Psychology 1101 Study Guide 2
Psychology 1101 Study Guide 2 Psyc 1101
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Michelle H. on Wednesday September 14, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psyc 1101 at University of Georgia taught by Kara A. Dyckman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 88 views. For similar materials see Elementary Psycology in Psychology at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 09/14/16
Chapter 3 3.1: Sensation and Perception Vocabulary Sensation: Process in which receptors in sensory organs receive and detect stimuli. ● This only provides us with the raw information about our environment, such as the shape and color of objects. Perception: How you organize, interpret, and transform sensory information into something meaningful. ● How we understand what it is that we are observing. ● Making the information received important to you ● Not a real copy of the world; everyone perceives things differently Transduction: The conversion of sensory information to another form, such as an electrical signal ● Sensory input from the environment and is then translated into electrical and chemical signals within neurons. ● Neural signals are processed by the nervous system ○ Transduction is the first step of ensation Example: Ambiguous Figures ● Half of the class was shown an image of a face and the other was shown images of mice ● When the ambiguous figure was shown to the class, half saw a face and the other half saw a mouse. ● Although everyone received the same sensation, everyone had different perceptions of the image. ○ Perception changes from person to person based on factors such as past experiences Types of Processing Data Based: How the brain takes in basic sensory information and processes it for further interpretation. ● Eg. How individuals interpreted the orientation of lines in the figure ● Also known as bottomdown processing Knowledge Based: Usage of past experiences and knowledge to understand the meaning of sensory information. ● Eg. How you viewed the image was based on your past experience of viewing either a man or a mouse. ● Also known as topdown processing Measuring Human Sensation Absolute Threshold: The weakest stimulus that can be detected by humans 50% of the time ● Sensory information that is weaker than the absolute threshold is called subliminal stimuli ● Eg. Hearing/vision exams measure the threshold in which someone measures stimuli to determine if any correction is needed. Examples of Absolute Thresholds ● Touch: Bee’s wing falling on your cheek ● Hearing: The tick of a clock at 20 feet ● Smell: One drop of perfume in a sixroom apartment ● Vision: Candle flame seen from 30 miles away ● Taste: One teaspoon of sugar in two gallons of water. Sensory Adaptation: Sensory receptors become less sensitive to constant stimuli over time ● Occurs because it is more important for your brain to notice changes in stimuli than constant stimuli ● For example, if you enter a room with a strong smell, the smell will go away over time if you remain in the room. Difference Thresholds: The minimum difference between two stimuli noticed 50% of the time. ● Barely noticeable differences Weber’s Law: A law of perception which states that each of our five senses has its own constant ratio used to determine difference thresholds. ● There must be at least a 2% difference for someone to detect the change in weight. Signal Detection Theory: A theory that explains how various factors are able to influence our ability to detect weak signals in the environment. ● Does the stimuli actually occur? Do you think it occurs? ○ When you detect a stimulus that is actually occurring, it is called a hit ○ If a stimuli occorre and you do not interpret it, it’s called a miss ○ A false alarm occurs when you think a stimuli has occurred when it really hasn't ○ Realizing that a stimuli hasn’t occurred when it truly hasn’t is called a correct rejection. ● For example, hearing your phone vibrate when it hasn’t 3.2: Vision Wavelength: The distance between two waves ● Humans can see light with a wavelength between 400 and 700 nM. ● The shortest wavelengths we can perceive are called gamma rays and the longest are called radio waves Hue: The wavelength that an object reflects. This determines the color that we perceive the object to be. ● Violet has the shortest wavelength of 400nm ● Red has the longest wavelength of 700nm Brightness: The intensity of a color. ● The brightness of a color depends on the amplitude, or height, of the wave. ● The higher the amplitude, the brighter the color. Saturation: The purity of the color. ● This is determined by the uniformity of the wavelength ● For an object to be have a pure color, it needs to only reflect the exact wavelength of that color. The Eye The eye is made up of the following parts: Cornea: The clear outer layer of the eye which lays over the colored portion. ● Shields the eye from damage ● Focuses incoming light waves. Around 65%75% of our ability to focus our eyes comes from the cornea. ● Imperfections in the cornea leads to blurred