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Study guide for general psych preface and chapters 1 - 3

by: Becca Petersen

Study guide for general psych preface and chapters 1 - 3 PSY2012-16Fall 0002

Marketplace > University of Central Florida > Psychology (PSYC) > PSY2012-16Fall 0002 > Study guide for general psych preface and chapters 1 3
Becca Petersen
University of Central Florida

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This is the study guide with information from the book as well as lecture notes with an outline of everything Dr. Janowsky said could be found on the exam.
General Psychology
Dr. Alisha Janowsky
Study Guide
Cognitive Psychology, Psychology, Intro to Psychology
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This 19 page Study Guide was uploaded by Becca Petersen on Thursday September 15, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY2012-16Fall 0002 at University of Central Florida taught by Dr. Alisha Janowsky in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 162 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Central Florida.

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Date Created: 09/15/16
Psychology: PSY2012 -16Fall 0002 General Psychology Dr. Alisha Janowsky TEST REVIEW; Chapters 1 -3   50  points,  52  questions  (2  extra  credit)     Raw  score  is  posted,  not  a  percent     Things  to  know….     1. The  scientific  method   2. What  psych  is   3. Some  of  the  key  players  we  talked  about  (functionalism,  psychoanalysis,  Freud,  etc.)   4. Main  subfields  today   5. How  we  divide  up  those  areas  –  basic  research  areas,  applied  research  areas,   professional  areas,  etc.  how  a  clinical  psychologist  is  different  from  a  counseling   psychologist   6. Chapter  1  –  different  research  methods  –  hindsight  bias,  overconfidence,   confirmation  bias   7. Different  kinds  of  descriptive  studies  –  case  studies,  surveys,  naturalistic   observation   8. Correlation  –  difference  between  positive  and  negative  correlation  –  problems  with   correlation  research   9. Experiments  –  what  they  can  do  for  us,  different  parts  of  the  experiment  –   independent  vs.  dependent,  control  groups  placebo   10.Operational  definition  of  variables   11.Ethical  concerns  in  research   12.The  brain  –  the  neuron  and  all  different  parts     13.How  an  action  potential  works   14.Some  of  the  different  neurotransmitters  we  have  been  talking  about  –  serotonin  etc.,   15.Agonist  vs.  antagonist   16.Nervous  system  –  peripheral  and  central   17.Central  nervous  system  and  in  particular,  the  brain  –     18.Parts  of  the  brain  discussed  in  class  are  fair  game  -­‐  not  just  what  they  do  but  what   happens  when  different  parts  of  the  brain  are  damaged   19.Imaging  –  how  we  look  at  the  brain  –  we  didn’t  talk  about  this  in  class  but  the  book   covers  it  so  read  it!!!!   20.Plasticity  and  lateralization  and  statistical  significance     21.Chapter  3;  consciousness,  what  it  is   22.Different  levels  of  consciousness,  direct,  indirect,  divided  consciousness,   inattentional  blindness,  day  dreaming  etc.   23.Sleep  –  why  we  need  to  sleep,  the  stages  of  sleep  and  how  that  works  in  a  given   night   24.Rem  and  why  we  dream  and  the  different  theories  of  dreaming   25.Different  sleep  disorders   26.Hypnosis  –  what  it  can  and  can  not  do     27.Addiction;  tolerance  and  withdrawal   28.Different  classes  of  drugs  –  going  to  be  a  “one  of  these  things  is  not  like  the  other”   sort  of  questions     1. The Scientific Method: 1.  Theories:  “General  principle  or  set  of  principles  about  a  class  of  events”  Theories   explain  and  summarize  behaviors.    We  can  turn  our  theories  into 2.   Hypotheses  that  we   can  test.   Hypotheses are “Predictions  about  the  causes  of  behavior  based  on  a  theory”   3.  Operationally  define  variables:  “Specification  about  how  a  hypothesis  will  be  tested”  Be   as  specific  as  godly  possible. 4.  