Psyc 2220: Study Guide for Exam 1
Psyc 2220: Study Guide for Exam 1 Psyc 2220
Popular in Biological Basis of Behavior
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
verified elite notetaker
This 17 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alex Zelaya on Wednesday September 14, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psyc 2220 at University of Colorado Denver taught by Ben Greenwood in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 167 views. For similar materials see Biological Basis of Behavior in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Colorado Denver.
Reviews for Psyc 2220: Study Guide for Exam 1
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/14/16
Psych 2220: Study Guide for Exam 1 Practice Questions 1. What is Behavioral Neuroscience a study of? 2. The phenomenon of “Blindsight” is the ability perform reflexive visual movements such as avoiding objects, despite not being consciously aware that an object was present. Can the phenomenon of blindsight be explained in physiological terms? a. How do Behavioral Neuroscientists explain the physiological mechanisms underlying blindsight? 3. What part of the body do Cephalocentric views focus on? 4. Define neuroplasticity 5. What is the theory that says that specific parts of the brain have different functions? 6. Draw a neuron and label 6 different parts. 7. Draw the 3 different shapes of neurons. 8. Which type of neuron is most common? 9. Which type of neuron is responsible for sensing pain, temperatures changes, and touch? 10.What are nerves and where are they located? 11.What are the components of a typical synapse? 12.If one neuron in a chain of connected neurons were damaged, would the information passed along that chain necessarily be lost? Why or why not? 13.Label the following diagram: 14.Microtubules serve several functions including ___________ and _____________. The process of transporting something in the direction from the cell body towards the axon terminals is called ____________ ________________________. 15.Much of the internal machinery of a neuron supports the synthesis of proteins. Proteins are absolutely vital for many of a neuron’s functions. For example, ___________ and ___________ are comprised of proteins. Proteins are made up of specific sequences of 20 different ___________ ___________. 16.What are the 3 types of support cells contained in the brain and the spinal cord? 17.Which type of support cell is shaped like a star and is important for providing physical support and nourishment to neurons? 18.Loss of the myelin covering of axons in the brain would result from the death of what type of support cell_______________? Loss of this type of cell and the myelin provided by it is called _____________ ______________. 19.The PNS immune cells can't enter the brain, so instead, what type of cell acts as the brain's immune system by destroying invading pathogens or pieces of cellular debris that may be left over from dying cells? 20.Label the cell types on the following diagram: 21.What is the purpose of the blood brain barrier? 22.Name 3 components of the blood brain barrier. 23.What is the general name for regions outside of the blood brain barrier? What is the purpose of these regions? 24.What is an action potential? 25.What is membrane potential and why is it important? 26.What is the resting membrane potential? 27.What does Cl- stand for? Cl- is a/an ___________. 28. Draw the relative distribution of 3 ions across the neuronal cell membrane, as well as the directions of the forces acting on the ions (electrostatic and force of diffusion). 29.The force of diffusion depends on the relative __________________ of the ion, and the electrostatic force depends on the ___________ of the ion. 30.What ion pump imbedded in the neuronal membrane is important for maintain the unequal concentration of ions across the membrane? For every cycle of the pump, how many Na+ ions are transported out of the neuron and how many K+ ions are transported in? 31.The graph below shows a change in membrane potential after the opening of an ion channel in the neuronal membrane. Opening of a channel for which ion could cause this change? a. What direction is this ion moving to cause this change in membrane potential, into or out of the neuron? Is this depolarization or hyperpolarization? 32.Ion channels can be either chemically gated or voltage gated. What does it mean to be voltage gated, and where is the location of the first voltage gated Na+ channels along the axon? 33.In the graph below, the numbers represent the opening and/or closing of ion channels. For each number, mark what ion channel opens or closes, and the direction of ion movement. 34.What is saltatory conduction? Why is it important? Does it occur in myelinated or unmyelinated axons? 35.How is the intensity of a stimulus encoded by a neuron? For example, how can a neuron communicate a hot pot from just a warm one? 36.A postsynaptic potential is a change in membrane potential of a postsynaptic neuron. Excitatory postsynaptic potential occur when the inside of the neuron becomes more positive (depolarizes). Inhibitory postsynaptic potential occur when the inside of the neuron becomes more negative (hyperpolarizes). On the diagram below, indicate the post-synaptic potential resulting from opening of each ion channel. Assume a resting membrane potential of -70 mV, when Cl- is at equilibrium. (picture on next page) 37.What is the primary purpose of Schwann cells? 