Exam 1 Study Guide
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This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ashlyn Masters on Wednesday September 14, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 2010 at Auburn University taught by Carol L. Roberson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 247 views. For similar materials see Lifespan Human Development in Family Context in HDFS at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 09/14/16
LIFESPAN DEVELOPMENT Study Guide Exam 1 **anything in red she said will definitely be on the exam** Chapter 1 1. Critical periods vs. Sensitive periods • Critical period: specific time in which a particular event has great consequence o Example: geese have a critical period in which they imprint • We tend to think people have sensitive periods o Sensitive period: particularly susceptible, but not always an irreversible consequence 2. Children play active roles in their development • Self initiated activity o Example: a person doesn’t put a baby’s hand into its mouth; the baby does it by themselves • Interpretation of experience o Children learn from their experiences o Example: baby realizes that sucking on their thumb feels good so they continue to do it • Self regulation o Emotional regulation- they do things to calm themselves down o As caregivers, we help them learn those skills (when they cry, we pick them up and cuddle them) • Eliciting responses o Actively seeking a response from caregivers o They coo, they smile, etc. to see if the caregiver reacts by smiling back, laughing, etc. 3. Erikson’s psychosocial development theory • Psychosocial: focuses on our interactions with others and society 4. Behavioral perspective: emphasis on observable behavior • Classical conditioning: Pavlov’s dogs, Little Albert • Operant conditioning: voluntary behavior governed primarily by consequences 5. Social Cognitive Learning Theory: behavior learned by observing others and consequences 6. Cognitive perspective: emphasis on how to represent, understand and think about the world • Piaget- emphasized qualitative change • Information processing- emphasizes quantitative change • Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory: development occurs within context of interaction and culture 7. What does it mean for development to be multidimensional? • Development has biological, cognitive and socioemotional dimensions • Even within a dimension, there are many components 8. What does it mean for development to be plastic? • Plasticity means the capacity for change… In development, things are always changing 9. What does it mean for development to be contextual? • All development occurs within a context • Normative age-graded influences: similar for individuals in a particular age group • Normative history-graded influences: common to people of a particular generation because of historical circumstances • Nonnormative life events: unusual occurrences that have a major impact on the lives of individual people 10. What does it mean for development to be a co-construction of biology, maintenance and regulation of loss? • Development incorporates all of these • For example, the brain shapes culture, but is also shaped by culture and the experiences that individuals have or pursue 11. Ecological theory (Bronfenbrenner’s theory) • Main idea o Fovuses on five environmental systms (microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem, chronosystem) • Microsystem o Setting in which the individual lives o Ex: family, peers, school, neighborhood • Mesosystem o Involves relations between microsystems or connections between contexts o Ex: relation of family experiences to school experiences • Macrosystem o Culture in which individuals live o Ex: behavior patterns, beliefs, all other products of a group of people that are passed on from generation to generation 12. Nature vs. Nurture • Involves the extent to which development is influenced by nature and by nurture • Nature: an organism’s biological inheritance • Nurture: an organism’s environmental experiences • In reality, both are just as important 13. Stability and change • Involves the degree to which early traits and characteristics persist through life or change • Those who emphasize stability in development argue that stability is the result of heredity and possibly early experiences in life • Those who emphasize change take the view that later experiences can produce change 14. Longitudinal approach • Research strategy in which the same individuals are studied over a period of time, usually several years or more 15. Cohort effects • Effects due to a person’s time of birth, era, or generation rather than the person’s actual age 16. Ethnic gloss • Using an ethnic label such as African American or Latino in a superficial way that portrays an ethnic group as being more homogeneous than it really is Chapter 2 1. Genetics have impact on: • Physical characteristics, intelligence, temperament/personality, psychiatric disorders 2. What is meant by the “collaborative gene” and by genes being turned on or off? What are some specific things that can excite or inhibit a gene’s expression? • The human genome consists of many genes that collaborate both with each other and with non-genetic factors inside and outside the body • A gene being turned “on” means it works to assemble proteins • Stress, radiation and temperature can influence gene expression 3. Genotype • A person’s genetic heritage; the actual genetic material 4. Phenotype • The way an individual’s genotype is expressed in observed and measurable characteristics 