Cyclical  Research  Cycle:  because  nothing  is  reallllyyyy  set  in  stone,  so  you  replicate  the   original  prociedure  perhaps  with  different  subjects  or  different  circumstances Example:     Theory:  Sleep  improves  memory   Hypothesis:  When  sleep  deprived,  people  remember  less  from  the  day  before   Operational  Definitions:  Sleep  deprives  may  be  defined  as  “X  hours  less”  than   the  person’s  natural  sleep     2. What Psych is: Today’s Definition: Psychology-­‐  the  science  of  behavior  and  mental  processes     It  is  essentially  any  action  we  can  record  and  observe   APA  –  American  Psychology  Association  and  The  International  Union  of  Psychological   Science   Is  a  statistical  science  –  meaning  it  operates  on  averages  -­‐Looks  at  average  behavior  to  gage   the  “norm”  and  sort  of  develops  theories  from  there   -­‐It  is  up  to  you  to  decide  whether  or  not  you  believe  the  theories  -­‐  but  you  still  have  to   know  them   -­‐Psych  is  so  popular  because  we  are  naturally  curious  about  why  people  do  what  they   do...people  watching,  talk  radios,  etc.   3: Key players in the history of Psych 1879 – the first psych study - Introspection Greek  philosopher,  Aristotle,  theorized  about  learning,  memory,  motivation  &  emotion.    His   suggestions  were  kind  of  ridiculous  but  he  was  asking  all  the  right  questions.   1.    Structuralism  &  Wilhelm  Wundt  1879   –  1 experiment  conducted  in  Leipzig  Germany  He  was  a  physicist  who  wanted  to   fundamentally  break  down  the  physics  of  the  mind.  He  wanted  to  make  it  into  a   periodic  table  so  to  speak   He  used  introspection.   Example;  Think  of  the  word  apple  picking...Apple  Bees..Etc....   Element  or  atoms  of  the  mind   –  3  elements   1.Sensation  (40,000  different  elements)       2.Images  -­‐  elements  of  ideas       3.Affections  -­‐  elements  of  emotions       Considered  to  be  the  birth  of  psych,  as  we  know  it  today  But  the  problems  are...       -­‐    Use  of  introspection  is  not  reliab       -­‐    Didn’t  really  put  his  findings  to  any  good se       -­‐    Didn’t  account  for  Darwin’s  work  on  natural  selection   Functionalism:  1890  –William  James  &  Functionalism He  actually  did  consider  Darwin’s  work  in  his  studies.    He  asked  what  are  the  evolved   functions  of  our  thoughts  and  feelings?    The  brain  allows  us  to  think  and  our  nose  allows  us   to  smell,  but  why  do  they  do  those  things?  So  speaking  from  an  evolutionary  perspective,   what    adaptive  purposes  do  all  of  our  bodies  thoughts  and  functions  serve? -­‐  First  American  School  of  Psychology  -­‐  Study  of  the  mind  as  it  functions  in  adapting  to  the   environment   For  example,  considering  why  prejudice  exists  from  a  biological  standpoint  –   because  keep  in  mind  that  the  ultimate  goal  for  organisms  is  to  reproduce.   So  he  asked  the  question  “What  could  have  happened  in  our  species’  past  to  make  this   useful?”   Perhaps  its  that  what  is  similar  to  us  is  safe.     Psychoanalysis  –  1900  Sigmund  Freud     -­‐He  looked  at  the  “Why?”  What  is  the  reason  for  this  behavior?   He  focused  on  abnormal  behavior  –  and  determined  that  it’s  often  the  result  of  some   unresolved  conflict   -­‐  Example;  relationship  issues  with  your  mother  -­‐  Emphasis  on  the  unconscious   He  used  free  association  and  dream  analysis   Free  association  –   The  idea  that  if  you  keep  talking  for  long  enough  you’ll  eventually  get  to  the  root  of  the   problem   Dream  Analysis  –   Is  just  what  it  sounds  like.  Freud  is  the  reason  that  we  can  Google  what  it  means  to  dream   that  we  fell  off  a  building.   By  knowing  a  little  bit  more  about  the  abnormal,  it  makes  us  question  what  and  how  we  can   define  what  is  normal   The  issue  with  this  is  that  it  is  not  experimental,  it  is  all  just  theory  –  and  the  issue  with   theory  is  that  you  can  make  anything  fit  if  you  try  hard  enough.   Behaviorism: Watson  and  Skinner  –  1913   “It  doesn’t  really  matter  how  you’re  feeling  but  rather  what  you’re  doing.”  -­‐  They  are  looking   at  the  behavior  itself  rather  than  the  underlying  motivation  for  it.   -­‐  They  studied  only  what  could  be  observed  and  measured  objectively  and  focused  on  how   behaviors  are  learned  and  modified.   For  example;  if  you’re  on  a  diet  do  you  look  at  a  cookie  and  think,  “I’m  using  this  cookie  to   fill  a  void  in  my  life,”  or,  “I  really  want  this  cookie  because  it  tastes  good  but  I  should  get  a   carrot  instead.”     4./5. Subfields of Psychology:   1.  Basic  Research  –  Cognitive,  social,  development,  personality,  psychological   2.  Applied  research  –  how  can  the  world  use  psych,  especially  in  the  work  place  Human   factors,  school  psych,  health  psych   3.  