects: jewelry, decorative objects, needles Seasonal use of different ‘home’ sites o Requires social cooperation o Requires some mechanism of keeping track of the seasons Homo neanderthalensis 13 Live at the same time as homo sapiens Problem: Are they a new species or just a regional variety of homo sapiens? Slightly larger cranial capacity than homo sapiens & same as humans from neck down More adapted to cold weather Moosterian tools- axes, chisels, saws, but not composite There is a significant amount of serious injuries (broken bones) due to lifestyle (spearing animals) First evidence of deliberate burials o Buried with food and tools, as if they are going somewhere… theological ideas have formed No evidence of body ornamentation or sewing materials (unlike homo sapiens) Believed that they were a regional variety of homo sapiens preserved in the Ice Age in Europe, then formed back together into homo sapiens Homo floresiensis (50,000-12,000 ya) Miniaturized form of hominins 8. Upper Paleolithic Culture (About 40,000 ya) At least three species of hominins: Homo sapiens, Homo neanderthalensis, Homo floresiensis, and denisouans Homo sapiens are first to cross a land barrier into Alaska Perfect time to be a hunter/gatherer: plenty of food resources We see the first appearance of art during this time: cave paintings o Hard to decipher what they mean: cannot determine meaning without knowing any sort of culture 14 o Most painting are of animals that lived at the time (animals they ate or were feared) o What modern day hunters and gatherers are concerned about may be what older hunter and gatherers are concerned with Close connection between humans and animals on which they depend May be an attempt to deal with contrasts in life Paintings are not where people are living, implying these may be coming of age rituals May represent phases of the moon Ended 12,000 years ago because of the warming climate o We then get a much greater diversity of plants and animals HUMAN VARIATION Where do we draw the line between variations? What happens when we divided people into these categories? A. Problems with “Race” as Biological Category: There is no biological reason for dividing people into races o There is no biological trait that classifies people into races Technically how many categories/races are there? o Western culture always divides into threes; there is no biological reason, it is a social distinction Since there is no biological boundary where one trait stops and another ends, the variation in a group is much larger than between populations B. Human Variation: Studies how to account for genetic variation 15 Clinally distributed- more concentrated (traits) in the center and overlap as they get further away from the center ***Racial division is a social construct!!!*** Biological races don’t exist, biological variation does. When we classify things, we attach meaning to them. oPeople rank races into false categories that hold a great deal of social rank… White privilege… Racial ideas came after colonization o They created a physical line you can cross and see differences in people (like crossing between different countries) We study genetic variation by thinking as human beings as a population o Traits that are different across populations: o Sickle cell trait- prevalent in tropical regions This is partly because of malaria carrying mosquitos Seems to be an adapted trait and advantage for all populations living in tropical regions o Skin color The closer human populations are to the equator there is more melanin, the further from the equator there is less melanin o Lactose intolerance All mammals by definition can digest milk as infants: every mammalian infant produces lactase to break down lactose Every mammal as an adult ceases the production of lactase, meaning they cannot digest milk 16 Some populations, then, keep the ability to digest milk! Others lose this ability to produce lactase. Adapted? Did we keep this ability because of selection of relying on dairy, or is it a genetic mutation that allowed populations to use milk in a way other populations couldn’t? However, the people who defined the concept of “lactose intolerance” implies that tolerance is the ‘normal’ standard, whereas this is not how most of the world is. This is the doings of Western Culture Sometimes genetic variation does not serve any adaptive purpose o Ex: Eye color and blood type C. Medical Anthropology: Combination of biological anthropology and cultural anthropology o Human disease is not just biological, but is caused by cultural factors as well (sanitation, access to health care, living conditions) Some medical anthropologists Studies the impact of diseases on a certain population (biological and social) th o Example: 14 century Europe, crusades cause conflict between 2 different people o Brought together two different groups of people that usually are not together Diseases are usually endemic: native to a certain area However, this mixing of people makes them more susceptible to new diseases This conflict caused a whole plague in Europe, and society collapses 17 So, look at how some societies react to this kind of devastation o Another Example: Europeans arrive in the new world with their diseases which Native Americans have never faced Many Native Americans died off This allowed Europeans to colonize wherever they wanted Believed Europeans were surviving because God favored them and not the Native Americans, and used this logic to get people to join them Ethical Dilemma Medical Anthropologists encounter: o Challenges from studying human genetics- Ex: spreading genetic traits to cure a disease and profiting (what gives them the right to market this trait from a population that is not their own?) o Must use fieldwork to gain an emic perspective D. Development and Indigenous Peoples Some medical anthropologists study how we can improve small scale societies affected by modernization o Consequences of the Introduction of Western Societies: Destruction of the environment Infant mortality declines (higher population) New diseases New jobs Can’t be a hunter-gatherer: now must buy food you used to grow... Nutritional quality declines Now must buy foods with more sugar and fat No longer economically/politically independent 18 Again, have to buy food and cannot grow it yourself Then flock to other major cities, where they work cheap labor This only benefits international economy (Whoever modernized them gets cheap products) All of this means that quality of life declines!!! Easy for us to say, “so what” to these sort of situations… What should our political responsibility be to increase the economic quality of millions of people around the world? E. Forensic Anthropology Speak for people who cannot speak for themselves Must discover what kind of skeleton it is, how that person died, and who that person was Work closely with criminal justice and legal system How does Forensic Anthropologist proceed after finding a skeleton? o Identify it as human o Figure out how it was deposited (example: chopped up, fully put together) o Look for physical clues associated with the body o Must identify the body by attaching certain basic characteristics: Sex, age, race, height How do we see these variables in bones? Sex: Observe sexual dimorphism o Men tend to have more muscle attachment than females o Brow ridge tends to be more prominent in males than females 19 o Best Method: Pelvic bones are shaped differently. Females have a wider birth canal, the pubic bone is angled outward, and the sciatic notch is wider Age (biological age can be different from actual age) o As we age, the sutures (places where bones meet) are more tightly together o Look teeth: Deciduous Teeth: teeth that fall out (baby teeth) Presence or absence of wisdom teeth o See age on long bones: As we grow, small pieces become bones (displayed by short of long lines) Race: YOU CANNOT TELL!! o There is no biological evidence, except for a few slight differences in facial shape Height: longer the femur, the taller the person o Look for idiosyncrasies in the skeleton (like a previous broken bone, left/right handed, family history of bad issues) o Put all this information together, take the skull, and give to an artist to apply these traits to it What do forensic anthropologists do? o Help bring perpetrators to justice by determining the causes of death o Work with coroners during catastrophic events o Work with the US Military to determine who exactly it was who died o Work with human rights organizations 20 Readings: Articles 1 and 2 What makes something scientific? ● Science is bounded ● Science is testable ● Science is correctable ● Science is peer-reviewed ● Science and religion are two completely different ways of understanding the world Article 5 Based on information in the article, what can we learn about human social organization from baboons? Benefits for females having male ‘friends’: o Protection of self and children o Provide access to resources o Access to choose their mate Benefits for males from female ‘friends’: o Increases their likelihood to mate o Gain access into the social group Strategies males adopt to mate: o Need female friends to be accepted to the group o Need female friends to get a mate Strategies males do not adopt: o They do not dominate females o They do not provide economically There is a mutual interdependency between the males and females So why is there currently such male dominance in humans? Gender inequality does not start with the earliest homosapiens Gender inequality does not start from hunter and gathering societies Article 9 How do archeologists see race? Go off of ethnicity or class **There are no biological indicators of race** 21 Article 10 Which culture has a healthier lifestyle? Hunter-Gatherer society Diet Exercise Less use of drugs Less disease
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