5. Sex-linked genes • When a mutated gene is carried on the X chromosome 6. Polygenic inheritance • The heredity of complex characters that are determined by a large number of genes 7. Down Syndrome • A form of intellectual disability that is caused by the presence of an extra copy of chromosome 21 8. Klinefelter Syndrome • A chromosomal disorder in which males have an extra X chromosome, making them XXY instead of XY 9. Turner Syndrome • A chromosome disorder in which either an X chromosome is missing, making the person XO instead of XX, or the second X chromosome is partially deleted 10. Ultrasound • Prenatal medical procedure in which high frequency sound waves are directed into the pregnant woman’s abdomen • Can be performed at 7 weeks and later 11. Chorionic villus sampling (CVS) • Prenatal medical procedure in which a small sample of the placenta is removed • Performed at 10-12 weeks 12. Amniocentesis • Prenatal medical procedure in which a sample of amniotic fluid is withdrawn by syringe and tested for chromosomal or metabolic disorders • Performed at 15-18 weeks 13. Criteria for infertility • The inability to conceive a child after 12 months of regular intercourse without contraception 14. Most common technique used for infertility • In vitro fertilization: eggs and sperm are combined in a laboratory dish 15. Problems with multiple births • Increased risk of low birth weight 16. Applications of adoption in lifespan development • Infancy: few differences in attachment that adopted and nonadopted infants form with parents • Early childhood: natural time to begin to talk in simple ways to children about their adoption status • Middle/late childhood: children may develop mixed feelings about being adopted • Adolescence: likely to develop more abstract and logical thinking, to focus their attention on their bodies and to search for an identity 17. Heredity-environment correlations • Active genotype-environment effects o Children choose environments they enjoy, or that match abilities based on their genes o Example: a child likes to read because one or both of their parents likes to read • Passive genotype-environment effects o Parents’ genes influence the child’s environment and child is receptive if shares genes o Example: parent may provide books • Evocative genotype-environment effects o Child’s genes elicit and evoke a particular environment o Example: if child is interested in bedtime stories, parent will read more 18. Shared and non-shared environmental experiences • Shared: siblings’ common environmental experiences, such as their parents’ personalities and intellectual orientation, the family’s socioeconomic status and the neighborhood in which they live • Nonshared: the child’s own unique experiences, both within the family and outside the family, that are not shared with another sibling 19. Epigenetic view • Emphasizes that development is the result of an ongoing, bidirectional interchange between heredity and environment Chapter 3 1. Miscarriage and stillbirth • Miscarriage o 15-20% of pregnancies o Mostly genetic abnormalities o Mostly early in pregnancy • Stillbirth o New evidence suggests they may be a result of placental problems and that monitoring, early delivery, can help 2. APGAR scale • Appearance (pink) • Pulse (>100) • Grimace (want them to) • Activity (strong) • Respiration (crying is good) 3. Preterm babies • Outcome depends on weight (around 2 pounds is often the cut off) • Around 22 weeks is the age of viability o And still about 50% will die • Survival requires expensive, lengthy hospital stays • Causes o Multiple births, too little time between pregnancies, mother too young, health of mom (stress) • Post mature: placenta wears out, lower blood supply and riskier delivery 4. Infant mortality • U.S. compared to other industrialized nations o Higher infant mortality than other industrialized nations – because of poverty and lack of insurance • Ethnic differences o About 2.5x higher in African Americans than non-Hispanic whites o For immigrants, increases after they come to U.S. • Another fact – U.S. has vaccination rates lower than many countries 5. Postpartum depression • Likely to hormone shifts • Impacts babies who display little emotion and act detached and withdrawn 6. Early learning capabilities • Classical conditioning: Little Albert, Pavlov’s dogs o Sucking reflex à head stroking paired with sweet tasting liquid à leads to sucking when head is stroked • Operant conditioning (behavior-consequence à behavior) o Suck on nipple-mom reads à sucking • Habituation: decrease in response to a stimulus after repeated presentations of the stimulus o No longer new and exciting, so their interest decreases o When we introduce something new, we get an orienting response: quiets, attentive, slowed heart rate o Helps us learn about babies’ abilities o Present at birth, but becomes more pronounced with maturation 7. Social competence • Can discriminate between facial expressions of sadness, surprise, happiness • Can imitate these expressions- leading to the beginnings of social interactions and understanding of others’ emotional states • Recognize mom’s voice immediately • Recognize mom’s face within hours • Recognize dad at least within days 8. 