SUST 2000 Exam 1 Study Guide - UPDATED material
SUST 2000 Exam 1 Study Guide - UPDATED material SUST 2000
Popular in Introduction to Sustainability
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Hanna Fowler on Wednesday September 14, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SUST 2000 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Chadwick in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Sustainability in Sustainability Studies at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 09/14/16
John Muir: Naturalist who helped establish Yosemite national park. Idea that everything is connected. “When we try to pick out anything by itself, we find it hitched to everything else in the universe.” Rachel Carson: Conservationist who raised awareness to the harmfulness of DDT in the 1950s. Idea that herbicides and pesticides are harmful Donella Meadows: Environmental scientist who predicted economic and social collapse in the 21 century. “Limits to Growth” o UN 17 Sustainable Development Goals: 1. End poverty in all forms everywhere 2. End hunger. Achieve food security and improved nutrition, and promote sustainable agriculture. 3. Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages. 4. Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities. 5. Achieve gender equality and empower all women. 6. Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all. 7. Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable, and modern energy for all. 8. Promote sustained, inclusive, and sustainable economic growth. 9. Build resilient infrastructure and promote sustainable industrialization. 10. Reduce inequality within and among countries. 11. Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient, and sustainable. 12. Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns. 13. Take urgent action to combat climate change. 14. Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas, and marine resources. 15. Protect, restore, and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems. 16. Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development and provide access to justice for all. 17. Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development. o Resilience: o Ability of a system to recover from disturbance, absorb shock, survive, and adjust/adapt to change. o Core traits of resilient systems 1. Promote biological, social, and economic diversity a. Ex: diverse, native landscaping 2. Embrace natural cycles and value ecosystem services a. Ex: watershed protection program in NYC 3. Consists of modular components: prevents shocks from being transferred rapidly a. Ex: Shorter-distance supply chains b. Walkable, neighborhood based shops 4. Possess tight feedback cycles: allows detection of thresholds before we cross them a. Ex: Real-time energy displays in buildings The Human Sphere / Systems Thinking o System: Definition: Set of things that are interconnected in such a way that they produce their own pattern of behavior over time Coherently organized set of interconnected elements Components: Elements: most obvious part of a system Interconnections: relationships that hold the system together Function: applies to non-human system Purpose: applies to human system Structure drives behavior Always more than the sum of its parts o What is systems thinking: Focuses on whole of system and how things interact Looks beyond simple cause/effect Enables learners to gain insight and promotes long-term thinking o Iceberg Model: Describe using a specific example. Steps: 1. Identify a trend you want to analyze: Tip of the iceberg 2. Construct a behavior over time (BOT) graph to describe patterns over period of time 3. Identify systemic structures: how are the parts related? Feedback: output of system is fed back into input of system Create causal loop diagrams (CLD) 1. Change your mental model (your internal picture of the world) Determine the Leverage Points: place in the system where small changes create large impact Ex: recycling and waste treatment o Behavior Over Time graph: Causal loop diagram: Leverage Points: Points of intervention in the system. Place where intervening makes a large impact. Feedback: output of a system is fed back into input of system I = P*A*T model: o Impact = population*affluence*technology o Affluence: Consumption per capita The Biosphere / Environmental Systems o ���The 4 spheres: o Lithosphere o Sphere of stone o Outermost layer of the solid earth o Extends 100km (60mi) deep o 1/6 of earth’s crust o Made up of the tectonic plates o Always in movement o Earthquakes/volcanoes o Source of all mineral resources o Mining: extractive process of irreplaceable resources: gold, diamonds, silver, platinum o Mineral portion of our soil: basis of the agricultural system o Important in order to feed our civilizations o Providence Canyon in GA created through unsustainable farming methods: example of the consequences o Home to the minerals used in our cell phones o Silver, platinum, gold, copper, aluminum, lead, mercury, etc o Recycle your phone! o Atmosphere o Sphere of air o Air= mixture of gases o 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen o Troposphere: lowest. Where all weather takes place o Stratosphere: home to the ozone layer o Mesosphere o Thermosphere o Hydrosphere Sphere of water All of the planet’s water Water is strange Sticky: molecules stick well to others Modifies temperature Good at dissolving things Biosphere Sphere of life Found in all of the other spheres Divided into biomes, ecosystems, and communities Deserts, forests, reefs, prairies Life divided into groups that share common ancestry Most of the life on earth is invisible (microbes) History of life on earth is based on microbes What is life? o Presently our planet only planet with known life o If we deplete our resources, we don’t know where to go o ALL life: is dependent on water, uses DNA, carbon based o Oxygen Holocaust Oxygen has begun to accumulate Organisms evolve and single celled organisms become extinct Lithosphere: rust bands form in the rock Atmosphere: ozone layer develops Hydrosphere: water becomes oxygen saturated Biosphere: evolution of multicelled organisms o Permian Extinction Coal deposits in the Eurasian plate start to burn as it moves over a hot spot: begins to cause climate change Lithosphere: continental drift Atmosphere: accumulation of greenhouse gases. Increase of CO2 Biosphere: loss of 90% of biodiversity. Greatest mass extinction in history Hydrosphere: absorbs the death o Water cycle Evaporation/transpiration Condensation Precipitation Surface runoff o Nitrogen Cycle Bacteria take nitrogen out of the air and turn it into energy of different forms Lightning has the ability to convert this energy o ���Haber‐Bosch process Fritz Haber: nobel prize in chemistry Half of global food production relies on his process o Carbon Cycle Ecosystems / Ecosystems Services Ecosystem: community of living organisms interacting with one another and nonliving components o Complex network of interconnected systems o Both biotic and abiotic Ecosystem Services: action of helping or doing work for someone o Benefits supplied to humankind by natural ecosystems ���Types of ecosystems services o Supporting Fundamental services Allows earth to sustain basic life forms Soil creation Bedrock disintegrates Organic materials facilitate disintegration Horizons form: this is where plants grow Developed soil supports thick vegetation Water cycle Nutrient cycles Photosynthesis o Regulating Control of natural processes Waste decomposition Purification of rain water Crop pollination Shoreline/flooding protection Carbon sequestration and climate regulation Pest/disease control o Provisioning Goods/products from the ecosystem Foods/water Raw materials Pharmaceuticals Energy from hydropower, water power, fossil fuels o Cultural Non-material benefits Cultural, intellectual, spiritual inspiration Recreational experiences ecotourism ���Examples of ecosystem services that we depend on: o International: oil, coffee o National: former grasslands are now agricultural, providing cotton for clothing and grain for food o Local: gulf coast: beach, seafood. Tidal marsh flood control Negative human impacts on ecosystem services: o Increased desertification o Acid rain o Deforestation o Air pollution o Water polltion o Increasing carbon levels in atmosphere o Overfishing ���Catskill watershed in New York o Largest unfiltered water system in US o Complex network of reservoirs, aquaducts, tunnels, and pipes o Protect the watershed vs. building filtration system o Ecosystem is more efficient than man-made water filtration system Biosphere 2 o Provides ecosystem services to entire population for two years o Outcomes: Fluctuation in atmospheric gases Mass extinction of vertebrates and pollinators Near starvation of humans Breakdown of social systems o Again, ecosystem is more efficient than human technology
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