Study Guide for Exam 1
Study Guide for Exam 1 1301 Psych
Sam Houston State University
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rachel on Wednesday September 14, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 1301 Psych at Sam Houston State University taught by Dr Allen in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 480 views.
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Date Created: 09/14/16
STUDY GUIDE 1879 Wilhelm Wundt: Father of Psychology Structuralism Founded by: Wundt- Focuses on the Structure of the mind by simply asking patients that same old question "How do you feel about that?" • died out in the 1900's •Edward Bradford Titchener brought Structuralism to America Functionalism Founded by: William James- Functionalism- function of behavior Focus on why we think and smell etc. Psychoanalysis By: Sigmund Freud- Theory that we're all profoundly affected by the mental process that we are not aware of. Another important part is the unconscious (the thing that is below consciousness) was still discoverable through dreams projections, Free Association to root out repressed feelings and gain self- insight. This meant people with mental illness can be cured with talk therapy and self-discovery. Behaviorism -Ivan Pavlov John B. Watson B.F Skinner: • Focus on observable behavior and ignore consciousness Early work explained phobias Psychodynamic Based on Freud's Theory: Focuses on what the role of the unconscious mind and its influence on conscious behavior, early childhood experiences, development of sense and other motivations Behavioral Based on early work of Watson and later B.F Skinner: Focuses on how be behavioral responses are learned through classical or operant conditioning Humanistic Carl Rodgers and Abraham Maslow- Focuses on human potential, free will and possibility to choose their own destiny Cognitive (Has roots in Gestalt Psychology) Focuses on memory intelligence perception through problem solving, language and learning Sociocultural- Focuses on the behavior of individuals as the result of their environment around them Biopsychological- Examines human behavior to biological events in the body suchas hormones, brain structures, and activity in the nervous system Evolutionary- Focuses on the biological bases for universal mental characteristics suchas why we lie? 1) Neurons fire_______ A. Partially when there is a strong stimulus B. Stronger when there is a strong stimulus C. Either full strength or not at all D. Partially when there is a weak stimulus 2) What occurs to a neuron when it receives a chemical message? A. The cell returns to its resting state B. The cell floods the nucleus with sodium ions C. The cell becomes positively charged on the inside D. The cell becomes impermeable for a short time 3) After a neurotransmitter travels across the _______ , it fits into a place on the dendrite of another neuron called the ______. A. Synaptic gap; GABA B. Synapses; Synaptic vesicle C. Axon terminal; axon button D. Synapse; receptor site 4) Which of the following is TRUE about an agonist? A. It mimics or enhances the effects of a neurotransmitter B. It can have an excitatory effect but not an inhibitory effect C. It can have an inhibitory effect but not an excitatory effect D. It blocks or reduces the effects of a neurotransmitter 5) Afferent neurons, efferent neurons and interneurons make up the ________. A. Sympathetic division B. Reflex arc C. Limbic system D. Peripheral nervous system 6) ________ can become other cells such as blood cells, nerve cells, and brain cells, when those cells need to be replaced due to damage or wear and tear A. Neurotransmitters B. Stem Cells C. Afferent neurons D. Efferent Neurons 7) The ____ is to involuntary muscles as the ____ is to voluntary muscles A. Peripheral nervous system; central nervous system B. Central nervous system; peripheral nervous system C. Somatic nervous; autonomic nervous system D. Autonomic nervous system; somatic nervous system 8) The _____ allow(s) people and animals to deal with stressful events A. Sympathetic division B. Neurotransmitters C. Parasympathetic division D. Somatic nervous system 9) If the pancreas secretes too little insulin, it results ________. If it secretes too much insulin it results in _ A. Diabetes; high blood pressure B. Diabetes; Hypoglycemia C. Depression; anxiety D. Epilepsy; Parkinson’s disease 10) At the age of 21, Donte stands at 5 feet 2 inches in height. If it is believed that an endocrine gland is most likely responsible for Donte’s lack of growth which gland might his doctor be most interested in studying? A. The thyroid gland B. The pituitary gland C. The adrenal gland D. The pineal gland 11) Deep brain stimulation is widely used to treat ________. A. Angina B. Parkinson’s disease C. Schizophrenia D. Alzheimer’s disease 12) One important advantage of an MRI over a CT scan is that the MRI ______ A. Highlights damaged areas of the brain B. Is more portable C. Shows all the deeper areas of the brain D. Provides much more detail 13) When researchers destroy the reticular formation (RF) of rats via deep lesioning, the rats ____ A. enter a coma like sleep from which they do not wake up B. lose all of their mobility and become incapable of walking C. begin eating and will not stop until their stomachs rupture and they die D. Gradually lose their vision until they become blind 14) An auto accident rendered Chris’s nervous system unable to send messages for him to swallow, so he is using a feeding