38.What is not a component of the blood brain barrier? a. Neurons b. Astrocyte end feet c. Tight junctions d. Semi-permeable membrane 39.What type of neurons function to contract muscles? a. Sensory neurons b. Glial cells c. Motor neurons d. Interneurons 40.Movement of an axon membrane potential from -70mV to -20mV would be termed a(n) a. Resting membrane potential b. depolarization c. Hyperpolarization d. Neuron potential 41.At rest, the inside of a neuron ______________ relative to the outside of the neuron. a. Is negatively charged b. is the same voltage potential c. is positively charged d. contain high levels of sodium (Na+) ions. 42.Ions enter and leave the membrane of a myelinated axon at the a. Release zone b. Nodes of ranvier c. Segment of membrane under the Schwann cell wrapping d. oligodendrocyte area 43.A neuron is at resting membrane potential and chemically gated Sodium (Na+) channels open on the dendritic membrane. This will create an… a. IPSP b. EPSP 44.A neuron is slightly depolarized from resting membrane potential and chemically gated Chloride (Cl-) channels open on the dendritic membrane. This will create an… a. IPSP b. EPSP 45.Which of these is NOT a mechanism for deactivation of neurotransmitters in the synaptic cleft? a. Reuptake b. enzymatic deactivation c. receptor binding d. diffusion 46.Which support cell works to prevent diffusion of neurotransmitters? a. Oligodendrocytes b. Schwann cells c. microglia d. astrocytes 47.If the presynaptic neuron at an axoaxonic synapse is to change the membrane potential of the postsynaptic neuron, what must exist on the membrane of the postsynaptic neuron? a. Voltage gated ion channels b. neurotransmitter transporters c. chemically gated ion channels d. enzymes 48.A neurotransmitter is released from the presynaptic neuron at an axoaxonic synapse which opens potassium channels on the membrane of the postsynaptic neuron. What will occur in the postsynaptic membrane? a. Hyperpolarization b. depolarization c. action potential d. nothing 49.What did Otto Loewi discover? a. That frog hearts can speak to each other b. that neurons communicate with neuron energy c. that frog hearts release neurotransmitters when you squeeze them d. that neurons communicate using chemical messengers called neurotransmitters 50.A neurotransmitter is released from the presynaptic neuron at an axoaxonic synapse which opens sodium channels on the membrane of the postsynaptic neuron. What is this called? a. Presynaptic inhibition b. presynaptic facilitation 51.A receptor located on a neuron that responds to a neurotransmitter released by that neuron is called a(n) a. Autoreceptor b. presynaptic receptor c. postsynaptic receptor 52.The refractory period refers to the point in time during an action potential when a. Voltage gated Na+ channels can no longer open b. voltage gated calcium channels remain open c. action potentials occur faster d. Na+ is rushing into the neuron during an action potential 53.Label the four synapses pictured here (next page) 54.Neurotransmitters produce a depolarization or hyperpolarization when the ____________ attaches to the ______________ __________ of a protein located in the postsynaptic membrane, called the postsynaptic receptor. 55.Once binding occurs, these receptors open ____________ _____________ ion channels, which permit the passage of specific ions into or out of the cell. What does an ion do to the membrane potential? 56.There are two methods by which neurotransmitters open ion channels, directly or indirectly. The direct method occurs via a. Ionotropic receptors b. Metabotropic receptors c. G proteins d. Second messengers 57.The indirect method occurs via all EXCEPT a. Ionotropic receptors b. Metabotropic receptors c. G proteins d. Second messengers 58.Name the receptor that contains a binding site for a neurotransmitter; activates an enzyme that begins a series of events that opens an ion channel elsewhere in the cell's membrane when a molecule of the neurotransmitter attaches to the binding site. ___________________________ 59.When the G protein is activated, it then activates a ____________ ____________, which is a chemical that carries the signal that results in the opening of the ion channel (hint: it’s called this because the neurotransmitter was the first one). 60.True or false: axoaxonic synapses contribute to neural integration a. True b. False 61.Which ion is required for synaptic vesicles to release neurotransmitters? a. Ca+ b. Cl- c. Na+ d. K+ 62.Which ways do the electrostatic force and the diffusion gradient push calcium? Answers 1. The study of brain mechanisms underlying behavior 2. The ability of people who are cortically blind to respond to visual stimuli that they cannot consciously see. a. Explanation: The eye uses two systems, a primitive visual system, and a mammalian visual system. The mammalian visual system located in the occipital lobe is dysfunctional as the person is cortically blind. However, the primitive visual system, consisting of reflexive head movement, hand movement, and other simple behaviors, are unconscious, yet working. This diagram displays this explanation. 