3 stages of prenatal development • Germinal period (conception – 2 weeks) o Creation of the fertilized egg, called a zygote, cell division and the attachment of the zygote to the uterine wall o When most miscarriages occur • Embryonic period (2 – 8 weeks) o Rate of cell differentiation intensifies, support systems for cells form and organs appear o Organogenesis: organ formation that takes place during the first two months of prenatal development • Fetal period (8 weeks – birth) o Growth and development continue their dramatic course during this time o Major organs differentiate o Fetus kicks and clenches fist (4-5 months) o Can hear sounds outside uterus o Reflexes emerge 9. Teratology and Hazards to Prenatal Development • Teratogen: any agent that causes a birth defect • Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS): birth defect that can cause mental retardation, facial asymmetries, small head (due to the mother’s consumption of alcohol while pregnant) o May increase risk of ADHD o Primary preventable cause of mental retardation o There is NO safe time to drink during pregnancy • Central Nervous System (CNS) is very susceptible throughout most of pregnancy • Smoking o Low birth weight, retarded growth, increased risk of SIDS (sudden infant death syndrome) o Third-hand smoking: you go outside and smoke, it gets on your clothing, baby inhales/swallows the particles on your clothing • Lead (often postnatal exposure) o Can cause a variety of neurobiological problems including lower IQ o Cause: exposure to paint, leaded gas or water in Flint Michigan • Mercury exposure o Memory, sensory and emotional impairment o Sources- fish (tuna, swordfish), environment 10. Two birth defects related to neural tube development • Anencephaly • Spina bifida o Cause: lack of folic acid early in pregnancy 11. What happens if the mom is Rh- and the fetus is Rh+? Does this happen in all of the women’s pregnancies? • The mother’s immune system may produce antibodies that will attack the fetus o Can result in a number of problems: miscarriage, stillbirth, anemia, jaundice, heart defects, brain damage, death soon after birth • Generally, the first Rh+ baby of an Rh- mother is not at risk 12. What can happen if the mother has Rubella while pregnant? Genital herpes? • Rubella o Higher risk of negative fetal and neonatal outcomes including spontaneous abortion and stillbirth • Genital herpes o About 1/3 of babies delivered through an infected birth canal die, ¼ become brain damaged 13. Potential outcomes for parental smoking and parental age over 40 • Smoking- look at teratogens section • Age over 40 o Mothers: risk that the child will have Down syndrome, low birth weight, preterm delivery and fetal death increase o Fathers: increased risk of developing autism because of an increase in random gene mutations 14. Stages of birth • First stage o Longest stage (~6-12 hours for first time mothers) o Contractions are 15-20 minutes apart o Woman’s cervix begins to stretch and open o Contractions then start to get closer together o By the end, cervix is dilated to 10cm (4in) • Second stage o Begins when the baby’s head starts to move through cervix and birth canal o Ends when baby completely emerges from mother’s body o Usually lasts 45 minutes to an hour • Third stage o Shortest stage (only minutes) o Placenta, umbilical cord and other membranes are detached and expelled 15. What do midwives and doulas do? • Midwives: provide health care to women during pregnancy, birth and postpartum period • Doula: caregiver who provides continuous physical, emotional and educational support for the mother before, during and after childbirth (more like a childbirth coach) 16. Concerns about medication • There are concerns that the medications will affect the fetus • Each drug differs, however • Stronger doses potentially have a more negative effect on the fetus than mild doses 17. Cesarean delivery • Surgical procedure in which the baby is removed from the mother’s uterus through an incision made in her abdomen 18. What is the breech position and what is the concern about it? • Breech: baby’s position in the uterus that causes the buttocks to be the first part to emerge from the vagina • Concern: can cause respiratory problems 19. What is kangaroo care and when is it used? • Kangaroo care: treatment for preterm infants that involves skin-to-skin contact (baby in only a diaper held upright against the parent’s bare chest) • When it’s used: preterm infants in the NICU Chapter 4 1. Nervous system and brain • Components of neurons: cell body, axon, dendrites, synapses • By 18 weeks after conception, neurogenesis is complete • Synaptogenesis begins before birth and number increases through early childhood resulting in massive overabundance of synapses • Synaptic pruning: prune pathways not used, strengthen those used, leading to more efficient pathways o Begins in early childhood and continues through adolescence o “Use it or lose it” theory • Plasticity: developing structure or behavior is modifiable due to experience – high in infancy o So can get lost, like strabismus, or gain – musical skills, Braille and cortical representations • Young children may also recover more from some types of localized brain damage o But be more susceptible to other forms (such as lead poisoning)— especially in terms of IQ and very young brains • Myelin sheath: fatty insulation, speeds transmission of neural impulses o Begins prenatally and continues throughout childhood • How to enhance neural development o Provide a stimulating environment – especially through interaction – cuddle, talk, sing, play o Children choose appropriate level of stimulation – especially if parents are responsive 2. Motor development • Gross motor skills o Roll over: 3-4 months o Crawl: 8-10 months o Walk with support: 9 months o Walk without support: about 12 months • Fine motor skills o Grasping rattle: 3.5 months o Grasp with thumb and finger: 8.5 months § Requires integration of movements § Called a pincer grasp 3. At what age have infants attained about half of their adult height? • 2 years 4. Shaken baby syndrome • Brain swelling and hemorrhaging caused by shaking the baby 5. Functions of the prefrontal cortex. When is the peak of overproduction and how long does it take until the adult density of synapses is achieved? • Higher level thinking and self-regulation • Peak takes place at about 1 year of age • Not until middle to late adolescence that adult density is achieved 6. What are the impacts of a deprived early environment and what is the evidence in regard to reversibility of this? • Children may have depressed brain activity • Brain demonstrates both flexibility and resilience • Also, it’s believed that what wires the brain is repeated experience 7. By what age do infants typically reach an adult-like sleep pattern? What can you conclude about parental availability at bedtime? • 8 months – baby will wake up a lot so parents need to be available 8. What is the function of REM sleep? • Self-stimulation and promote brain development 9. Is shared sleeping recommended? • No – especially when the baby is under 6 months old 10. What are the benefits of breast feeding for the child? For the mother? • Child: more iron, vitamin C, vitamin D, antibodies. Also better for infant brain, protects against respiratory and intestinal ailments • Mother: lower rates of premenopausal breast cancer, reduction in ovarian cancer • Other breast feeding info o BPA – used in lining of formula cans, polycarbonate baby bottles linked to reproductive and other problems o A range of other chemicals (polyvinyl chloride, phthalates, etc.) related to other problems including obesity o Nonorganic failure to thrive: related to disturbance in mother-child interaction (possibly related to fussy eating, but also lack of interaction) 11. What are the different reflexes infants have? • Rooting: touch side of cheek and the baby will turn their head toward where you touched • Sucking: put something in baby’s mouth and they’ll suck on it • Moro: startle response • Grasping: when you touch the palm, they’ll grasp whatever is in their hand 12. Development of vision • 20/200-600 at birth • 20/20 by 6 months • Binocular vision: combines images from each eye for depth perception, motion perception (about 14 weeks) o Visual cliff experiment: used to determine depth perception • Color perception develops in first 2-3 months • Preferences: complex, human, curved lines; on faces, scan 13. Development of audition • Well developed at birth • Newborns recognize sound of mom’s voice 14. Development of smell and taste • If breast fed, can distinguish mom’s smell within about 2 weeks 15. Development of pain and touch • Exposure to pain early may result in greater sensitivity to pain in adulthood 16. Cephalocaudal, proximodistal, myelination, lateralization • Cephalocaudal: development starts at the top and moves down • Proximodistal: development starts in the center and moves out toward extremities • Myelination: encasing axons with fat cells • Lateralization: specialization of function in one hemisphere of the cortex or the other Chapter 5 1. Piaget • Schemes: “script” for how the world works (look at the textbook for more info) • Adaptation occurs by 2 processes o Assimilation: understand something new in terms of existing (current) schemes § Example: calling any moving vehicle “car” o Accommodation: change an existing scheme in response to something new § Example: calling a truck “truck” o Example: baby sucks on breast (existing scheme), give it a bottle, baby initially sucks the same (assimilation), but then changes pattern of sucking (accommodation) • Says kids learn by doing things 2. Limitations of Piaget’s work • Too much emphasis on motor ability led to… • His timing being off, which led to… • Him seeing development as more stage-like (discontinuous) than it actually is • Piaget’s idea is more stage-like 3. Sensorimotor stage (0-24 months) • Overall, knowledge is the product of direct motor behavior – intelligence develops and is expressed through sensory and motor abilities • 6 substages 4. 6 substages of sensorimotor stage • Simple reflex o 0-1 months • Primary circular reactions: repetition of chance events with own body o 1-4 months o Primary refers to your own body o Circular means you’re repeating something • Secondary circular reaction: repetition of chance events with other objects o 4-8 months o Example: rattle • Coordinating activities o 8-12 months o Example: moving a blanket to get a toy o Coordination of schemes o A-not-B error: show a toy hidden in location A several times. Hide it in location B and if can’t immediately search for it, then search in location A (might be a memory problem though) o We know infants have an idea of object permanence by about 4 months (test: car down include, but hidden at one point; track infant’s eyes) • Tertiary circular reactions o 12-18 months o Experimentation o Deliberate variations in behavior • Symbolic (mental) representation o 18-24 months o Includes deferred imitation: repetition of other’s behaviors after it has occurred (driving or talking on the phone) o Beginning of thoughts/language 5. Information processing approach to cognitive development • Uses a computer programming analogy • Cognitive development is seen as a process that occurs over time (**continuous) • Three major processes are: o Encoding: how we take in information § Depends in part on what we attend to o Storage: saving material in memory – how long and how much we can remember § As babies get older, they can remember how to kick to