Professional  areas  –   PHD-­‐     Counseling  (like  for  a  divorce)   Clinical  (for  disorders)   MD-­‐     Psychiatry  –  they  have  gone  through  med  school  to  become  doctors  so  they  are  the  ones   who  can  prescribe  medications     How  we  divide  up  those  areas  –  basic  research  areas,  applied  research  areas,  professional   areas,  etc.  how  a  clinical  psychologist  is  different  from  a  counseling  psychologist   6. Chapter 1 –different research methods, hindsight bias and overconfidence:   Hindsight  Bias:  tendency  to  believe  that  we  would  have  foreseen  an  outcome  after  we’ve   learned  it.   Things  like  “absence  makes  the  heart  grow  fonder”  and  “Internet  relationships  are  just  as   strong  as...”  we  can’t  make  assumptions  about  this  we  have  to  do  research  on  it   Overconfidence:  thinking  we  know  a  lot  more  than  we  do.  It  ties  into  making  assumptions   about  things   Confirmation  Bias:  tendency  to  search  for  information  that  confirms  our  preconceptions.  -­‐   This  goes  back  to  that  red  circle  black  triangle  card  question  from  class.  We  immediately   look  at  the  red  circle  and  black  triangle  cards  even  though  that  wasn’t  what  we  should  have   selected.     7. Different kinds of descriptive studies – case studies, surveys, naturalistic observation:     Case  Studies:  “in  depth  observations  of  one  person  in  the  hope  of  revealing  universal   principles.”   For  example,  if  you’re  interested  in  studying  freshman  college  students  you  just  pick  one  a   follow  them  around  all  the  time  and  then,  at  the  end,  say  that  this  person  is  the  epitome  of   all  college  freshman.   Problem:  It  tends  to  overwhelm  general  truths.  Your  experience  as  a  freshman  is  probably   very  different  from  someone  else’s.  Naturalistic  Observations:  “Observe  and  record  behavior   without  trying  to  manipulate  or  control  the  situation.”   That  is  to  say  that  you  simply  just  follow  and  observe  without  instigation  or  interference.   One  of  the  most  famous  of  these  is  Jane  Goodall’s  study  of  chimpanzees.   Problem:  The  only  problem  is  that  describing  observations  offers  next  to  nothing  in  terms  of   explanation.   Surveys:  “technique  for  acquiring  self  reported  attitudes  and  behaviors”   Need  a  representative  –  random  sample   The  entire  population  is  unreachable  so  you  get  a  sample  to  represent  the  entire  population   at  large.  Take  a  look  at  the  demographics.  For  example  if  you  are  doing  a  survey  through   target  and  the  majority  of  the  shoppers  are  women  than  you  might  want  to  try  to  get  more   women  in  your  sample  group.  But  you  also  want  it  to  be  random  so  that  everyone  gets   equal  opportunity  to  participate.   False  Consensus  Effect:  tendency  to  overestimate  the  extent  to  which  others  share  our   beliefs  and  behaviors.   Example:  If  you  are  given  an  assignment  to  ask  ten  people  about  the  NFL  situation  who   would  you  ask?  Your  roommate?  Coworkers,  friends,  family.  You  ask  people  who  are   convenient  to  you.  And  then  you  assume  that  the  people  who  you  are  close  to  who   generally  share  the  same  attitudes  and  opinions  that  you  have  and  then  assume  that  the   rest  of  the  world  also  shares  those  same  opinions.     8. Correlation – difference between positive and negative correlation – problems with correlation research:     Correlation:  “A  statistical  measure  indicating  how  closely  2  things  vary  together”   Correlations  can  only  range  from  negative  one  to  positive  one  I.E.  Correlations  can  either   be  positive,  negative,  nonlinear,  or  zero,  having  no  correlation   -­‐1.00  is  a  perfect  negative  and  vise  versa,  1.00  is  a  perfect  positive  correlation.  Correlation   is  not  causation.  It  just  implies  some  sort  of  relationship.  **Reference  bar  graphs  on  the   slides   Illusory  Correlations:  “perceptions  of  relationships  that  do  not  really  exist”   Ex:  “every  time  I’m  late  I  hit  every  single  red  light.”  But  part  of  that  is  because  you  are   actively  thinking  about  it  so  maybe  you  count  them.  But  when  you’re  not  running  late   you’re  not  thinking  about  it  so  you  have  no  idea  how  many  lights  you  hit/ran??  Idk   9. Experiments – what they can do for us, different parts of the experiment – independent vs. dependent, control groups, placebo: The  only  way  we  can  talk  about  causation  is  by  doing  an  experiment  “Manipulation  of   factors  to  observe  their  effect  on  some  behavior  or  mental  process.”   Independent  Variable  (IV):  manipulated  variable  Dependent  Variable  (DV):  measured   variable   Random  Assignment:  Once  you  have  your  sample  you’re  going  to  randomly  put  them  into   different  groups  –  it  equalizes  individual  differences.   