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Ch.5&6 Study guides Bio 204
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Maral Babikian on Thursday September 15, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 204 at College of the Canyons taught by Mansour Rostami in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Anatomy&Physiology I in Biology at College of the Canyons.
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Date Created: 09/15/16
Study Guide Ch. 6: Integumentary System EpidermisTop layer of skin, (0.5 mm thick) o Keratinized Stratified squamous o Dead cells at the surface with tough protein called keratin o Lacks blood vessels o Sparse nerve endings o 5 types of cells in epidermis Stem cells (stratum basale) this cell gives rise to keratinocytes Keratinocytes: majority of epidermal ccellssynthesizes keratin Melanocytes: (Stratum basale), synthesizes pigment melanin that shields DNA from UV lights Branchedspread across kertatinocytes Tactile (merkel) cells: touch receptor cells associated with dermal nerve fibers Dendrite cells (FBI): macrophages originating in bone marrow that guard against pathogens Stratum Spinosum and Granulosum Keratinocytes are densely packed with eleidinamino acid o 5 Layers of skin: Corneumresists abraision, penetration and water loss Lucidum: thinnest layer, only seen in thick skin Granulosum35 layers of keratinocytes, consists of several layers of keratinocytes SpinosumThickest layer, dendrite cells found here; keratin filaments, consists of several layers of keratinocytes Basale – stem cells(gives rise to lost epidermal function)(provide keratin amino acids), keratinocytes, melanocytes Life of keratinocyte o It takes 3040 days for a keratinocyte ot make its way to the skin surface and flake off o Faster in injured or stressed skin o Calluses or corns thick accumulation of dead keratinocytes on the hands or feet o Produces lipid filled membrane coating vesicles (lamellar granules) o In stratum granulosumthree important developments: Keratinocyte nucleus and other organelles degeragecells die Keratohylin granules release a protein filaggrin –binds keratin to tough paticles o Epidermal water barrier in between Granulosum and Spinosum o Critical to retained water in the body and preventing dehydration Cells above water layer quickly die due to dehydration, dander, no more nutrients Dermis:CT [.2mm (eyelids)4mm(pals/soles] thick), 2 layers o Papillary layer: Areolar Tissue Rich in small blood vessels Allows for mobility of keukocytes and other defense cells should epidermis be broken o Reticular layer: Dense Irregular CT Strech marks: tears in collagen fibers caused by stretching of the skin o Consists of mainly collagen with elastic fibers, reticular fibers, and fibrobalsts o Well supplied with blood vessels, sweat glands, sebaceous glands and nerve endings o Hair follicles and nail roots are in the DERMIS Functions of Integumentary System (Skin) o Protection o Vit. D synthesis o Sensation o Thermoregulation o Nonverbal Communicationacne, scars, etc. o Transdermal absorption o Resistance to trauma and infection (bc of keratin and acid mantle) Other barrier factors like waterproofing (bc of phospholipid bilayer), UV radiation and harmful chemicals Hypodermis: CT, also call subcutaneous tissue/layer o More areolar and adipose than dermis o Functions: Pads body Binds skin to underlying tissue Drugs introduced by injection Energy reservoir (bc fat) Thermal insulation Highly vascular, absorbs quickly Most skin is 1 to 2 mm thick Thin vs. thick skin o Thick: on palms and soles of feet and corresponding to surfaces on fingers and toes Has sweat glands but no follicles or sebaceous glands o Thin: Covers rest of the body Possesses ACCESSORY STRUCTURES like hair follicles, sebaceous glands and sweat glands Skin Color o Melaninmost significant factor in skin color(produced by melanocytes) Accumulate in the keratinocytes of stratum basale and spinosum o Eumelaninbrownish/black o Pheomelaninreddish yellow sulfur containing pigment o Blonde 50/50 of eumelanin and pheomelanin o People of different skin color have the same number of melanocytes Dark skinned people produce greater quanitities of melanin More spread out Light skinned peoplemore clumped to keratinocyte nucleus; melanin breaks down more rapidly for light skinned people vs. dark skinned