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CORNELL / Chemistry / CHEM 3570 / What are the characteristics of polar molecules?

What are the characteristics of polar molecules?

What are the characteristics of polar molecules?

Description

School: Cornell University
Department: Chemistry
Course: Organic Chemistry for the Life Sciences
Professor: Ganem prof. dichtel
Term: Fall 2016
Tags:
Cost: 50
Name: CHEM3570 Prelim 1 Study Guide
Description: Chapters 1-4 (Alkanes, Lewis acid/base, Alkenes, etc.)
Uploaded: 09/15/2016
9 Pages 105 Views 3 Unlocks
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"}.lst-kix_9lr3dwxrtzlo-1 > li:before{content:"o "}.lst-kix_t0i2pocgwchk-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_t0i2pocgwchk-2}.lst-kix_s5hn5yrv1seq-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_s5hn5yrv1seq-1}ol.lst-kix_t0i2pocgwchk-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_t0i2pocgwchk-2 0}ol.lst-kix_s5hn5yrv1seq-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_s5hn5yrv1seq-0 0}ol.lst-kix_meu6y1nsr1kq-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_meu6y1nsr1kq-1 0}.lst-kix_t0i2pocgwchk-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_t0i2pocgwchk-8}.lst-kix_nchnjvodusrf-2 > li:before{content:"▪ "}ol.lst-kix_b1c2s3c8tn9b-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_b1c2s3c8tn9b-6 0}.lst-kix_nchnjvodusrf-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_b1c2s3c8tn9b-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_b1c2s3c8tn9b-1}.lst-kix_b1c2s3c8tn9b-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_b1c2s3c8tn9b-7}.lst-kix_nchnjvodusrf-1 > li:before{content:"o "}.lst-kix_nchnjvodusrf-0 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_1y593zxybhik-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_1y593zxybhik-6 0}ol.lst-kix_meu6y1nsr1kq-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_meu6y1nsr1kq-8 0}ol.lst-kix_meu6y1nsr1kq-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_meu6y1nsr1kq-2 0}ol.lst-kix_1y593zxybhik-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_1y593zxybhik-0 0}.lst-kix_1y593zxybhik-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_1y593zxybhik-3}ol.lst-kix_s5hn5yrv1seq-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_s5hn5yrv1seq-6 0}ol.lst-kix_t0i2pocgwchk-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_t0i2pocgwchk-8 0}.lst-kix_meu6y1nsr1kq-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_meu6y1nsr1kq-5}ol.lst-kix_1y593zxybhik-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_1y593zxybhik-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_1y593zxybhik-7}ol.lst-kix_meu6y1nsr1kq-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_1y593zxybhik-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_meu6y1nsr1kq-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_meu6y1nsr1kq-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_1y593zxybhik-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_meu6y1nsr1kq-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_meu6y1nsr1kq-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_b1c2s3c8tn9b-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_b1c2s3c8tn9b-7,lower-latin) ". "}ol.lst-kix_1y593zxybhik-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_1y593zxybhik-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_1y593zxybhik-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_meu6y1nsr1kq-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_1y593zxybhik-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_meu6y1nsr1kq-1{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_1y593zxybhik-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_meu6y1nsr1kq-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_1y593zxybhik-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_s5hn5yrv1seq-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_s5hn5yrv1seq-4}ol.lst-kix_meu6y1nsr1kq-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_meu6y1nsr1kq-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_meu6y1nsr1kq-6 0}.lst-kix_s5hn5yrv1seq-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_s5hn5yrv1seq-5}.lst-kix_1y593zxybhik-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_1y593zxybhik-8}ol.lst-kix_s5hn5yrv1seq-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_s5hn5yrv1seq-1 0}ol.lst-kix_meu6y1nsr1kq-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_meu6y1nsr1kq-3 0}.lst-kix_s5hn5yrv1seq-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_s5hn5yrv1seq-6}.lst-kix_meu6y1nsr1kq-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_meu6y1nsr1kq-6}.lst-kix_meu6y1nsr1kq-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_meu6y1nsr1kq-0}.lst-kix_t0i2pocgwchk-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_t0i2pocgwchk-1,lower-latin) ". "}ol.lst-kix_meu6y1nsr1kq-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_meu6y1nsr1kq-4 0}.lst-kix_b1c2s3c8tn9b-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_b1c2s3c8tn9b-3}.lst-kix_b1c2s3c8tn9b-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_b1c2s3c8tn9b-8}.lst-kix_t0i2pocgwchk-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_t0i2pocgwchk-7,lower-latin) ". "}ol.lst-kix_s5hn5yrv1seq-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_s5hn5yrv1seq-4 