For  example  if  you’re  measuring  how  light  affects  sleep  you  may  have  really  heavy  sleepers   and  other  people  who  suffer  from  insomnia.  If  you  randomly  separate  people  hopefully  it   eliminates  the  chance  that  you’ll  have  a  group  chalk  full  of  people  who  have  insomnia.   Independent  Variable:  Different  conditions  =  different  “levels”   Control:  comparison  condition  used  to  evaluate  the  effect  of  the  IV  Placebo:  administered  in   place  of  the  active  agent  to  evaluate  the  effect  of  the  IV  Experimental:  exposes  subject  to   one  level  of  the  IV   Problem:  researchers  might  inadvertently,  unintentionally  subject  you  to  answering  or   responding  to  them  in  a  way  that  supports  their  hypothesis.   To  avoid  this  they  do  double  blind  studies:  the  researcher  and  subject  are  ignorant  to  what   condition  the  subject  has  been  randomly  assigned   Example:   Hypothesis:   People  get  better  looking  at  closing  time  –  beer  goggles...  DV:  levels  of  physical   attractiveness  Operational  definition:  rate  attractiveness  of  target  picture  on  scale  of  one  to   ten  IV:  amount  of  alcohol  -­‐  control  –  give  ratings  only  (sober)  Placebo  –  drink  sugary  drink   with  no  alcohol  Experimental  –  drink  a  sugary  drink  mixed  w  either  three  or  five  ounces  of   alcohol   So  in  this  particular  study,  there  would  be  4  levels  of  independent  variables  Control,   placebo,  3oz  condition,  5oz  condition   Statistical  reasoning  –  we  look  at  statistical  averages  When  we  make  inferences  about  the   data  we  have  to  ask:   When  is  a  differencereliable?   Ex:  you  go  to  Dunkin  and  get  a  donut  and  have  a  great   experience  and  then  you  go  back  the  next  day  expecting  that  same  experience  and  if  you   don’t  its  unreliable  Representative  VS  Biased  sample  Who  did  you  sample?  Were  the   people  convenient  to  you?  Less  variable  VS  More  variable  More  subjects  VS  Less   subjects  The  more  the  subjects  the  more  reliable  most  likely   Was  this  difference significant?   Review  tutorial  under  exam  one  info  if  you  need   clarification  with  any  of  this^^   10. Operational definition of variables: 11. Ethical concerns in research: The  APA  sets  guidelines  about  what  researchers  can  and  cannot  do   -­‐They  are  required  to  give  out  a  consent  form  to  every  subject  -­‐Protect  from  harm  and   discomfort  -­‐Keep  data  confidential   Doing  research  with  a  population  that  can’t  give  consent  -­‐Animal  research,  children,   prisoners   Animals:   Try  to  give  them  reasonably  natural  environment  -­‐Try  to  make  them  comfortable  -­‐ Minimize  pain  and  illness   12. The brain – the neuron and all different parts:   Neuron:   Basic  building  block  of  the  nervous  system  –  in  other  words,  it’s  a  nerve  cell  Made  up  of  cell   body,  dendrites,  axons,  and  presynaptic/axon  terminals   Dendrites  –  receive  info;  short  Axons-­‐  Transmit  information;  long  Myelin  sheath  -­‐   basically  controls  the  speed  at  which  information  is  transmitted   Resting  potential  is  always  negative  inside  the  cell.   If  it’s  made  less  negative  it  reaches  a  level  called  threshold   13. How an action potential works : Action  potential  -­‐  Action  potentials  are  what  carry  information  through  the  nervous   system   -­‐  Brief  electrical  charge  that  travels  down  the  axon  with  each  one  tipping  the  next   Cell  membranes  are  selectively  permeable  –  some  things  are  allowed  to  go  in  and  some   things  are  allowed  to  go  out   Sodium  –  NA  -­‐  positive   Potassium  –  K  –  negative   Think  of  axons  as  gates  –  send  a  message  all  the  way  to  the  axon  terminal  where  it  will   either  do  something  more  with  it  or  stop  it.   1.  Axon  is  at  rest:  Fluid  on  the  interior  of  an  axon  is  negatively  charged  while  fluids  on  the   outside  are  positively  charged.  (Resting  potential)   2.  Threshold  –  action  potentials  are  an  ‘all  or  none’  –  it  has  to  be  strong  enough  –  Level  of   stimulation  needed  to  trigger  an  action  potential   Something  from  the  outside  world  needs  to  be  strong  enough  that  we  can  actually  sense  it   4.Depolarization  –  neuron  fires  causing  the  first  bit  of  the  axon  to  open  its  gates  allowing   positive  ions  to  enter       5.Neural  impulse  (Action  potential)  moves  from  the  axon  causing  the  next  section  to  open   its  gates  and  become  depolarized       6.Sodium  gates  in  the  1 section  closes  while  others  open  allowing  potassium  to  flow  out   repolarizing  the  axon       7.Return  to  rest  Know  the  order  *****       Neurons  communicate  with  a  lock  and  key  method   14. Neurotransmitters: Their  job  is  to  control  the  precision  of  the  signals  that  are  carried  from  one  neuron  to  the   next   60  different  types  –  but  we  are  only  focusing  on  a  few*   Dopamine  –  involved  in  movement,  learning,  attention,  and  emotion.  