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OU / Biology / BIOL 1124 / What is the meaning of atomic numbers in biology?

What is the meaning of atomic numbers in biology?

What is the meaning of atomic numbers in biology?

Description

School: University of Oklahoma
Department: Biology
Course: Intro Biol: Molecule/Cell/Phys
Professor: Welborn
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Biology and Bio1124
Cost: 50
Name: Bio 1124 Midterm 1 Study Guide
Description: This study guide covers all information that will be covered on the first midterm, including information from the book and given at Action Centers! It has definitions, key concepts, things to remember, and 20 practice questions.
Uploaded: 09/15/2016
7 Pages 39 Views 1 Unlocks
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Intro to Bio 1124


What is the meaning of atomic numbers in biology?



Midterm Exam 1 Study Guide Vocabulary Key Concepts Other Important Things Vocab:

Element – a substance that cannot be changed to another substance by a  chemical reaction

Atom – the smallest unit of an element that retains the properties of that  element

Atomic number – an elements characteristic number of protons Mass number – the sum of the number of neutrons and protons

Electron shells – determine the reactive properties of elements and the  structure of molecules

Covalent bonds - the sharing of electrons between atoms

**a trick to remembering this one is sharing is Caring; covalent starts  with a C and is the sharing of electrons


What is the meaning of mass numbers in biology?



Nonpolar covalent bond - a covalent bond in which the bond electrons are  equally shared

Polar covalent bond - a covalent bond in which the electronegativity  difference of the atoms creates a partly ionic bond; electrons are not equally  shared  

Electronegativity – a measure of how intensely an element pulls away from  atoms in a covalent bond We also discuss several other topics like How does racism justify colonialism?

Ionic bond – a bond in which electrons are completely transferred from one  atom to another

Ion – an atom with an electric charge due to losing or gaining electron(s) Cation – a positively charged ion

Anion – a negatively charged ion

Hydrogen bond – a weak bond between a hydrogen atom with a partial  positive charge and an electronegative atom with a partial negative charge


What is the meaning of cation in biology?



Hydrophilic – attracted to water, likes water

Hydrophobic – repels water, does not like water Don't forget about the age old question of What is the hunger center?

Cohesion – attraction between like molecules

Adhesion – attraction between unlike molecules

Tetravalent – an atom with four valence electrons

Organic molecule – a molecule which contains carbon and is made by  organisms  

Hydrocarbons – molecules that contain only hydrogen and carbon

Isomers – molecules containing the same number of each element, but  differing in structure (arrangement of atoms)

Structural isomers – molecules that differ in covalent partners, but have  the same molecular formula

Cis trans isomers/geometric isomers – differ in arrangement around a  double bond, but have the same molecular formula

Enantiomers – have the same molecular formula, but differ in arrangement  around an asymmetric carbon

**enantiomers are mirror images of each other 

Asymmetric carbon – a carbon bonded to four different atoms or groups of  atoms

Monomer – a molecule that can bond to other molecules to form a polymer;  like one "lego"

Polymer – made up of many monomers; like a lego creation

The Molecular Logic of Life – small molecules common to all organisms are  ordered into many unique macromolecules to create an enormous diversity  of forms We also discuss several other topics like In what phase does the centrosomes migrate to opposite sides of the cell?

Dehydration reaction – the formation of a polymer from monomers;  produces H2O

Hydrolysis reaction – breaks apart polymers into monomers; uses H2O Carbohydrates - sugars and sugar polymers

**all have a carbonyl group, multiple hydroxyl groups, and a  backbone of 3-7 carbons

Monosaccharide - the simplest form of a carbohydrate

Disaccharide - created by two sugar molecules joined together.

Glycosidic linkage – covalent bond between carbohydrate molecules by a  dehydration reaction

Polysaccharides – polymers made up of tons of monosaccharides connected  with glycosidic linkages; polymer

Lipids – hydrophobic fats, oils, vitamins, etc.

**lipids are diverse structurally; hydrophobic

Ester bond – hydroxyl plus a carboxyl group

Saturated fatty acid – fats; no double bond between the carbons and fatty  acid chain; every carbon has the maximum amount of hydrogens bonded to  it

Unsaturated fatty acid – oils; contains one or more double bonds and a  fatty acid

Monounsaturated fatty acids – have only one double bond; healthy fats If you want to learn more check out What is it called to escape the cycle of reincarnation?