0}.lst-kix_t0i2pocgwchk-5 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_t0i2pocgwchk-5,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_b1c2s3c8tn9b-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_b1c2s3c8tn9b-2}.lst-kix_t0i2pocgwchk-3 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_t0i2pocgwchk-3,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_meu6y1nsr1kq-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_meu6y1nsr1kq-7}.lst-kix_t0i2pocgwchk-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_t0i2pocgwchk-3}ol.lst-kix_b1c2s3c8tn9b-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_b1c2s3c8tn9b-8 0}ol.lst-kix_s5hn5yrv1seq-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_s5hn5yrv1seq-3 0}ol.lst-kix_meu6y1nsr1kq-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_meu6y1nsr1kq-5 0}ol.lst-kix_1y593zxybhik-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_1y593zxybhik-2 0}.lst-kix_meu6y1nsr1kq-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_meu6y1nsr1kq-7,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_meu6y1nsr1kq-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_meu6y1nsr1kq-4,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_meu6y1nsr1kq-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_meu6y1nsr1kq-8,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_meu6y1nsr1kq-3 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_meu6y1nsr1kq-3,decimal) ". "}ol.lst-kix_b1c2s3c8tn9b-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_b1c2s3c8tn9b-4 0}.lst-kix_meu6y1nsr1kq-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_meu6y1nsr1kq-1,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_meu6y1nsr1kq-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_meu6y1nsr1kq-2,lower-roman) ". "}ol.lst-kix_s5hn5yrv1seq-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_1y593zxybhik-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_1y593zxybhik-2}.lst-kix_meu6y1nsr1kq-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_meu6y1nsr1kq-4}.lst-kix_b1c2s3c8tn9b-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_b1c2s3c8tn9b-6}ol.lst-kix_s5hn5yrv1seq-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_s5hn5yrv1seq-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_s5hn5yrv1seq-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_s5hn5yrv1seq-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_t0i2pocgwchk-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_t0i2pocgwchk-5}ol.lst-kix_s5hn5yrv1seq-1{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_s5hn5yrv1seq-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_s5hn5yrv1seq-2 0}.lst-kix_meu6y1nsr1kq-5 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_meu6y1nsr1kq-5,lower-roman) ". "}ol.lst-kix_s5hn5yrv1seq-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_s5hn5yrv1seq-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_meu6y1nsr1kq-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_meu6y1nsr1kq-6,decimal) ". "}ol.lst-kix_s5hn5yrv1seq-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_1y593zxybhik-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_1y593zxybhik-8 0}ol.lst-kix_s5hn5yrv1seq-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_s5hn5yrv1seq-8 0}ol.lst-kix_t0i2pocgwchk-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_t0i2pocgwchk-6 0}.lst-kix_t0i2pocgwchk-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_t0i2pocgwchk-7}.lst-kix_meu6y1nsr1kq-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_meu6y1nsr1kq-0,decimal) ". "}ol.lst-kix_t0i2pocgwchk-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_t0i2pocgwchk-0 0}.lst-kix_s5hn5yrv1seq-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_s5hn5yrv1seq-0}.lst-kix_s5hn5yrv1seq-3 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_s5hn5yrv1seq-3,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_s5hn5yrv1seq-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_s5hn5yrv1seq-4,lower-latin) ". "}ol.lst-kix_s5hn5yrv1seq-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_s5hn5yrv1seq-7 0}.lst-kix_s5hn5yrv1seq-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_s5hn5yrv1seq-7}.lst-kix_s5hn5yrv1seq-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_s5hn5yrv1seq-1,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_s5hn5yrv1seq-5 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_s5hn5yrv1seq-5,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_s5hn5yrv1seq-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_s5hn5yrv1seq-0,upper-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_s5hn5yrv1seq-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_s5hn5yrv1seq-7,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_s5hn5yrv1seq-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_s5hn5yrv1seq-8,lower-roman) ". "}ul.lst-kix_nchnjvodusrf-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_nchnjvodusrf-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_nchnjvodusrf-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_s5hn5yrv1seq-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_s5hn5yrv1seq-6,decimal) ". "}ul.lst-kix_nchnjvodusrf-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_nchnjvodusrf-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_nchnjvodusrf-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_nchnjvodusrf-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_nchnjvodusrf-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_nchnjvodusrf-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_1y593zxybhik-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_1y593zxybhik-7 