Too  much  dopamine   leads  to  schizophrenia   Not  enough  dopamine  –  can  lead  to  Parkinson’s  –  tremors   Serotonin  –  mood,  hunger,  sleep,  and  arousal  Not  enough  can  lead  to  depression  -­‐  can  be  an   anti  depressant  (Prozac)   Norepinephrine  –  alertness  and  arousal  Also  attributed  to  depression   Acetylcholine  –  muscle  action,  learning  and  memory     Endorphins  –  natural  opiates  –  pain,  control,  and  pleasure   Heroin  is  a  substitute  for  endorphins   15. Agonist vs. antagonist: Agonist  –  mimic  a  neurotransmitter’s  job  or  block  its  reuptake  Example;  opiates   Close  enough  to  a  neurotransmitter  that  it  can  “sneak  in”  so  to  speak   Antagonist  –  job  is  to  block  neurotransmitters  or  diminish  their  release  It  still  fits  in  but   rather  than  mimicking,  it  blocks  neurotransmitters  from  getting  in   Example  –  Botox  –  supposed  to  smooth  wrinkle  –  botulin  poisoning  –  essentially  trying  to   paralyze  those  particular  muscles   16. Nervous system – peripheral and central: Two  main  branches  The  peripheral  nervous  system  –  PNS   Bundle  of  axons  that  exist  between  the  spinal  cord  and  the  rest  of  the  body  The  central   nervous  system  –  CNS   Comprised  of  your  brain  and  your  spinal  cordPNS   1.  Autonomic–  functions  in  our  body  that  happen  automatically/subconsciously  –  for   example,  your  heart  beating     Sympathetic  –  its  job  is  to  have  sympathy  for  your  situation  –  fight  or  flight  part  of   your  body       Parasympathetic  –  think  parachute  –  to  slow  your  decent  –  bring  your  body  back   to  rest  after  you’ve  experienced  fight  or  flight       2. Somatic       17. Central nervous system and in particular, the brain: CNS   Made  up  of  the  brain  and  the  spinal  cord  The  spinal  cord’s  job  is  to  communicate  with  the   brain  using  sensory  and  motor  neurons   Sensory:   Carry  info  about  pain,  touch,  etc.,  form  the  body  to  the  brain  Another  word  is  afferent   Motor:  Efferent  –  transmit  impulses  from  the  CNS  to  muscles  and  glands  (motion)   Interneurons:  Lie  in  between  sensory  and  motor  neurons  and  aid  in  info  processing  –  the   gophers  who  transmit  info   Reflex  –  a  simple,  automatic,  inborn  response  to  a  sensory  stimulus  A  lot  of  it  bypasses  the   brain  because  your  body  is  telling  you  how  to  react   18. Parts of the brain - not just what they do but what happens when different parts of the brain are damaged: Think  about  organization  (what  is  considered  a  lower  and  higher  level)  what  all  of  the   parts  do,  and  what  happens  when  they’re  damaged.  (You  wont  have  to  label  parts  of  the   brain  on  the  test)*******   Lower  level  structures:  Brainstem-­‐  central  core  of  the  brain  –  the  oldest  part  and  innermost   part  of  your  brain   Medulla:  Controls  heartbeat  and  breathing  –  no  voluntary  actions  here   Reticular  Formation-­‐  nerve  network  involved  in  our  stereotypical  patterns  of  behavior  –   sleep  wake  cycle  for  example  –  alertness,  arousal   Thalamus  –  censory  switchboard  for  all  senses  except  for  smell   Cerebellum  –  “little  brain,”  coordination  of  voluntary  movement  and  balance  Also  involved   in  some  nonverbal  learning  and  memory  –  when  it  is  damaged  movements  become  very   spastic  and  uncontrolled   The  Limbic  System  –  association  with  emotions  and  drives   1.  Amygdala  –  influence  aggression  and  fear     2.  Hypothalamus  –pleasure  center  of  the  brain  –  “maintenance”  and  governs  the  endocrine   system  via  the  pituitary  gland  –  fight,  flight,  freeze,  and  reproduction   Hippocampus  –  is  really  involved  in  memory  –  smell  is  taken  straight  here.  