people o Hemoglobin; red pigment of red blood cells reddish/ pinkish hue to skin o Carotene: yellow pigments concentrated in corneum and subcutaneous fat o Color of diagnostic value Cyanosis: blue color of skininadequate level of oxygen in blood/little circulation Erythema: abnormal redness of skin due to dilatred cutaneous vessels Exercise, hot weather, sunburn, embarrassment o Sympathetic nervous system(4): Excitement Embracement Emergency Exercise Pallor: pale or ashen color of skin because of poor circulationhypoxia Albinism: genetic lack of melanin that result in white hair, pale face and pink eyes Inherited a recessive, nonfunctional tyrosinase allele Sensitive to sunlight and temperature Jaundice: yellowing of schlera and skin due to excess bilirubin in blood (bilirubin made in liver, stored in gallbladder) Caused by: cancer, Hep. B, cirrhosis, other compromised liver function Hematoma (bruise): mass of clotted blood showing through skin Melena: dark stoolbc of blood Evolution of skin color o Difference in exposure to UV radiation produces different pigmentation of skin o Different geographical pressures influence the color as well (sea level or up in mountains) When pressure increaseskin becomes lighter and vise versa o UVR; 2 adverse effects(breaks down folic acidneeded for normal cell division and fertility, causes skin cancer, 1 desireable effect synthesis of Vitamin D UVR accounts for 77% of of variation in human skin color Skin Markings o Friction Ridges: the markings on the fingertips that leace oily fingerprints on surfaces we touch Allows manipulation of small objects o Flexion ridges: seen anywhere on flexor surfaces of the digits, palms and elbows Marks sites where skin folds; seen on joints o Freckles and moles: tan to black aggregations of melanocytes Frecklesflat melanized pathches, moles are elevated melanized patches with hair Mold should be watched for ABCD changes o Hemaglomas(birthmarks): patches of discolored skin caused by benign tumore of dermal blood capillaries Hair (pili) and Nails o Dead Keratinized Skin o Soft keratin makes up corneum of skin; hard keratin makes up hair and nails o Hair a slender filament of keratinized cells that grows from an oblique tube in the skin called a hari follicle Hair bulb(dermis) connected to vein, artery, nerve, blood in vascular CT 3 Kinds of hair: Lanugo: fine, downy unpigmented hair appease on fetus I last 3 months of dev. Vellus: fine pale hair that replaces lanugo by time of birth ( all hair except eyebrows, lashes and hair on scalp) Terminal: longer, coarser and usually mnore heavily pigmentd o After puberty, auxillary and pubic hair grow o Dermal papilla bud of vascular CT encased by bulb Hair matrix: region of mitotically active cells immediatedly above papilla(hairs growth center) o 3 Layers in cross section from inside out: Medulla: core of loosed arranged cells and air space Cortex: consititutes bulk of hair , several layers of elongated keratinized cells Cuticle: composed of multiple layers of very thin, scaly cells that overlap eachother o Follicle: diagonal tube that dipsdeeply into dermis and may extend into hypodermis o Piloerector muscles: a bundle of smooth muscle cells extend from dermal collagen to CT rooth sheath; produces goose bumps Texture of hair o Straight=circle c.s o Wavy hair=oval c.s o Curly hair=flat c.s Hair Growth (3 Stages): o Anagen: 90% of scalp follicles at any given time; new hair grows up follicle alongside old club hair from previous cycle o Catagen: degenerative stage, mitosis in hair matrix ceases and sheath cells below the bulge die o Telogen: resting stage, when papilla reaches bulge. o Hair grows at a rate of 1mm per 3 days if normal o Alopecia: thinning of the hair or badness o Pattern Baldness: the condition in which hair loss occurs from specific regions rather than thinning uniformly o Hirsutism: excessive or undesirable hairiness in areas that are not usually hairy (testosterone disorder) Functions of Hair o Usually vestigialnot much use o Hair receptorsalert us if something on our skin o Helps retain heat, protect against sunburn, shows sexual maturity o Guard hairs (vibrisisae) guard nostrils and ear canals Sweat glands o 2 kinds: Merocrine: 34 million in adults Simple tubular glands Watery perspiration that helps cool the body Myoepithelial cells: contract in response to