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Intro To Marine Science Study Guide 1

by: Kathleen Mager

Intro To Marine Science Study Guide 1 MSC111

Marketplace > University of Miami > Marine Science > MSC111 > Intro To Marine Science Study Guide 1
Kathleen Mager

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About this Document

This is a study guide for the first exam, covering from Chapter 1 to Chapter 5
Intro to Marine Science
Dr. Hitchcock, Dr. Peterson
Study Guide
MarineScience, Marine, Science
50 ?




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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kathleen Mager on Thursday September 15, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to MSC111 at University of Miami taught by Dr. Hitchcock, Dr. Peterson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Intro to Marine Science in Marine Science at University of Miami.


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Date Created: 09/15/16
MSC111 Study Guide: Test 1 Chapter One: The Science of the Ocean  Oceanography: The study of all of the ocean’s properties  Ocean Navigation:  Lines of Latitude: Navigational lines that run from east to west  “Parallels”  66.5°N- Arctic Circle  23.5°N- Tropic of Cancer (Northernmost point where the sun reaches equinox at midday)  23.5°S- Tropic of Capricorn (Southernmost point where the sun reaches equinox at midday)  66.5°S- Antarctic Circle  Lines of Longitude: Navigational that run from north to south (Pole to pole)  “Meridians”  0°- Prime Meridian; runs through Greenwich, England  180°- International Dateline  Meridians are used to determine relative time zones  Celestial Navigation: Using stars and other heavenly bodies to navigate  Stars stay at the same angle relative to the horizon, but rotate around a fixed point o Polaris (North Star) in the northern hemisphere o The Southern Cross in the southern hemisphere  Sextants are used to measure latitude by finding the angle between the fixed point and the horizon  Important Dates/Expeditions in Oceanography  4000 BC: Egyptians begin building ships  1000- 600 BC: Phoenicians, the first real seagoing society  450 BC: Herodotus develops the first map of the known world, Aristotle invents the first diving bell  3000 BC- 600 AD: Polynesians are the first society to leave the immediate coastline; develop “stick charts” for navigation  982 AD- Vikings cross the Atlantic  Magellan Expedition- first to circumnavigate the globe  1760: John Harrison develops the first accurate seagoing clock  1768-1789: Endeavor Expedition  James Cook explores and charts much of the Pacific Ocean  1769- Ben Franklin publishes a chart of the Gulf Stream  1855- Mathew Maury, the “Father of Oceanography,” publishes the first text on the subject  1831-1836: Beagle Expedition  Darwin  1872-1876: Challenger Expedition  Proved that life exists at great depths  Known as the first solely scientific oceanic expedition  1925-1927: German Meteor Expedition  Maps seafloor using echo sounding  1943: Aqualung invented  1930s: Bathysphere expeditions  1960: Bathysphere Trieste reaches Challenger Deep Chapter 2: Origin of the Earth and Oceans  Big Bang  ~13.7 billion years ago  Sudden expansion of the universe  Galaxies form after ~1 billion years  Material slowly accumulates to form planets  Denser material is pulled closer to the sun, forming terrestrial planets, while lighter material lingers further away, forming gas giants  Formation of Earth  Catastrophism: Catastrophic or sudden events formed Earth’s early features  Uniformitarianism: (Hutton) Processes occurring at slow rates over long periods of time formed Earth’s features  This idea is what makes geologists start to realize that the Earth is hella old  Carbon dating places Earth’s age at around 4.6 billion years  Earth’s Early Atmosphere:  Methane, Ammonia, CO2, Water  CO2 reacts with water for form carbonic acid, which dissolves rocks and likely lead to the salinity of the ocean  Earth had no magnetic field until it cooled from mostly liquid to mostly solid, meaning that it couldn’t hold on to a thick atmosphere  Sources of Early Water  Outgassing of water vapor from the mantle  Comets could have delivered a marginal amount of Earth’s water  Earth’s surface doesn’t cool enough for liquid water until ~4 billion years ago  Origin of Life  4 MAJOR CHARACTERISTICS OF LIFE:  Has levels of organization  Uses energy and exchanges material from its environment  Can reproduce  Can adapt and evolve  Where Did Life Form?  