0}.lst-kix_s5hn5yrv1seq-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_s5hn5yrv1seq-2,lower-roman) ". "}ol.lst-kix_t0i2pocgwchk-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_t0i2pocgwchk-1 0}.lst-kix_b1c2s3c8tn9b-3 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_b1c2s3c8tn9b-3,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_b1c2s3c8tn9b-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_b1c2s3c8tn9b-1,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_b1c2s3c8tn9b-5 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_b1c2s3c8tn9b-5,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_meu6y1nsr1kq-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_meu6y1nsr1kq-8}.lst-kix_1y593zxybhik-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_1y593zxybhik-6}.lst-kix_b1c2s3c8tn9b-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_b1c2s3c8tn9b-0,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_b1c2s3c8tn9b-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_b1c2s3c8tn9b-4,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_1y593zxybhik-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_1y593zxybhik-0}ol.lst-kix_b1c2s3c8tn9b-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_b1c2s3c8tn9b-5 0}.lst-kix_meu6y1nsr1kq-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_meu6y1nsr1kq-2}.lst-kix_b1c2s3c8tn9b-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_b1c2s3c8tn9b-2,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_b1c2s3c8tn9b-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_b1c2s3c8tn9b-4}ol.lst-kix_t0i2pocgwchk-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_t0i2pocgwchk-7 0}.lst-kix_b1c2s3c8tn9b-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_b1c2s3c8tn9b-8,lower-roman) ". "}ul.lst-kix_9lr3dwxrtzlo-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_9lr3dwxrtzlo-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_9lr3dwxrtzlo-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_9lr3dwxrtzlo-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_9lr3dwxrtzlo-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_9lr3dwxrtzlo-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_b1c2s3c8tn9b-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_b1c2s3c8tn9b-0}.lst-kix_b1c2s3c8tn9b-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_b1c2s3c8tn9b-6,decimal) ". "}ul.lst-kix_9lr3dwxrtzlo-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_9lr3dwxrtzlo-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_9lr3dwxrtzlo-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_t0i2pocgwchk-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_t0i2pocgwchk-4 0}ol.lst-kix_b1c2s3c8tn9b-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_b1c2s3c8tn9b-3 0}ol.lst-kix_1y593zxybhik-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_1y593zxybhik-1 0}.lst-kix_t0i2pocgwchk-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_t0i2pocgwchk-1}ol.lst-kix_b1c2s3c8tn9b-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_b1c2s3c8tn9b-0 0}ol.lst-kix_meu6y1nsr1kq-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_meu6y1nsr1kq-0 0}.lst-kix_s5hn5yrv1seq-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_s5hn5yrv1seq-3}.lst-kix_1y593zxybhik-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_1y593zxybhik-4}.lst-kix_t0i2pocgwchk-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_t0i2pocgwchk-2,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_t0i2pocgwchk-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_t0i2pocgwchk-0,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_1y593zxybhik-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_1y593zxybhik-5}.lst-kix_t0i2pocgwchk-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_t0i2pocgwchk-6,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_s5hn5yrv1seq-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_s5hn5yrv1seq-2}.lst-kix_s5hn5yrv1seq-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_s5hn5yrv1seq-8}ol.lst-kix_1y593zxybhik-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_1y593zxybhik-4 0}.lst-kix_t0i2pocgwchk-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_t0i2pocgwchk-4,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_t0i2pocgwchk-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_t0i2pocgwchk-6}.lst-kix_t0i2pocgwchk-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_t0i2pocgwchk-8,lower-roman) ". "}ol.lst-kix_t0i2pocgwchk-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_t0i2pocgwchk-5 0}ol.lst-kix_b1c2s3c8tn9b-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_b1c2s3c8tn9b-2 0}.lst-kix_t0i2pocgwchk-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_t0i2pocgwchk-0}ol.lst-kix_1y593zxybhik-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_1y593zxybhik-3 0}