One  of  the   reason  smell  is  such  a  strong  memory  cue  is  because  it  is  directly  linked  to  that  part  of  the   brain   The  cerebral  Cortex  –   Master  area  Control  and  information  processing  center  Divided  in  to  left  and  right  halves  –   wrinkled  surface  which  increases  surface  area   Left  –  controls  the  right  side  of  the  body;  language  Visually  –  letters  and   words  and  info   Right  –  controls  left  side  of  the  body  –  emotion  Auditory  –  musical  and   environmental  sounds  –  sense  of  direction  –  somatic  sensory  system  (people   who  read  in  brail)  visually,  lots  of  geometric  patterns   Differences  in  lateralization  between  male  and  female  brains   In  males  they  are  more  lateralized  than  females  –  evolutionarily  speaking  women  were  he   hunters  men  were  the  gatherers  –  men  have  superior  special  skills  than  women  do  because   it  is  all  specialized  in  that  one  area   Women  show  more  balancing  in  the  right  and  left  hemispheres  –  less  lateralized  –  which   improves  our  chance  of  recovering   ***Mind  you  that  these  differences  are  really,  really,  tiny  Frontal  lobe  –  involved  in   perceptions  of  space  and  time  –   Tip  of  the  frontal  cortex  is  prefrontal  cortex   Parietal  lobe  Occipital  lobe  –  where  we  process  all  our  visual  information   Temporal  lobe  –  you  have  these  on  either  side  of  your  head  and  they  are  over  your  ears  –   damage  can  result  in  long-­‐term  memory  effects   Auditory  area-­‐  it  may  not  be  actually  what  you  are  hearing  but  more  what  you  think  you   are  hearing  (people  w  disorders)  there  are  emotional  components  in  this  area  as  well   Motor  cortex  –  to  send  info  out  to  the  rest  of  the  body   Association  areas:  areas  of  the  cerebral  cortex  that  are  not  involved  in  primary  motor  or   sensory  functions  Involved  in  higher  mental  functions   Language   Aphasia  –  impaired  use  of  language  –  you  can  understand  people  but  not  speak  back   Broca’s  area-­‐  directs  muscle  movements  involved  in  speech  Wernicke’s  area-­‐  temporal  lob   –  involved  in  language  comprehension  problems  remembering  names,  impaired   comprehension   Angular  gyrus  –  involved  in  reading  aloud   Corpus  Callosum-­‐   Largest  bundle  of  neural  fibers  Connects  the  two  brain  hemispheres  and  carries  messages   between  them   Sometimes  it  is  intentionally  damaged  –  to  stop  seizures   The  problem  with  this  is  a  split-­‐brain  issue  The  two  halves  of  the  brain  usually  work   together  as  one  but  that’s  not  always  the   In  case  if  you  sever  ^  Usually  when  you  see  something  you  can  articulate  it  but   people  have  issues  doing  that  with  split-­‐brain     19. Imaging – how we look at the brain – MRI  –  magnetic  resonance  imaging  –  scans  that  provide  detailed  pictures  of  soft  tissues,   including  the  brain,  by  using  magnetic  fields  and  radio  wave  pulses  –  can  reveal  brain’s   structure.       EEG  –  electroencephalogram  –  electrical  activity  in  your  brain’s  billions  of  neurons  sweep   in  regular  waves  across  its  surface.    An  EEG  is  jus  and  amplified  readout  of  such  waves   PET-­‐  Positron  Emission  Tomography-­‐  shows  brain  activity  by  displaying  each  area  of  the   brain’s  consumption  of  fuel  and  sugar  glucose.       20. Plasticity and lateralization and statistical significance : Plasticity  –  the  ability  of  your  brain  to  modify  itself  after  damage   Lateralization  –  the  brain  is  divided  into  two  cerebral  hemispheres  where  one  tends  to  be   more  dominant  than  the  other.     21. Chapter 3; consciousness, what it is : Consciousness  –  awareness  of  our  environment  and  ourselves   Breakdown:   External  vs.  internal   External  –  that  the  car  in  front  of  you  just  swerved   Internal  –  that  you  have  a  headache 22. Different levels of consciousn ess, direct, indirect, divided consciousness, inattentional blindness, day dreaming etc : Directed  vs.  Flowing  consciousness   Directed  –  focused  on  a  specific  task     Flowing  –  just  moving  from  one  idea  to  the  next   Divided  consciousness  Multitasking  –  focusing  on  numerous  things  at  the  same  time   Selective  attention  -Trying  to  focus  on  a  particular  object   Inattentional  blindness  –  Failing  to  see  visual  objects  when  your  attention  is   directed  elsewhere   Higher-­‐level  consciousness  –  Actively  focus  efforts  on  obtaining  a  goal  (studying)  -­‐   directed   Lower  level  awareness-­‐  Requires  little  attention  (sing  abc’s)  –  flowing   Automatic  processing   -(Allows  divided  attention)   Daydreaming   Usually  very  spontaneous  –  usually  happens  when  your  bored.  When  something   doesn’t  require  your  full  attention  –  this  could  be  anything  form  making  plans  to   practicing  something  etc.   