Possibly in surface pools, where evaporation left greater concentrations of organic molecules  Possibly around hydrothermal vents  Possibly extraterrestrially  Miller-Urey Experiment:  Replicated what the early ocean was then thought to look like  Used a charge to spark the development of organic molecules  Last Universal Common Ancestor:  ~3.5-3.8 Billion years ago  Small, possibly a single strand of DNA  Shared ancestor between Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukaryotes  Stromatolites: Oldest known organisms  Anaerobic Bacteria:  Probably the first complex life forms  Evidence suggests that anaerobic heterotrophs formed before photosynthetic organisms  Cambrian Explosion  Massive diversification of life  First vertebrates (fish-like creatures) form  Evolution of Mammals  200 million years ago  Marine Mammals return to the sea 45 million years ago Chapter 3: Mapping the Seafloor  Mapping Techniques  Sounding  Sending sound waves through a microphone and recording the echo  Swath Mapping  More advanced sounding  Uses multiple sound sources to record a wider area of the seafloor  Much more detailed  Side Scan Sonar  Equipment is towed just above the seafloor  Far more detail-oriented than the other techniques  Space-Based Mapping  Uses images of the surface topography of the ocean  Anomalies in surface topography reveal underlying features  Seafloor Topography  Continental Shelf  The shallow-sloping seafloor from the shoreline out to the shelf break  Typically around 130m  Underlain by continental plate  Continental Slope  Steeper drop-off into deep water  The actual edge of the continent  Ends at the continental rise  Continental Rise  The continental shelf levels off due to erosion  Ends at deep ocean floor  Passive Margins (Atlantic-Type Margins)  Found on continent-bearing plates  Moving away from the mid-ocean spreading zones  Broad shelf and rise; no plate boundaries  Low seismic activity  Active Margins (Pacific-Type Margins)  Highly seismic/destructive  Continental margins move toward submergent boundaries  Denser ocean crust is subducted beneath lighter crust  Marked by volcanic activity  Turbidity Currents and Turbidites  Sediment builds up and eventually collapses along continental plates  Cause big canyons/cuts in sea floor  Turbidites- deposits left by Turbidity Currents  Mid-Ocean Ridges  Sites of seafloor spreading, where new oceanic crust is formed  Sites of hydrothermal circulation as well  Trenches  Zones of plate subduction  Typically 3-4 kilometers deeper than the seafloor around them  Usually very narrow, but some are very long  Marked by earthquakes and volcanoes  Most occur in the Pacific Ocean, two in the Atlantic and one in the Indian Ocean  Abyssal Planes  Wide, flat stretches of ocean bottom with little to no topography  Sediments have buried any volcanic features  Abyssal Hills  Volcanic features on Abyssal plains that have not yet been totally buried  Abyssal hill < 1km, seamount > 1km  Guyots (Tablemounts)  Flat-topped seamounts  Occur in chains  Atolls  Submerged volcanic islands  Corals grow on what was once the island  Cone forms a protected lagoon, surrounded by the ring of corals Chapter Four: Plate Tectonics  Layers of Earth  Crust  Continental- Granite  Oceanic- Basalt  Mantle  Dense, hot  70% of Earth’s mass  Outer Core  Denser and much hotter- liquid metals  Inner Core  Solid metal- densest and hottest area  Mohorovicic Discontinuity (Moho)  Crust-Mantle boundary  Lithosphere  Crust and upper mantle act together as a rigid body layer  Asthenosphere  Remaining mantle  Flows slowly  Behaves like “Plastic” (Dr. Peterson)  Measuring Earth’s Layers  Seismology- the behavior of earthquake waves  P-Waves  Faster  Particles move horizontally  S-Waves  Can’t travel