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POLS 1101, Study Guide for Test #1

by: Melanie Bagyi

POLS 1101, Study Guide for Test #1 POLS 1101

Marketplace > Kennesaw State University > Political Science > POLS 1101 > POLS 1101 Study Guide for Test 1
Melanie Bagyi

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About this Document

I put a study guide together for you guys to have a clearer picture about the material! Hope it helps (and don't forget to watch "ides of March" for that extra credit!)
American Government
James Martinez
Study Guide
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Melanie Bagyi on Wednesday September 14, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to POLS 1101 at Kennesaw State University taught by James Martinez in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 139 views. For similar materials see American Government in Political Science at Kennesaw State University.


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Date Created: 09/14/16
Freedom,  Authority,  and  Goldilocks  Principle:     • Freedom  vs.  authority:   o Antithetical  ideas  (opposing)   o Extremes  in  either  lead  to  destabilization   • Classical  liberalism:   o Not  a  lot  of  government  power   o Founding  fathers  were  classical  liberalists   • Socialism/Marxism:   o Lot  of  government  power   • Theories  of  power:   o Majoritarianism  (Majority  wins)   § Voting   § Ballot  initiatives  and  referenda   o Pluralism  (Like-­‐minded  people  join  together  to  push  policies)   § Interest  groups   § Political  parties   § News  media   o General  (Direct)   § Democracy;  controlled  by  people   o Specific  (Indirect)   § Republican   o Elitism   § Out  of  control  pluralism   § “Iron  law  of  oligarchy”   • Lessons  learned:   o Tensions  are  never  resolved  in  a  democracy   o Democracy  is  messy  and  inefficient     Story  of  American  Government:     • New  England  Colonies:  Puritanism  and  nuclear  families(Mom,  dad,  and  two   kids)   o Pilgrims  and  puritans   § Didn’t  trust  government   § Hard  workers   § Big  on  education  and  religion   o Tried  to  escape  religious  intolerance,  but  became  very  intolerant  of   other  people   • Middle  Colonies:  “Best  poor  man’s  country”   o Philadelphia  was  the  2  biggest  English  speaking  city  after  London   o Indentured  servitude:   § Poor,  young  men  without  family,  servant  for  7  years  then  had   business  experience.   § Ex.  Benjamin  Franklin       • Chesapeake:  Slavery  and  aristocracy   st o Primogeniture  (1  born)   § Only  boys  because  women  were  considered  father’s  property   until  married   o Presentism:  Looking  at  the  past  with  today’s  values   § Ex.  Slavery   o Thomas  Jefferson:  Hated  slavery  but  fathered  5+  kids  to  a  slave  he   owned.   • Deep  South:  Melting  pot  of  America   o Owning  slaves  corresponded  to  rank  on  social  ladder     Founding  Fathers  and  the  American  Political  System:     • Recurring  themes:   o Two  contradictory  themes   § Fear  of  too  much  power  in  too  few  hands  (Tyranny)   § Antipathy  toward  democracy   • Republic:  Structured  government;  allows  separation  of   powers   o Noblesse  Oblige:  Noble  obligation,  civil  virtue   o Classical  Liberalism:  Lockean  principles   • Four  founding  documents:   o Declaration  of  Independence   o Articles  of  Confederation   o U.S.  Constitution   o Federalist  Papers   • Declaration  of  Independence:   o Purposes:   § Statement  of  legitimacy   § Rejection  of  the  Divine  Rights  of  Kings   § Firm  commitment  of  Lockean  principles   • Life,  Liberty,  and  Property  (Pursuit  of  happiness)   § Justifies  the  “Right  of  Revolution”   o Benign  neglect   o Committee  made  up  of  Franklin,  John  Adams,  Jefferson   o Jefferson  ended  up  writing  the  document  which  made  him  well-­‐ known   o Divine  Right  of  Kings   § God  -­‐>  King  -­‐>  People   o John  Locke  Theory     § God  -­‐>  People  -­‐>  Government   § Opens  up  the  possibility  of  a  democracy     o Major  Provisions:   § “All  men  are  created  equal”   § Natural  rights  precede  rights  granted  by  government   § Disaffected  parties  can  petition  their  government   o Consequences  of  the  document:   § Served  as  a  rallying  cry  for  war,  liberation,  and  nationalism   § Was  a  mission  statement  for  the  new  nation   § Embraced  principles  of  self-­‐government   o The  Declaration  DOES  NOT:   § Establish  a  new  government   § Condemn  slavery   § Address  the  issue  of  federal  vs.  state  supremacy   o From 1779, delegates think the U.S. should have a central government   o 3 choices for a democratic government:   § confederation: central government vs. states (too weak)   § federal system: central government vs. states (“perfect”)   § unitary system: one undivided government (too strong)   • The Articles of Confederation:   o Major provisions:   § State sovereignty was paramount   § Congress could direct foreign affairs, BUT domestic affairs were left to the states § No standing armies were allowed § Congress DID NOT exercise exclusive power to print money § Congress had few enforcement powers § 9 of 13 states (3/4 majority) had to approve legislative measures § Unanimity was required to amend § Each state was responsible for its own war debt o Positive features: § a weak central government COULD NOT oppress its citizens § states could exercise sovereignty § the dream of rural, agrarian American “townships” was theoretically possible § it highlighted the need for strong government o Negative features: § big states (VA, PA, NY) vs. small states (NJ, DE, southern states) became an issue § “super-majorities” led to gridlock (= unresolved major issues; 50% + 1) § each state was its own little nation § the problem of economic growth • The U.S. Constitution o Prelude, part 1: The Annapolis Convention § organized to discuss trade problems § firmly embraced capitalist principles § highlighted the need to fix the AOC § a dress rehearsal for 1787 & made Madison (father of the Constitution) and Hamilton important figures § Montesquieu’s idea to have: legislative, executive and judicial branches o Tipping point: Shays’s rebellion § farmers is western MA were upset at farm foreclosures § Daniel Shays led a mob to the Springfield armory to seize weapons (private militia supported by Benjamin Lincoln and mayor of MA) § the state militia quelled the rebellion, but this highlighted the AOC’s weaknesses o Virginia Plan vs. NJ Plan: § Virginia: bicameral (= chamber) legislature power from individual unspecified executive; majority rule; Congress impeaches; national judiciary ratification by citizens § NJ: unicameral legislature power from states executive committee; super-majority rule; states impeach; no national judiciary ratification by states • ultra vires: going beyond an individual’s authority • Edmond Randolph: he was asked to present plans to everyone • William Paterson: spoke on behalf of the people, who were upset by the Virginia Plan o The Great Compromise aka “Connecticut Compromise” (Roger Sherman) § Bicameral legislature o The House of Representatives: proportional (favored big states) – 2 year terms in the People’s House o The Senate: equal (favored small states) – 6 year terms in the Upper House § Presidency o a single chief executive with a 4 year term; eligible for reelection o electoral college: • interposes electors between a demagogue & the electorate • # based on a state’s MOCs o 3/5 compromise § each slave was counted as 3/5 of a free white person for purposes of representation and taxation § international slave trade was abolished after 1808 § in 1790, 697 thousand people – 18% of the population – were slaves o Final product: 4 principles • Republicanism – people exercise power through elected representatives • Federalism – the division of power between a central government & subunits • Separation of Powers – make laws (legislative), enforce laws (executive), interpret laws (judiciary) • Checks and Balances – veto legislation (executive), override executive veto (legislative), review legislative acts (judiciary)  


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