Altered States of Consciousness: Noticeably  different  states   Hypnosis  Drinking  Drugs   23. Sleep – why we need to sleep, the stages of sleep and how t hat works in a given night: Biological Rhythms of Sleep: Circadian  Rhythm-­‐  cycle  of  activity  lasting  24  hours  –  all  of  us  have  different  places  in  our   cycle  where  we  are  most  awake,  most  aware,  most  tired   Our  biological  clocks  can  get  thrown  off  by  a  lot  of  things  –  travel,  jetlag,  day  light  savings   etc.   Things  that  trigger  circadian  rhythm  –  Bright  lights  –  superchiasmatic  nucleus  (SCN)  and   melatonin   EEG’s  of  the  brain  throughout  a  sleep  cycle  –  5  different  stages  of  sleep  –  the  way  you  go   through  them  impacts  the  quality  of  your  sleep   1.  Stage  one  sleep  –  Relaxed  state  of  dream-­‐like  awareness  between  awake  and   sleep  Muscles  sometimes  suddenly  tense  up  because  you  feel  like  you’re  falling  –   hypnogotic  sleep   2.  Characterized  by  periodic  appearance  of  sleep  spindles  3  and  4  slow  –  wave  sleep  –  not   typically  dreaming  in  these  states   24. Rem and why we dream and the different theories of dreaming : th   REMSleep–isthat5 stage–youstartcomingbackupagainsoitis1,2,3,4,5,4,3,2....  Paradoxical   sleep  –  our  body  sort  of  protects  us  from  waking  so  that  when  we  dream  of  French  toast  we   don’t  suddenly  get  up  to  go  make  it  –  a  lot  of  brain  activity  going  on  at  this  point   We  dream  4-­‐6  times  every  night   One  sleep  cycle  is  anywhere  from  90-­‐100  minutes   Dream Content: Freud  was  a  big  believer  that  dreaming  was  a  window  into  the  unconscious  mind   2  types  of  content  1.  Manifest  content  –  story  line  of  a  dream   2.  Latent  content  –  what  that  dream  meant  –  he  also  felt  it  was  kind  of  a  wish  fulfillment   Information  processing  –  sort  out  the  days  events  and  consolidate  memories  Physiological   perspective  –  dreaming  is  just  a  way  to  preserve  neural  pathways   Activation  synthesis  theory  –  brain’s  attempt  to  make  sense  of  random  neural  activity   Cognition-­‐  knowledge  and  understanding   25. Different sleep disorders: Not Enough Sleep: Teens  need  about  9  hours  of  sleep  but  only  get  around  7   Effects:   Immune  system  suppression  After  metabolic  rate  and  hormone  function  Hand   tremors  Irritability  Decreased  performance   Long  periods  of  not  getting  enough  sleep  –  results  in  accumulated  sleep  debt  and  just   sleeping  in  on  Saturday  will  not  correct  that.   We  sleep  for...   Protection!  Evolutionarily  speaking,  it’s  much  better  to  hunt  and  do  our  stuff  during   the  day  when  we  can  actually  see   Recuperation  –  our  body  heals  itself  while  we  sleep  Memory  improvement  –  storage   and  maintenance  of  long-­‐term  memory  is  linked  to  how  many  rem  cycles  we  go   through  in  a  night   Sleep Disorders: Insomnia  –  problems  falling  or  staying  asleep   Narcolepsy  -­‐  uncontrollable  sleep  attacks  –  you  could  be  doing  just  about  anything   and  suddenly  fall  asleep  –  throws  you  into  a  rem  cycle   Sleep  apnea  –  temporary  cessations  of  breathing  and  awakenings  during  sleep  –   sounds  like  snoring  but  its  really  just  that  the  person  temporarily  stops  breathing   and  then  gasping  for  air   Night  terrors  –  high  arousal  and  an  appearance  of  being  terrified  in  the  middle  of  the   night  –  when  someone  just  wakes  up  out  of  no  where  –  not  a  nightmare  and  not  due   to  scary  images  in  your  head  –  most  common  in  5-­‐7  year  olds   Nightmares  –  frightening  images  that  occur  during  a  rem  cycle  Sleep  walking   Sleep  talking   26. Hypnosis – what it can and can not do: Hypnosis  –  condition  of  susceptibility  occurring  in  the  context  of  the  hypnotist  –  subject   relationship   Things  that  it  is  actually  successful  in  doing  –  Only  about  10  -­‐20  %  of  the  population  can   actually  be  hypnotized.   If  you  can  sit  down  and  read  a  book  or  watch  TV  and  just  be  completely  immersed  in  it  you   are  more  likely  to  be  hypnotized.   Dividing  your  consciousness  –   They  can  test  this  by  having  the  subjects  stick  their  hand  in  ice  water  to  test  for  pain.  They   will  be  asked  if  they  feel  pain  and  if  so,  to  hit  a  button  with  they’re  other  hand.  They  will   verbally  respond  that  they  are  not  experiencing  any  pain  but  the  other  hand  will  be  going   crazy  hitting  the  button   Age  regression  Eye  witness  memory  –  if  police  officer  uses  that  as  a  technique  or  info,  they   cant  use  that  to  convict     Overcoming  bad  habits  –  hard  to  determine  if  it  is  actually  working  or  if  it’s  just  a  placebo   effect  but  for  example,  it  is  said  to  help  some  people  stop  smoking  It     Cannot....   