get a mobile to move after longer and longer periods of time have elapsed o Retrieval: recovery of stored information § When babies (or adults) are given “hints” they can retrieve information after longer periods of time o These processes can be relatively automatic, or rather deliberate § Automatization: the degree to which an activity requires attention (from high to low) § Some things, like categorization of objects (dogs) and even elementary understanding of amounts, can be high on automatization – by 5 months (relies on object permanence as well) 6. Core knowledge approach • State that infants are born with domain-specific innate knowledge systems 7. What are attention, orienting/investigative process, habituation and dishabituation? • Attention: the focusing of mental resources on select information • Orienting/investigative process: involves directing attention to potentially important locations in the environment (that is, where) and recognizing objects and their features (that is, what) • Habituation: decreased responsiveness to a stimulus after repeated presentations of the stimulus • Dishabituation: the increase in responsiveness after a change in stimulation 8. What is joint attention? • Process that occurs when individuals focus on the same object and are able to track another’s behavior, one individual directs another’s attention and reciprocal interaction takes place 9. What are implicit and explicit memory? • Implicit memory: memory without conscious recollection; involves skills and routine procedures that are automatically performed • Explicit memory: memory of facts and experiences that individuals consciously know and can state 10. What are perceptual and conceptual categorizations? • Perceptual categorization: categorizations are based on similar perceptual features of objects, such as size, color and movement, as well as parts of objects • Conceptual categorization: categorizing objects based on concept (even though planes and birds are perceptually similar, infants can classify birds as animals and planes as vehicles) 11. What is infantile/childhood amnesia? • Not being able to remember much (if anything) from the first three years of life 12. What type of abilities seem most related to later measures of intelligence? • Verbal abilities 13. What influence does family socioeconomic status have on a child’s vocabulary development? What was actually a better predictor of children’s vocab development? • SES: children of professional parents had a much larger vocabulary at 36 months of age than children of welfare parents o Welfare parents talked much less to their young children, talked less about past events and provided less elaboration • Better predictor: maternal language and literacy skills and mothers’ diversity of vocab 14. What are cooing, babbling, gestures (and how they relate to infant’s communication system), first words, telegraphic speech, expressive vs receptive vocabulary • Cooing: gurgling sounds made in the back of the throat that usually express pleasure during interaction with the caregiver (2 months) • Babbling: producing strings of consonant-vowel combinations (2-3 months through first years) • Gestures: happens at average 11-12 months, showing and pointing • First words: usually around 13 months o Mostly objects initially o May also be holophrases (“mama”, “ball”) • Telegraphic speech: use of short and precise words without grammatical markers such as articles, auxiliary verbs and other connectives o Example: Mommy give ice cream • Expressive vocabulary: words children use/speak o Production of words • Receptive vocabulary: words children understand (happens before expressive vocab) o Comprehension of words 15. LAD • Chomsky’s term that describes a biological endowment enabling the child to detect the features and rules of language, including phonology, syntax and semantics 16. Learning theory: kids learn from reinforcement • Not well supported • Kids pick up grammar often seemingly automatically, come up with novel phrases and learn too many words too quickly for this to work completely 17. Nativistic approach to language: says we are genetically prewired for language • Chomsky’s theory • Partially true 18. Interactionist approach to language: nativistic plus exposure and reinforcement in a general way • Most “true” theory 19. What are the characteristics of child directed speech? • High pitch, short, simple sentences, range of frequencies, intonation more varied 20. What are recasting, expanding and labeling • Recasting: rephrasing something the child has said, perhaps turning it into a question or restating the child’s immature utterance in the form of a fully grammatical sentence • Expanding: restating, in a linguistically sophisticated form, what a child has said • Labeling: identifying the names of objects 21. What is the interactionist view? • Emphasizes that both biology and experience contribute to language development 22. Know the info in the box about how parents can facilitate infants’ and toddlers’ language development • Be an active conversational partner • Talk in a slowed-down pace and don’t worry about how you sound to other adults when you talk to your baby • Use parent-look and parent-gesture and name what you are looking at • When you talk with infants and toddlers, be simple, concrete and repetitive • Play games • Remember to listen • Expand and elaborate language abilities and horizons with infants and toddlers • Adjust your child’s idiosyncrasies instead of working against them • Resist making normative comparisons
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