3. The brain 4. Neuroplasticity: changes in the brain due to experience/behavior. 5. Localization of function 6. 7. 8. Multipolar 9. Unipolar 10.Nerve: a collection of neuron axons in the peripheral nervous system. 11.A synapse is composed of a presynaptic terminal button and a postsynaptic dendrite. 12.If one neuron was damaged, the information would not take the quickest route, but instead still continue to travel along the axon. It would take a slower path but still reach the destination. 13. 14.Microtubules serve several functions including transport and support. The process of transporting something in the direction from the cell body towards the axon terminals is called anterograde axoplasmic transport. 15.Much of the internal machinery of a neuron supports the synthesis of proteins. Proteins are absolutely vital for many of a neuron’s functions. For example, enzymes and organelles are comprised of proteins. Proteins are made up of specific sequences of 20 different amino acids. 16.The three types of support cells are oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, and microglia. 17.Astrocyte literally means "star cell", it provides structural support for other neurons, as well as controls the nutrients from capillaries, storing some for future use, and give others to the neuron as needed. 18.Loss of the myelin covering of axons in the brain would result from the death of what type of support cell oligodendrocyte? Loss of this type of cell and the myelin provided by it is called innocent bystander. 19.Microglia 20.Types of cells: 21.The function of the blood brain barrier is to maintain the chemical composition of the fluid between cells, in cells, and between synapses so that communication can run uninterrupted. Many chemicals in food would interrupt the communication of the neurons in the brain. 22.A semipermeable membrane, tight junctions, astrocyte end feet. 23.The regions outside the blood brain barrier are called circumventricular organs. They serve to communicate with the brain via blood-borne products in order to initiate crucial responses. One example would be the area postrema being activated by blood borne products so that the body can expel toxins quickly (throwing up while food has not been fully digested to rid the body of toxins harmful to the body). 24.An action potential is the brief electrical pulse that provides the basis for conduction of information down the axon over long distances. 25.Membrane potential is the difference in electrical charge across the cell membrane, inside and outside. It is crucial for the fast (and overall) communication between neurons. 26.-70mV 27.Cl- stands for chloride, it is an anion. 28. 29.The force of diffusion depends on the relative concentration of the ion, and the electrostatic force depends on the charge of the ion. 30.The sodium-potassium pump is crucial to maintain the unequal distribution of ions. For every 3 sodium ions that are pushed out, 2 potassium ions are taken in. 31. a. In the graph above, a cation is leaving the cell, so that the membrane becomes more negative, and because of that, this hyperpolarizes the cell. Usually, K+ leaves the cell, Na+ has a tendency to rush into the cell, due to the force of diffusion and the electrostatic force both pushing that ion into the cell. 32.A voltage gated ion is a gate that opens or closes when the membrane potential changes (positive or negative). 33. *****note: at 2 the K+ channels open, K+ begins to leave the cell. 34.Saltatory conduction is the conduction of action potentials in myelinated axons. The signal appears to jump from node to node. It cannot occur in unmyelinated axons. 35.Neurons use the rate law to encode intensity which says, variations in the intensity of a stimulus being transmitted by an axon are represented by variations in the rate at which the axon fires. A hot pan will create more rapid firing action potentials due to stronger stimulus. 36.A. excitatory B. Inhibitory C. Inhibitory 37.To provide myelin in the peripheral nervous system 38.A 39.C 40.B 41.B 42.B 43.B 44.A 45.C 46.D 47.C 48.A 49.D 50.B 51.A 52.A 53. 54.Neurotransmitters produce a depolarization or hyperpolarization when the ligand attaches to the binding site of a protein located in the postsynaptic membrane, called the postsynaptic receptor. 55.Once binding occurs, these receptors open neurotransmitter dependent ion channels, which permit the passage of specific ions into or out of the cell. The presence of the neurotransmitter in the synaptic cleft allows ions to pass through the membrane, changing the membrane potential to either hyperpolarize, or depolarize. 56.A. Ionotropic receptors: a receptor that contains a binding site for a neurotransmitter and an ion channel that opens when a molecule of the neurotransmitter attaches to the binding site. 57.A 58.Metabotropic receptor: these receptors have to expend metabolic energy. Located in close proximity to a G protein which is coupled to the metabotropic receptor and conveys messages to other molecules when a ligand binds with and activates the receptor. 59.Second messenger; the neurotransmitter causing the series of events is the first messenger. 60.False 61.Ca+ (calcium) 62.Force of diffusion and the electrostatic force both push calcium into the neuron.
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'