It  can’t  be  used  to  improve  memory  Give  special  strengths  Convince  people  to  do   something  they  otherwise  wouldn’t   Stage  hypnosis  is  much  different  than  this^   27. Addiction; tolerance and withdrawal : 28. Psychoactive Drugs: 29. Chemical  substance  that  alters  perception  and  mood   30. 3  classes: 1.  Depressants  2.  Stimulants  3.  Hallucinogens   31. Drug  dependence:   32. Tolerance   33. Taking  larger  and  larger  doses  of  a  drug  in  order  to  achieve  that  same  effect  Physical  –   when  you  have  physical  effects  from  not  taking  the  drug  Psychological  –  feelings  of   cravings,  feeling  like  you  need  to  do  something   34. Withdrawal  –   35. How  strong  the  withdrawal  is  can  really  impact  addiction  Discomfort  and  distress  with   discontinued  drug  use   36. Faster  the  euphoria  in  your  system  wanes,  the  more  likely  it  is  that  you  will  want  to   take  larger  and  larger  doses  to  achieve  that  same  high  –  the  strong  high  happens  very   quickly  but  t  also  dissipates  very  quickly   37. Biological  factors  –  what  are  your  genetics?  Do  you  have  a  parent  that  has  problem  with   addiction?   38. Psychological  factors  -­‐are  you  feeling  depressed,  lonely?  Social  factors  –  what  are  the   social  norms  about  acceptability  –  is  it  okay  to  get   39. drunk  on  a  Saturday  night  rather  than  9am  on  Wednesday 40. Different classes of drugs: 2.  Stimulants  –   Active  motivational  centers  of  the  CNS  yielding  alertness,  excitement,  and  energy  Caffeine  –   the  best  example  Does  not  counteract  the  results  of  alcohol  In  moderate  doses  –  it   increases  alertness   Can  cause  physical  dependence  –  withdrawal  –  fatigue,  muscle  pain,  and  headaches   Nicotine  –   It  can  either  be  stimulating  or  relaxing  Increases  blood  pressure  and  heart  rate,  faster   respiration  –  it  impacts  attention  and  alertness  –  when  people  quit  they  can  have  increased   appetite,  headaches,  problems  with  alertness,  cravings,  etc.   Amphetamines  –   Anything  from  speed  to  rydolin  Many  effects  of  these  are  similar  to  the  effects  of  cocaine  –   long  term  insomnia,  restlessness,  paranoia,  weight  loss,  tremors,  depression,  etc.  Used  to   be  used  as  a  wieght  loss  drug  Rydolin  used  for  ADD  or  ADHD   Cocaine  –  Comes  from  cocoa  plants  -­‐   Crack  cocaine  became  very  popular  in  the  80’s  –  it  blocks  part  of  the  brain  and  makes  you   very  happy  –  usually  snorted   Overdoes  –  can  result  in  bleeding  in  the  brain,  stroke,  stop  breathing  etc.   Crack  –  Chips  of  pure  cocaine  that  are  usually  smoked  –  makes  that  high  faster  and  more   intense   1.  Depressants   41. Alcohol   Relaxation  –  depresses  that  part  of  your  brain  that  makes  you  think  something  may  not  be   the  best  idea   42. Masked  as  a  depressant  because  it  carries  the  reputation  that  it  loosens  you  up   43. Barbiturates   44. Tranquilizers  Reduce  anxiety  by  impairing  memory  and  judgment  Date  rape  drugs   45. Opiates  –  Considers  a  depressant  because  of  the  crashing  low  that  comes  with  using  it   Euphoria  Dopamine,  heroin   2.  Stimulants  –   Active  motivational  centers  of  the  CNS  yielding  alertness,  excitement,  and  energy  Caffeine  –   the  best  example  Does  not  counteract  the  results  of  alcohol  In  moderate  doses  –  it   increases  alertness   Can  cause  physical  dependence  –  withdrawal  –  fatigue,  muscle  pain,  and  headaches Nicotine  –   It  can  either  be  stimulating  or  relaxing  Increases  blood  pressure  and  heart  rate,  faster   respiration  –  it  impacts  attention  and  alertness  –  when  people  quit  they  can  have  increased   appetite,  headaches,  problems  with  alertness,  cravings,  etc.   Amphetamines  –   Anything  from  speed  to  rydolin  Many  effects  of  these  are  similar  to  the  effects  of  cocaine  –   long  term  insomnia,  restlessness,  paranoia,  weight  loss,  tremors,  depression,  etc.  Used  to   be  used  as  a  wieght  loss  drug  Rydolin  used  for  ADD  or  ADHD   Cocaine  –  Comes  from  cocoa  plants  -­‐   Crack  cocaine  became  very  popular  in  the  80’s  –  it  blocks  part  of  the  brain  and  makes  you   very  happy  –  usually  snorted   Overdoes  –  can  result  in  bleeding  in  the  brain,  stroke,  stop  breathing  etc.   Crack  –  Chips  of  pure  cocaine  that  are  usually  smoked  –  makes  that  high  faster  and  more   intense    


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