PRELIM #1: STUDY GUIDEDon't forget about the age old question of Describe the concept of racial formation.

Chapter #1Don't forget about the age old question of How is conditional probability applied?

Assigning Formal Charge:

  1. Writedown group # of atom (= valence e-)
  2. Determine valence e- count by adding unshared valence e- on atom to the # of covalent bonds.
  3. Subtract valence e-s from group # to get formal charge.

Rules for Lewis Structures:

  1. Hydrogen can share no more than 2 e-
  2. Sum of bonding e- + unshared pairs of atoms in 2nd period of periodic table is never greater than 8.
  3. Non valence e-s are not shown in Lewis structures
  • Polar Bond: bond in which electrons are shared unevenly
  • Dipole Moment is defined by: M=qr,where q= magnitude of separated charge and r = vector from the site of (+) to (-) charge.
  • Polar Molecules = molecules that have permanent dipoles

Don't forget about the age old question of How did bohemians live during the industrial revolution?

If you want to learn more check out What relevant data can archaelogists derive from indigenous culture?

Bond Length

  1. Increase significantly towards higher periods
  2. Decrease with bond order
  3. Decrease toward higher atomic #

We also discuss several other topics like What is the final level of protein structure?

Bond Angle/Geometry

  • 4 atoms bonded to central atom = TETRAHEDRAL

            Example: MethaneIf you want to learn more check out What is the cell wall layer that is composed of protein?

  • 3 groups surround an atom = TRIGANOL PLANAR

  • Atom surrounded by 2 groups= LINEAR

* unshared e- pair occupies more space than bonding pair

Atomic Orbitals

  • Principle quantum # = n, energy level/electron shell
  • Angular Momentum quantum # = e, depends on (can have any value from 0 through n-1)
  • Magnetic quantum # = me, depends on value of e (me = 0, ±1, ±2, … ± e)
  • Shape of an orbital is governed by e, directionality is governed by me, size is governed by n

RULES FOR MOLECULAR ORBITALS

  1. Combo of 2 atomic orbitals = 2 molecular orbitals
  2. One molecular orbital is derived by addition of 2atomic orbitals in region of overlap,
  3. Other MO’s have different energies – orbital energy increases with # of nodes

      - Bonding has lower energy than antibonding orbitals

HYBRID ORBITALS

  • Makes bonds stronger because it minimizes repulsion+ the bulk of e- density is directed toward bound hydrogen.

  • 2s orbital + 32p orbitals in carbon are mixed to give 2(sp3)

NEWMAN PROJECTION

Newman Projection for Butane:

CHAPTER #2: ALKANES

HYDROCARBONS

  • Are divided into 2 classes: aliphatic + aromatic

  1. Aliphatic – akanes, akenes, alkynes
  2. Alkanes- hydrocarbons that contain only single carbons

Methane - CH₄                        Hexane – C7H16

Ethane - C2H6                        Octane – C8H18

Propane - C3H8

Butane - C4H10

Pentane – C5H12

  • Unbranched alkanes differ by addition of methylene group (H2)

ISOMERS

  • Different compounds that have the same molecular formula.

CYCLOALKANES: alkane in closed loop/ring

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