stimulation by sympathetic nerve system and squeeze perspiration up the duct o Apocrine: auxillary sweat glands. Occurs in groin, breasts, bearded regions Produce sweat that is thicker and milier than othe sweat. Develop at pubery Pheramones: chemicals that influence the physiology of behavior of other members of species Bromhidrosis: disagreeable body odar produced by bacterial action on fatty acids (armpit smell) Sweat: begins as a protein free filtrate of blood plasma Acid mantle: slightly acidic film on the surface of skin acting as a barrier to bacteria inhibits bacterial growth Insensible perspirationdoesn’t produce visible wetness Sebum: oily secretions produced by sebaceous glands: opens into hair follicles Holocrine gland: secretion consists of broken down cells keeps skin from becoming dry and brittle. Ceruminous glands: found only in external ear canal Secretion combines with sebum and dead epithelial cells to form earwax Simple coiled tubular ducts lead to skin surface Mammary glands o Modified apocrine gland o Mammary ridges: two rows of ammary glands in most mammals o Polytheliamore than 2 nipples Skin disorders o Basal cell carcinoma: Most common and least dangerous; watch for ABCD o Squamous cell carcinoma Arises from keratinocytes from spinosum layer Metastisizes rapidly usually on lymph nodes and may be lethel Red, scaly appearance o Malignant melanoma Cancer that arises form melanocytesmost often a preexisting mole Metastasizes rapidly, unresponsive to chemo, usually fatal Burns o 3 types: Chemical, Electrical, Acidic o Escharburned, dead tissue o Debridement: removal of eschar Study Guide: Chapter 5 Histology 50 trillion cells of 200 different cell types 4 Broad categories of tissues: o Epithelial o Connective o Nerve o Muscular Organ: structure with discrete boundaries that is composed of two or more tissues. Histology: the study of tissues Anatomy: study of structure Physiology: study of function Primary tissue classes: o Tissue; a group of similar cells and cell products that arise form the same region and work together to perform a specific role in organ o 4 primary tissues differe from one another as follows: 1. Types and functions of cells 2. Characteristics of matrix 3. Relative amt. of space occupied Embryonic tissues(3 layers) o Ectoderm: gives rise to epidermis and nervous system o Endoderm: gives rise to mucous membrane lining digestive and respiratory tract, digestive glands etc. o Mesoderm: become gelatinous tissue called mesenchyme 1. Mesenchymal cells can differentiate into any type of cells gives rise to muscle, bone and blood Interpreting Tissue sections o Stains: tissue mounted on slides and artificially colored with histological stains o Sectioning: reduces 3D structure to 2D structure o Know different between cross section(tissue cut perpendicular to length of organ) and longitudinal section(tissue cut along long direction of organ)** o Smear: tissue is rubbed or spread across the slide 1. Ex. Blood, spinal cord o Spread: cobwebby tissue is laid out on a slide 1. Ex. Areolar tissue Epithelial tissue o Covers body surface and line cavity o No room for blood vessels (poorly vascular) o Lie on layer of loose CT and depends on that to get nutrients and removal of waste o Basement membrane: layer between epithelial and CT 1. Collagen 2. Heparin sulfate o Basal Surface: surface of epithelial cell that faces the basement membrane o Apical Surface: surface of an epithelial cell that faces away from the basement membrane o Simple Epithelia vs. Stratified Epithelia 1. Simple: contains one layer of cells, all cells touch the basement membrane 2. Stratified: Contains more than one layer, named by shape of apical cells, some cells do not touch basement membrane o Types of Epithelia Tissue type Function Location Simple squamous Rapid diffusion,secretes Alveoli, endothelium, serous fluid mesothelium Simple cuboidal Absorption, secretion, Renal tubules, liver, secretory mucous production and glands, bronchioles movement Simple columnar (goblet cells Absorption and secretion Stomach, large intestines, present) small intestines Pseudostratified Epithelia Secretes and propels mucous Trachea, large parts of lungs (goblet cells present) Keratinized Stratified Resists abrasion,, retains Epidermis, palms and soles of Squamous water loss feet Nonkeratinized Stratified Resists abrasion