Bisc 104 Bensen Exam #1 Study Guide
Bisc 104 Bensen Exam #1 Study Guide Bisc 104 Sec 2
Popular in Inquiry into Life: The Environment
Popular in Biology
This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Zoe Notetaker on Wednesday September 14, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bisc 104 Sec 2 at University of Mississippi taught by Tiffany A Bensen in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Inquiry into Life: The Environment in Biology at University of Mississippi.
Reviews for Bisc 104 Bensen Exam #1 Study Guide
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/14/16
Benson Bisc 104 Exam 1 Study Guide Chapter 12 Vocabulary Words: Evolution A change in allele frequencies between generations of a population Trait Something observable or a behavior of an organism; examples include hair color and speed Alleles Different forms of a gene Gene Pool All the genes (therefore all the alleles) in a population in the gene pool Population A number of the same species or organisms Allele Frequency All alleles for a particular gene in a gene pool Microevolution “short” term genetic changes within a population or species Natural Selection Species and animals with better attributes that are better suited to the environment will survive to pass on the trait Artificial Selection Occurs when humans choose a trait to pass on; examples include genetically modified organisms and dog breeding Evolutionary Synthesis The melding of Darwin's and Mendel’s ideas Theory of Evolution The process by which organisms change over time as a result of changes in heritable or physical traits Adaptations Favorable traits that increase in frequency in a population Population Genetics The study of the distribution and change in frequency in alleles in populations HardyWeinberg Equilibrium Allele frequencies cannot change, meaning evolution cannot occur, if: natural selection does not occur, mutations do not occur, population is indefinitely large, individuals mate at random, or if migration does not occur in and out of a population Directional Selection An extreme phenotype is fittest and shifts the phenotypic curve in one direction Disruptive Selection Can lead to a balance between 2+ contrasting phenotypes in a population Stabilizing Selection Maintains variation for a particular trait within a narrow range Heterozygote Advantage When heterozygotes have a greater fitness than homozygotes because of a benefit conferred Mutations DNA randomly changes to introduce new alleles Genetic Drift Change in the gene pool due to chance (rooted in sampling error) Bottleneck Effect Occurs when a population is drastically reduced in size Founder Effect Individuals of an existing population move and found a new population Migration When species move, they move alleles between populations NonRandom Mating Usually a preference, including those that result in sexual selection Sexual Dimorphism Differences in traits between selection Key People: Aristotle (350 B.C.) Main thinker of the time period; individuals believed the world was flat and unchanging Buffon (1749 A.D.) First to say that species change and arise from a common ancestor Lamarck (1809 A.D.) A radical thinker and he believed that abilities were passed down from parent to offspring Lyell (1830 A.D.) Published “Principles of Geology” in which he says Earth is actually millions of years old and changes slowly over time Charles Darwin (18311836 A.D.) Rode aboard the Beagle to the Galapagos and noticed organisms and fossils similar to those found in other places in the world, he is given credit for the idea of evolution, but he called it “decent with modification” Malthus Author of “The Principle of Population” which states that human population is limited by things such as food, sickness and environment Wallace (1850’s) Had similar ideas to Darwin, but was beaten to publishing them Gregor Mendel “father of modern genetics”; began understanding how genes were passed to offspring Hardy and Weinberg developed the HardyWeinberg equilibrium which limits when evolution can occur Important Facts: ● Genes ← → Alleles → Traits ● Allele Frequency is calculated by: [# of copies in a population of single alleles] / [Total # of alleles for a given gene in a population] ● Fitness in this context is an organism's ability to reproduce successfully ● How to find allele and gene frequencies in a population: ○ P+Q=1 where P=f(D) and Q=f(d) ○ P^2 +2PQ + Q^2 = 1 where P^2 = f(DD), 2PQ= f(Dd), and Q^2= f(dd) Chapter 13 Vocabulary Words: Geological Timescale Describes events of the earth's history, begins when earth formed Fossil Record Gives direct evidence of life preceding human history; occurs all over the world Relative Dating Determining a fossil’s age by comparing it to others Absolute Dating Determined by using radioactive decay (AKA Radiometric Dating) HalfLife The time it takes for an isotope to lose half its mass Biogeography The study of the distribution of species across the planet Plate Tectonics A theory that states that the Earth’s surface consists of several rigid layers, called tectonic plates, that move in response to forces deep in the planet Homologous A term for two structures with similarities that reflect common ancestry Vestigial Structure Has no apparent function in one species, but is homologous to a functional organ in another Analogous Structures that evolve independently from one another Convergent Evolution Produces similar adaptations in organisms that do not share the same evolutionary lineage Homeotic A general term describing any gene that, when mutated, leads to organisms with structures in strange or unusual places Molecular Clock DNA or protein sequences are used to estimate the time when 2 organisms diverged from a common ancestor Key People: Alfred Wallace Discovered an imaginary line that seemed to separate birds and mammals alike in the sea; ended up being a deepwater trench deep below that separated ecosystems Important Facts: ● There are multiple lines of evidence of evolution: ○ Fossils ○ Geographical patterns of life ○ Anatomy ○ Embryology ○ DNA sequences/ biological molecules ● Geological time scale is divided into 4 eons, which are divided into eras, which are divided into time periods ● When determining how long ago two species shared a common ancestor, the rule is that for every 1% difference in the two species nucleotides, it is about 1 million years added to the time since they had a common ancestor Chapter 14 Vocabulary Words: Species A population, or group of populations, whose members can interbreed and produce fertile offspring Reproductive Isolation A population is split and each reproduces independently of one another Speciation The formation of a new species Reproductive Barriers Separates a common gene pool, so that each evolves independently Prezygotic Barrier A barrier that prevents mating or fertilization Postzygotic Barrier A barrier that prevents reproduction after a zygote is formed; like failure to develop as an offspring or a hybrids inability to produce gametes Allopatric Speciation No contact between species because of a physical barrier Sympatric Speciation Population share a habitat, but diverge in spite of it Poliploid A common type of sympatric speciation in plants where gametes can unite to form an offspring with more chromosomes than either parent Gradualism Theory that says evolution occurs slowly, in small. Incremental changes over many generations Punctual Equilibrium Theory that says long periods of little change are interrupted by bouts of rapid change Background Extinction Rate Gradual loss of species that go extinct over time Mass Extinctions A burst in which many species are lost Impact Theory A hypothesis about mass extinction that suggests that meteorites/comets crashed into Earth, causing the atmosphere to change and kill many species Plate Tectonics The plates shifting caused habitat loss and animals deaths Human Impact Theory A hypothesis about a cause of mass extinction in which humans are currently changing the climate and causing habitat loss which has been killing many species Important Facts: ● There are issues with the concept of speciation by reproductive isolation: ○ Some organisms are asexual ○ We have only learned of some organisms from their fossils ○ There are organisms that may interbreed in captivity, but not in nature ○ There are some organisms for which breeding in nature is possible despite isolation ● “Our classifications will come to be, as far as they can be made, genealogies” Charles Darwin ● There has been 5 mass extinctions in the last 600 million years, we may currently be in the 6th one in which humans are the cause ● The 3 theories of mass extinction are: ○ Impact Theory ○ Plate Tectonics ○ Human Impact Theory
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'