vision. Iris: The colored portion of the eye which is responsible for changing the size of the pupil ● The iris will relax to allow the pupil to become larger and contract to shrink it. Pupil: The black dot in the middle of the iris that is responsible for the amount of light allowed into the eye ● The pupil becomes larger in darker environments and smaller in brighter environments. Lens: The structure behind the pupil that focuses incoming light, similar to the cornea ● Your lens can change shape depending on the location of an object through a process called accommodation ● Over time, lenses are less able to change shape. This results in a condition called presbyopia, which commonly develops between the ages of 40 and 65. Retina: The layer of neurons at the back of the eye which allow for light every to travel to the brain ● The process in which the retina sends visual information to the brain is called transduction Optic Nerve: A bundle of axons connected to the retina which carry visual signals to the brain. ● Humans have a natural blind spot in their vision at the point where the optic nerve connects to the retina. This spot has no rods or cones. Types of Cells Within the Eye Photoreceptors: Specialized cells that absorb light energy and convert the energy into signals which travel to the brain. Rods: Light receptors in the retina that are responsible for sight in dark environments and are not sensitive to color. Cones: Light receptors which allow us to perceive color and details in an object. Trichromatic Theory There are three main types of cones: ● Red ● Green ● Blue Opponent Process Theory ● Groups of neurons respond to opposing pairs of colors called opponent pairs ○ ○ ● You cannot see both colors of opponent pair at the same time. 3.3: Hearing Transduction ● Sensory input received from environment ● Translated into electrical and chemical signals of neurons through transduction ● Neural signal is processed by the central nervous system What is Hearing? ● The physical stimuli that allow us to hear are called sound waves ● The sense of hearing can also be called audition. ○ Sound waves are the vibrations of air ● Humans can hear between 20 and 20 000 hertz ○ Hertz refers to the number of modulations in the sound wave per minute Features of Sound ● Pitch:The frequency of the sound ○ Frequency refers to the number of wave cycles a sound wave goes through in a minute. ○ Higher frequency sounds are higher pitched and lower frequency sounds are lower pitched. ● Loudness: The intensity of the sound. ○ Corresponds to amplitude ■ Amplitude is the height of the sound waves. ○ Measured in decibels ○ At 80 dB, continuous exposure can cause hearing damage ○ At 125 dB, hearing becomes painful ● Timbre: Refers to the overall purity of wavelengths ○ The number of frequencies in the sound ○ Determines what the sound “sounds like" Light Sound Wavelength Hue (color) Pitch Amplitude Brightness Loudness Purity Saturation Timbre (What it sounds like) How Sound Travels ● The pinna funnels sound waves into the auditory canal towards the eardrum ● When the vibration reaches the eardrum, it causes the hammer to push the anvil, which moves the stirrup ● The stirrup impacts the oval window, causing the waves to amplify ● The change in pressure in the oval window causes fluid contained in the cochlea to vibrate ● The vibrating fluid bends hair cells on the basilar membrane, which triggers an action potential within the auditory nerve ● The auditory nerve carried signals to the brain’s auditory cortex in which meaning is assigned to the sounds. Theories of Pitch All three theories can be used to explain the process in which pitch is detected. ● Place Theory: Pitch is determined by the location of the stimulations on the basilar membrane ○ Which hair cells get triggered determine the pitch ○ Hair cells stimulated near the oval window create a higher pitch ○ Hair cells on the opposite end create a lower pitch ○ Used when the sound heard is at a very high frequency ○ Explains the perception of sounds from 4,000 Hz to 20,000 Hz. ● Frequency Theory: Pitch is related to the rate of vibration ○ The faster the vibration, the higher the pitch ○ Neurons fire at the same rate as the vibrations. ○ Explains how we perceive sounds from 2 0 to 400Hz ● Volley Principle: Frequencies between 400Hz and 4000Hz cause the auditory neurons to fire in olley pattern ■ Cells firing in a volley pattern take turns firing. This allows neurons to fire faster than they are able to on their own 3.4: Perception Perception: The process of recognizing, organizing, and interpreting information from your senses. ● Based on a person’s past experiences and expectations ● Perception is not an exact copy of the world, ○ perceptions vary between individuals ○ Perceptions can change over time Illusion: A perception that does not match the sensory data received ● An example of this is perceiving an image to be moving when, in reality, it is stationary. Constancies: Information learned by an individual that help to shape perceptions. There are three main forms of constancy that we experience. ● Size