and Vaginal wall, esophagus, oral Squamous penetration of pathogens mucousa Stratified cuboidal secretion Salivary, mammary, and sweat glands Stratified columnar HELP Portions of male urethra Transitional Allows for filing of urinary Urinary tract tract Functions of Connective tissue (8): o Movement o Binding of organs o Physical protection o Immune protection o Heat insulation o Transportation of blood o Storage o Support CT is highly vascular and is the most abundant, widely distributed primary tissue. Fibrous CT o Fibroblasts: produces fibers and ground substance o Macrophages: phagocytize foegn material and activate in=mmune system when they sense foreign matter Arises from white blood cells called monocytes o Leukocytes: white blood cells Also know neutrophils (attack bacteria) and lymphocytes (react against bacteria) o Plasma cells: synthesize disease fighting antibodies Arise from lymphocytes o Mast cells: found along side blood vessels Secrete heparin inhibits clotting Secrete histaminedilate blood vessels o Adipocytes: stores fats o Fibers Collagenous: found in tendons, ligaments Resists stretching Reticular : thin collagen fibers coated with glycoprotein Elastic fibers: thinner than collagenous fibers Made of protein called elastin Allows stretch and recoil o Ground Substance: usually gelatinous to rubbery consistency resulting form 3 classes of large molecules Glycosoaminoglycans (GAG) Long polysaccharides composed of amino sugars and uronic acid Plays important role of regulating water and electrolyte balance in tissues. Chondroitin sulfate: most abundant GAG in blood vessels and bone Responsible for stiffness in cartilage Hyaluronic acid: viscous, slippery substance that for lubricant in joints and consists much of vitreous body of eye ball Proteoglycans: hold tissues together Types of Fibrous Tissues o Loose CT: Much gel like substance between cells Ex. Areolar and reticular o Dense Regular CT: fibers fill spaces in between cells Dense reg. CT and Dense irreg. CT o Nearly every epithelium rests on a layer of areolar CT o Found in tissue sections from almost every part of the body and surrounds blood vessels and nerves Areolar Tissue Loosly organized fiers, Serous membranes, between abundant blood vessels muscles, passageways for nerves and blood vessels Reticular CT Mesh of reticular fibers and Lymph nodes, spleen, bone fibroblasts marrow Dense Regular CT Densely packed , parallel Tendons, ligaments collagen fibers Dense Irregular CT Densely packed, randomly Deeper layer of skin, capusles arranged, collagen fibers, few around organs visible cells Adipose CT Energy storage, insulation, Hypodermisall over body cushioning. Dominant cell types=adipocytes Brown fat vs. white fat Cartilage (3): Chondroblasts: produce 1. Treachea, larynx, matrix and surround coastal cartilage 2. Ear and epiglottis themselves until trapped in lacunae 3. Pubic symphasis, Chondrocytes: cartilage cells intervetrabral discs in lacunae 1. Hyaline: clear glassy microscopic appearance 2. Elastic: provides flexible, elastic support 3. Fibrocartilage: resists compression, absorbs shock Bone Spongy bone: found in heads of long bone Compact bone: denser, calcified tissue with no visible spaces. Compact bone has haversian canal Osteon: central canal and its surrounding lamellae Osteocytes: mature bone cells that occupy the lacunae Canaliculi: delicate canals that allow osteocytes to contact each other Periosteum: tough fibrous CT covering bone as a whole Blood Fluid CT; transports cells and dissolved matter from place to place Has plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. Nervous and Muscular Tissue o Nervous Tissue: specialized for communication by electrical and chemical signals Consists of neurons(nerve cells) Neuroglia Protects and assist neurons Neurosome: cell body Dendrite: multiple, short branched processes, receives signals from other cells, transmits messages to other neurosoma Axon: sends outgoing signals to other cells o Muscle Tissue Exerts force Creates movement Source of body heat Skeletal, cardiac, and smooth Skeletal: striated and voluntary Cardiac: striated and involuntary Smooth: no striation and involuntary Visceral muscle forms layers of digestive, respiratory, and urinary tract. Propels contents through an organ Cell Junctions o Tight Junction: a region where adjacent tissues