through liquid  Particles move vertically  Continental Drift (Alfred Wegener)  Isostasy  Mass balance  Some parts float above the surface, most floats below the surface  Ex. Icebergs  Evidence for Pangaea:  Geographic fit  Geological correspondence  Same fossils found across oceans  Paleoclimatology  Post-WWII  1960- Henry Hess proposes mechanism for continental drift  Mid-ocean ridges are “Spreading Centers”  Convection in the mantle drives circular motion and moves tectonic plates  Evidence for Plate Tectonics  Earthquakes  Volcanic Activity  Seafloor sediment deposits  Magnetic anomalies- periodic shifting of poles  GLOMAR Challenger drilling expedition  Rocks closer to mid-ocean ridge are younger, further away are older  Other Information  No seafloor crust is very old  Pacific Ocean is spreading much faster than the Atlantic  Mid-Ocean Ridges stand above surrounding areas because newly formed rock is hotter, and therefore less dense  These areas are “Thermally Elevated”  Volcanism associated with plate tectonics is a major source of atmospheric CO2  Periods of faster spreading result in shallow oceans and high sea level  Plate Boundaries  Divergent Boundaries  Plates are moving away from each other  New seafloor is formed  Rift Valleys- divergent boundaries visible on land  Africa, Iceland  Characteristics on the seafloor:  Pillow basalts  Black smokers  Convergent Boundaries  Plates are colliding  Denser plate usually subducts beneath the lighter one  When two continental plates collide, neither subducts  Form mountain chains (Himalayas)  Ophiolites  Sections of oceanic crust that have been pushed up and away rather than subducted  Transform Boundaries  Plates slide alongside one another  Generate fault lines  Characterized by frequent earthquakes  Hot Spots  Magma plumes and volcanic activity far away from plate boundaries Chapter Five: Marine Sediments  Biogenous Sediments  Organic Matter  Calcareous Microplankton  Exoskeletons made out of calcite  Foraminifera  Coccolithophorids  Siliceous Microplankton  Make exoskeletons of silicate (opal)  Diatoms  Radiolarians  Pteropods  Pelagic gastropods  Make calcium carbonate shells, but of a more soluble variety (aragonite)  Good bioindicators for ocean acidification  Carbonate Compensation Depth  More Calcium deposits are found at higher areas of the seafloor  Calcite dissolves are greater depths  Resembles a snowline on land  Ocean Acidification  The ocean takes up CO2 and increases in acidity  Silica Solubility  Greatest concentrations in areas of high productivity  More soluble at warmer temperatures  More dissolved in shallower water  Terrigenous Sediments  Formed on land, washed into the ocean  Erosion of continental rocks  Moved into deep ocean areas by turbidity currents  Eolian Transport  Wind carries iron-rich dust from West Africa into the ocean  Hydrogenous Sediment  Evaporites- minerals that precipitate as water is evaporated  Not common as of now  Salt domes in the Gulf of Mexico- from periods when evaporation was high and salt precipitated more  Empty salt domes can be used to store oil  Manganese Nodules  Some areas of seafloor are covered with lumps of manganese  Very old, slow-growing  Economic interest because they contain strategic metals  Have yet to be mined- too expensive, unclear who owns them Ocean Chemistry  Properties of Pure Water  Found naturally in all three states of matter  Polar- atoms bonded at 105° angle  High surface tension  Cohesion- water molecules stick together  Adhesion- water molecules stick to other substances  High heat capacity  High heat of vaporization and fusion- a lot of energy must be input/removed to evaporate/freeze water  Forms hydrogen bonds  Ice is less dense than liquid water- IT FLOATS  Maximum density occurs at 3.98°C  Ice forms a crystalline lattice structure  Near-Universal Solvent  Hydration-process of water surrounding and breaking apart an ion  Solute- substance being dissolved  Solvent- substance doing the dissolving  Salinity- total amount of salt in water  Expressed in parts per thousand or PSU  Average salinity 34-35ppm


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