tube. Which brain structure was most likely damaged in the accident? A. The reticular formation B. The medulla C. The cerebellum D. The pons 15) Humans with damage to the amygdala show decreased ______ A. Incidence of depression B. Sex drive C. Cancer risk D. Fear response 16) Phineas Gage lacked _____ because of the damage to his prefrontal cortex A. A conscience B. Bladder control C. Common sense D. Emotional control 17) In an attempt to ask for water, Josh who recently experienced a stroke, said, “ I .. dot dink … otter.” Josh seems to be suffering from ____ A. Berger’s aphasia B. Sperry’s aphasia C. Broca’s Aphasia D. Wernicke’s aphasia 18) Scientists have learned a great deal about the specialization of the left and right hemispheres of the brain by studying _____ A. CT scans B. Alzheimer’s patients C. Split-brain patients D. Phineas Gage 19) Rodger Sperry was looking for a cure for which disease when researching differentiation of the left and right hemispheres of the brain? A. Parkinson’s B. Spatial neglect C. Aphasia D. Epilepsy 20) Sebastian is being evaluated for the presence of ADHD. If he is found to suffer from this condition it will involve several different brain structures. Which of the following would not be one of them? A. Basal Ganglia B. Corpus Callosum C. Reticular activating system D. Cerebellum 21) If you are experiencing habituation, __________ A. Your receptor cells are no longer sending signals to your brain B. Your sensory receptors are still responding to stimuli C. You are detecting the difference between two stimuli D. The lower centers of your brain are sending signals from sensory receptors to the cortex 22) As your lens hardens through aging, you may have trouble with __________. A. Focusing on near objects B. Focusing on distant objects C. Color blindness D. Blind spots 23) Which part of the eye receives sensory signals and relays that information to the brain? A. Retina B. Pupil C. Cornea D. Iris 24) The image projected on the retina is ______ A. Upside down but on the same side as the visual field B. Right side up and reversed from left to right C. Upside down and reversed from left to right D. Exactly the same image that is registered by the brain 25) When Stephen looks out a field of red, purple, and yellow tulips, he can only see shades of gray. His condition is _____ A. Monochrome color blindness B. Red-blue color blindness C. Red-yellow color blindness D. Red-green color blindness 26) The _____ passes messages from the ear to the brain A. Eardrum B. Basilar membrane C. Pinna D. Auditory nerve 27) Wever and Bray theorized that groups of auditory neurons take turns firing in a process called A. Vibration frequency B. Auditory stimulation C. Volleying D. Vibrating 28) Normal aging causes loss of hair cells in the ____ A. Cochlea B. Eardrum C. Ear canal D. Pinna 29) Nerve hearing impairment can be helped with use of _____ A. Cochlear implants B. Electrode surgery C. Ordinary hearing aids D. Auditory implants 30) The cilia in the nose act most like ____ A. Retina in the eye B. Hair cells in the cochlea C. Taste buds on the tongue D. Papillae on the tongue 31) When you smell an odor, which aspect of the substance you are smelling actually enters your nose to create the sensation of smell? A. Particles of the substance itself B. Chemicals secreted by the substance C. Papillae emitted by the substance D. Waves emitted by the substance 32) ________ pain is detected in the organs A. Visceral B. Phantom limb C. Anhidrosis D. Somatic 33) When you close your eyes and raise your head, you know where your hand is because of __________ A. The kinesthetic sense B. Your otolith organs C. Your semicircular canals D. The vestibular 34) Randy and Amad are listening to the same music. Randy like the music but Amad thinks the music is unpleasant to the ear. Randy and Amad appear to have different _____ when it comes to the music they are listening to. A. Measures of frequency B. Sensations C. Thresholds D. Perceptions 35) In the figure-ground relationship, one has a tendency to perceive objects______. A. As existing on a background B. That look similar as being part of the same group C. As switching back and forth D. That are close to one another as part of the same grouping 36) The tendency to believe that the dummy, not the ventriloquist, is doing the talking is largely due to __________ A. Proximity B. Contiguity C. Similarity D. Continuity 37) People who are blind from birth, but later have their sight restored are unlikely to develop ________. A. Common region visualization B. Depth perception C. Visual contiguity D. Visual continuity 38) _______ is also called a muscular cue. A. Motion parallax B. Accommodation C. Overlap D. Texture gradient 39) Which of the following is TRUE about the moon illusion? A. It is due to the mind’s misapplication of size constancy B. It has to do with the angle at which one views the moon C. It is due to convergence D. It is explained by binocular disparity 40) In ________, a small, stationary light in a darkened room will appear to move because of the lack of cues to indicate that the light is not moving A. Stroboscopic B. The muller-lyer illusion C. Convergence D. The autokinetic effect Answer key 1. C 2. C 3. D 4. A 5. B 6. B 7. D 8. A 9. B 10. B 11. B 12. D 13. A 14. B 15. D 16. D 17. C 18. C 19. D 20. C 21. B 22. A 23. A 24. C 25. A 26. D 27. C 28. A 29. A 30. C 31. A 32. A 33. A 34. D 35. A 36. B 37. B 38. B 39. A 40. D
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