are bound together by fusion of the outer phospholipid layer of their plasma membranes Makes it impossible for substances to pass between cells o Gap junctions: formed by a ringlike connexon Ions, glucose, amino acids, and other solutes pass from one cell to the next o Desmosomes: patches that hold cells together ; serves to keep cells from pulling apart o Hemidesmosomes: anchor the basal cells of epithelium to the underlying basement membrane Exocrine and Endocrine Glands o Exocrine: maintain contact with body surface by way of a duct Sweat, mammary and salivary glands o Endocrine: hormones directly into blood Thyroid, adrenal, pituitary glands o Unicellular glands: found in epithelium that is predominantly nonsecretory Exocrine Gland structure o Capsule: connective covering of most glands Septa: extension of capsule that divide the int. of gland into lobes o Stroma: CT framework of glandsupports tissue o Parenchyma: cells that perform the tasks of synthesis and secretion o Simple – unducted o Compoundbranched duct Shapes of gland: Tubular: uniform diameter Acinar: dilated sac Tubuloacinar: both tubular and acinar portions Types of Secretions o Serous glands: thin, water secretions Ex. Perspiration, milk, tears o Mucous glands: produce glycoprotein, mucin which absorbs water to form a sticky secretion called mucus o Mixed glands: contains both types of glands and produces both secretions o Cytogenic cells: release who cells like sperm and eggs Modes of Secretion o Merocrine: have vesicles that release their secretion by exocytosis Tear glands, pancreas, gastric glands o Apocrine glands: auxiliary sweat breast, underarm etc. o Holocrine: cells accumulate a product and then the entire cell disintegrates Oil glands of scalp Membranes o Cutaneous membrane is the largest membrane in body (stratified squamous) o Mucous membrane lines passages open to external environment Lamina propina found here (areolar CT) Absorptibe, secretory and protective functions Goblet cells produce mucousa o Serous membranes: produces serious fluid that arises in blood Covers organs and walls of body cavities Endothelium, mesothelium o Synovial membrane: line joint cavities Tissue growth/development/degeneration o Tissue growth—increasing the number of cells or the existing cells grow larger o Hyperplasia—tissue growth through cell multiplication o Hypertrophy—enlargement of preexisting cells Muscle growth through exercise Accumulation of body fat o Neoplasia—development of a tumor (neoplasm) Benign or malignant Composed of abnormal, nonfunctional tissue o Differentiation Unspecialized tissues of embryo become specialized mature types Mesenchyme to muscle o Metaplasia Changing from one type of mature tissue to another Simple cuboidal tissue of vagina before puberty changes to stratified squamous after puberty Pseudostratified columnar epithelium of bronchi of smokers to stratified squamous epithelium Stem Cells o Embryonic stem cells o Totipotent: have potential to develop into any type of fully differentiated human cell Source—cells of very early embryo o Pluripotent: can develop into any type of cell in the embryo Source—cells of inner cell mass of embryo Adult stem cells—undifferentiated cells in tissues of adults o Multipotent: bone marrow producing several blood cell types o Unipotent: most limited plasticity; only epidermal cells produced Tissue Death o Atrophy—shrinkage of a tissue through a loss in cell size or number o Senile atrophy through normal aging o Disuse atrophy from lack of use (astronauts) o Necrosis—premature, pathological death of tissue due to trauma, toxins, or infections o Infarction—sudden death of tissue when blood supply is cut off o Gangrene—tissue necrosis due to insufficient blood supply o Decubitus ulcer—bed sore or pressure sore Pressure reduces blood flow to an area Form of dry gangrene o Gas gangrene—anaerobic bacterial infection o Apoptosis—programmed cell death Normal death of cells that have completed their function and best serve the body by dying and getting out of the way Phagocytized by macrophages and other cells o Every cell has a builtin “suicide program” o Extracellular suicide signal binds receptor protein in the plasma membrane called Fas o Fas activates enzymes: endonuclease chops up DNA and protease destroys proteins o
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