Constancy: Your perception of size will not change even if you move closer or farther from the object. ● Shape Constancy: The perceived shape of objects doesn’t change, even if the angle you view the object from changes. ● Color Constancy: Colors are perceived as the same, regardless of lighting and other environmental factors. Gestalt Principles: The method in which we are able to perceive whether or not two stimuli are the same object or separate objects. ● For example, this allows us to perceive that our mug is not connected to our table, or that the mug and table are separate objects. ○ Law of Proximity: We tend to perceive objects that are near each other as a unit. ○ Law of Similarity: We see objects as a group if they share similar features, such as color or shape. ○ Law of Connectedness: Objects are seen as group if they are connected in some way. ○ Law of Continuity: If multiple objects appear to be moving in the same direction, the are perceived as a group ○ Law of Closure: We are able to fill in incomplete parts of a line or figure. ○ Law of Common Fate: Objects that move together are perceived as the same object. ● A central principle of all Gestaltbased psychology is the figure grounded principle, which states that when we focus on one object, all other features around the object move into the background. Depth Perception: Our ability to perceive the world in three dimensions. ● There are two main cues that allow us to perceive depth: ○ Monocular Cues: ■ Linear Perspective: We see two parallel lines as converging as they move farther away from us ■ Relative Size: Objects closer to us are larger than objects that are farther away. ■ Texture Gradient: The texture of objects becomes finer the farther away they are. ■ Interposition: If an object is blocking part of another object, we perceive it as being closer to us. ■ Atmospheric Perspective: Objects that appear farther away from you are not as sharp, or look more “hazy" ○ Binocular Cues: ■ Convergence: The angle that your eyes rotate to focus on an objects is much greater the closer the object is. ■ This means that your eyes have to rotate more to see closer objects. ■ Retinal Disparity: Since your eyes are separated, an object is seen at different positions on each eye. ■ Objects that are farther away are seen in roughly the same place in both eyes. The disparity of objects is greater the closer they are to you. Chapter 4 4.1: Consciousness Consciousness: The state of being aware of oneself, one’s thoughts, or the environment around someone ● In theory, you are conscious while you are asleep as you are still able to react to the environment. For example, you can hear your alarm go off. ● If you don’t remember events, you were still conscious during that period. You were able to perceive yourself and the environment during that period Automatic Processing: When decisions are made with little to no conscious effort. ● Your morning routine is an example of automatic processing. Selective Attention: The ability to focus on only one stream of information but ignore others. ● If you’re studying, you’re using selective attention to ignore everything else going on in your environment. Inattention Blindness: The failure to notice a fully visible, yet unexpected stimuli. ● This is caused by out selective attention on a single task which causes us to occasionally miss important information from our environment. Levels of Consciousness ● Wakefulness ● Sleepiness ● Druginduced state ● Dreaming ○ Occurs within sleep ● Hypnotic State ● Meditative state. 4.2: Sleep Circadian Rhythm: The daily patterns our body goes through which roughly mimic the 24hour cycle of daylight and darkness ● Your body generally wants to sleep during the night and stay awake during the day. ● The circadian rhythm that causes sleep occurs twice a day between the hours of 2am and 6am and from 2pm to 3pm. ● Circadian rhythms are regulated by a part of the hypothalamus called the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) (find location) ○ The SCN is made up two small clusters of neurons ○ The SCN receives signals from special cells in the eye called retinal ganglion cells to determine if it is day or night ○ It controls the release of melatonin, the chemical that induces sleep, from the pineal gland Brain Waves Alpha Waves: Indicate a relaxed and drowsy state. ● Lower frequency waves emitted to induce sleep. Beta Waves: Waves that cause an alert and focus state of mind ● These waves have a high frequency and are emitted during cognitive functions. Theta Waves: Brain waves that indicate a light state of sleep ● These waves are lower in frequency than alpha and beta waves. Delta Waves: Indicate a state of deep sleep ● Delta waves have the lowest frequency of any type of brain waves. Stages of Sleep Sleep Disorders Altered States of Consciousness Psychoactive Drugs: ● Depressants: Drugs that depress the CNS and decreases the overall neural activity ● Stimulants: Increases neural activity ● Hallucinogens: Alters perceptions of reality
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