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Bisc 104 Bensen Exam #1 Study Guide

by: Zoe Notetaker

Bisc 104 Bensen Exam #1 Study Guide Bisc 104 Sec 2

Marketplace > University of Mississippi > Biology > Bisc 104 Sec 2 > Bisc 104 Bensen Exam 1 Study Guide
Zoe Notetaker
GPA 3.86

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About this Document

This cover all of the vocabulary words Professor Bensen disscussed during her lectures as well as key components that are likely to appear on the test! The chapters are 12, 13, and 14 from the text...
Inquiry into Life: The Environment
Tiffany A Bensen
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Zoe Notetaker on Wednesday September 14, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bisc 104 Sec 2 at University of Mississippi taught by Tiffany A Bensen in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Inquiry into Life: The Environment in Biology at University of Mississippi.


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Date Created: 09/14/16
Benson Bisc 104 Exam 1 Study Guide    Chapter 12    Vocabulary Words:  Evolution­ A change in allele frequencies between generations of a population    Trait­ Something observable or a behavior of an organism; examples include hair color and  speed    Alleles­ Different forms of a gene    Gene Pool­ All the genes (therefore all the alleles) in a population in the gene pool    Population­ A number of the same species or organisms    Allele Frequency­ All alleles for a particular gene in a gene pool    Microevolution­ “short” term genetic changes within a population or species    Natural Selection­ Species and animals with better attributes that are better suited to the  environment will survive to pass on the trait    Artificial Selection­ Occurs when humans choose a trait to pass on; examples include  genetically modified organisms and dog breeding    Evolutionary Synthesis­ The melding of Darwin's and Mendel’s ideas    Theory of Evolution­ The process by which organisms change over time as a result of changes  in heritable or physical traits    Adaptations­ Favorable traits that increase in frequency in a population    Population Genetics­ The study of the distribution and change in frequency in alleles in  populations    Hardy­Weinberg Equilibrium­ Allele frequencies cannot change, meaning evolution cannot  occur, if: natural selection does not occur, mutations do not occur, population is indefinitely  large, individuals mate at random, or if migration does not occur in and out of a population     Directional Selection­ An extreme phenotype is fittest and shifts the phenotypic curve in one  direction    Disruptive Selection­ Can lead to a balance between 2+ contrasting phenotypes in a population    Stabilizing Selection­ Maintains variation for a particular trait within a narrow range    Heterozygote Advantage­ When heterozygotes have a greater fitness than homozygotes  because of a benefit conferred    Mutations­ DNA randomly changes to introduce new alleles    Genetic Drift­ Change in the gene pool due to chance (rooted in sampling error)    Bottleneck Effect­ Occurs when a population is drastically reduced in size    Founder Effect­ Individuals of an existing population move and found a new population    Migration­ When species move, they move alleles between populations    Non­Random Mating­ Usually a preference, including those that result in sexual selection    Sexual Dimorphism­ Differences in traits between selection    Key People:  Aristotle (350 B.C.)­ Main thinker of the time period; individuals believed the world was flat and  unchanging    Buffon (1749 A.D.)­ First to say that species change and arise from a common ancestor    Lamarck (1809 A.D.)­ A radical thinker and he believed that abilities were passed down from  parent to offspring    Lyell (1830 A.D.)­ Published “Principles of Geology” in which he says Earth is actually millions of  years old and changes slowly over time    Charles Darwin (1831­1836 A.D.)­ Rode aboard the Beagle to the Galapagos and noticed  organisms and fossils similar to those found in other places in the world, he is given credit for  the idea of evolution, but he called it “decent with modification”    Malthus­ Author of “The Principle of Population” which states that human population is limited by  things such as food, sickness and environment    Wallace (1850’s)­ Had similar ideas to Darwin, but was beaten to publishing them    Gregor Mendel­ “father of modern genetics”; began understanding how genes were passed to  offspring    Hardy and Weinberg­ developed the Hardy­Weinberg equilibrium which limits when evolution  can occur    Important Facts:  ● Genes ← → Alleles → Traits  ● Allele Frequency is calculated by: [# of copies in a population of single alleles] / [Total #  of alleles for a given gene in a population]  ● Fitness in this context is an organism's ability to reproduce successfully  ● How to find allele and gene frequencies in a population:  ○ P+Q=1 where P=f(D) and Q=f(d)  ○ P^2 +2PQ + Q^2 = 1 where P^2 = f(DD), 2PQ= f(Dd), and Q^2= f(dd)    Chapter 13    Vocabulary Words:  Geological Timescale­ Describes events of the earth's history, begins when earth formed    Fossil Record­ Gives direct evidence of life preceding human history; occurs all over the world    Relative Dating­ Determining a fossil’s age by comparing it to others    Absolute Dating­ Determined by using radioactive decay (AKA Radiometric Dating)    Half­Life ­ The time it takes for an isotope to lose half its mass    Biogeography­ The study of the distribution of species across the planet    Plate Tectonics­ A theory that states that the Earth’s surface consists of several rigid layers,  called tectonic plates, that move in response to forces deep in the planet    Homologous­ A term for two structures with similarities that reflect common ancestry    Vestigial Structure­ Has no apparent function in one species, but is homologous to a functional  organ in another    Analogous­ Structures that evolve independently from one another    Convergent Evolution­ Produces similar adaptations in organisms that do not share the same  evolutionary lineage    Homeotic­ A general term describing any gene that, when mutated, leads to organisms with  structures in strange or unusual places  Molecular Clock­ DNA or protein sequences are used to estimate the time when 2 organisms  diverged from a common ancestor    Key People:  Alfred Wallace­ Discovered an imaginary line that seemed to separate birds and mammals alike  in the sea; ended up being a deepwater trench deep below that separated ecosystems    Important Facts:  ● There are multiple lines of evidence of evolution:  ○ Fossils  ○ Geographical patterns of life  ○ Anatomy  ○ Embryology  ○ DNA sequences/ biological molecules  ● Geological time scale is divided into 4 eons, which are divided into eras, which are  divided into time periods  ● When determining how long ago two species shared a common ancestor, the rule is that  for every 1% difference in the two species nucleotides, it is about 1 million years added  to the time since they had a common ancestor    Chapter 14    Vocabulary Words:  Species­ A population, or group of populations, whose members can interbreed and produce  fertile offspring    Reproductive Isolation­ A population is split and each reproduces independently of one another    Speciation­ The formation of a new species    Reproductive Barriers­ Separates a common gene pool, so that each evolves independently    Prezygotic Barrier­ A barrier that prevents mating or fertilization    Postzygotic Barrier­ A barrier that prevents reproduction after a zygote is formed; like failure to  develop as an offspring or a hybrids inability to produce gametes    Allopatric Speciation­ No contact between species because of a physical barrier    Sympatric Speciation­ Population share a habitat, but diverge in spite of it    Poliploid­ A common type of sympatric speciation in plants where gametes can unite to form an  offspring with more chromosomes than either parent  Gradualism­ Theory that says evolution occurs slowly, in small. Incremental changes over many  generations    Punctual Equilibrium­ Theory that says long periods of little change are interrupted by bouts of  rapid change    Background Extinction Rate­ Gradual loss of species that go extinct over time    Mass Extinctions­ A burst in which many species are lost    Impact Theory­ A hypothesis about mass extinction that suggests that meteorites/comets  crashed into Earth, causing the atmosphere to change and kill many species    Plate Tectonics­ The plates shifting caused habitat loss and animals deaths    Human Impact Theory­ A hypothesis about a cause of mass extinction in which humans are  currently changing the climate and causing habitat loss which has been killing many species    Important Facts:  ● There are issues with the concept of speciation by reproductive isolation:  ○ Some organisms are asexual  ○ We have only learned of some organisms from their fossils  ○ There are organisms that may interbreed in captivity, but not in nature  ○ There are some organisms for which breeding in nature is possible despite  isolation  ● “Our classifications will come to be, as far as they can be made, genealogies” ­Charles  Darwin  ● There has been 5 mass extinctions in the last 600 million years, we may currently be in  the 6th one in which humans are the cause  ● The 3 theories of mass extinction are:  ○ Impact Theory  ○ Plate Tectonics  ○ Human Impact Theory 


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