Polyunsaturated fatty acid – have more than one double bond; I.e. omega-3  fatty acid We also discuss several other topics like How did the gupta empire make money?

Proteins - polymers built of amino acid monomers that are diverse in  structure and function

Polypeptide - a polymer of amino acids; a linear chain of amino acids We also discuss several other topics like Who should observe the person?

Primary structure (1°) - protein structure that is a sequence of amino acids  in the protein

Secondary structure (2°) - protein structure that results from hydrogen  bonding between hydrogen bonded to N and O bonded to C in the  backbone; include helix and pleated sheet formations

Tertiary structure (3°) - the overall 3-D shape of the polypeptide of a  protein caused by interactions between R-groups

Quaternary structure (4°) - the aggregation of 2 or more polypeptides to  make a functional protein

Denaturation – a protein's loss of its 3-D structure and functionality due to  various physical and/or chemical conditions

Concepts:

Rules regarding electron shells: 

1. Atoms most often have an equal number of protons and electrons, but  not always.

2. Electrons move around the nucleus in orbitals, or specific regions. 3. Each orbital can hold a maximum of two electrons.  

An atom is most stable when its valence electron shell is full. Bond strength:

Covalent bonds are the strongest, hydrogen bonds are the weakest,  ionic bonds fall somewhere in between. 

Carbon's versatility:

Carbon is extremely versatile; can form a huge array of molecules  because it is tetravalent 

Functional groups: 

∙ Hydroxyl – OH 

∙ Carbonyl – CO 

∙ Carboxyl – CO2H or COOH 

∙ Amino – NH2

∙ Phosphate – PO4-2

∙ Sulfhydryl – SH 

∙ Methyl - CH3

Living things are built of four main classes of macromolecules:

1. Carbohydrates 

2. Proteins 

3. Lipids 

4. Nucleic acids

Properties of polysaccharides are determined by:

1. Composition of monomers 

2. The arrangement of bonds between monomers 

Functions of polysaccharides:

1. Storage

2. Structure 

Fats and oils are composed of glycerol and three fatty acid molecules; they  are connected by ester bonds created in a dehydration reaction

Functions of proteins:

1. To facilitate chemical reactions (I.e. enzymes) 

2. Structural support (I.e. collagen in the skin) 

3. Transport molecules (I.e. hemoglobin) 

4. Cell to cell communication (I.e. insulin) 

Protein structure:

Long polymers of amino acids, made up of amino groups, carboxyl, R groups(side chain, vary with amino acids) and an asymmetric carbon 

Polypeptides form through a dehydration reaction

Things to Remember:

Oxygen is very electronegative. 

Living things are made up mostly of water. 

Water is the universal solvent. 

Ions and molecules with polar covalent bonds are hydrophilic and dissolve  in water. 

Molecules made mostly of carbon and/or oxygen are hydrophobic and will  not dissolve in water. 

Humans are 70% water (by weight).

Plants can be up to 95% water (by weight).

Monosaccharides are usually a multiple of CH2O. 

When the carbonyl is on the end of a monosaccharide, it is an aldose  sugar. 

When the carbonyl is on the interior carbon of a monosaccharide, it is a  ketose sugar. 

Sugars function as an immediate source of energy for organisms.

-ose refers to a carbohydrate. 

Differences between starch and cellulose: 

∙ Both are made of glucose monomers

∙ Both are used for energy storage in plants

∙ Glucose units are oriented in the same direction in starch molecules,  but are rotated 180 degrees around the polymer chain in cellulose ∙ Starch is both edible and digestible, while cellulose is not ∙ Starch is weak as a material while cellulose is strong

∙ Starch is dissolvable in water, while cellulose is not

Fatty acids usually contain 16-18 carbons; the type of fatty acid is  determined by its structure

Fats function in energy storage; excess energy is connected to fats and  stored in adipose tissue

Phospholipids are the primary structure of the cell membrane Proteins are abundant and make up over half of the dry mass of most cells Proteins are made up of polypeptides, but not all polypeptides are proteins! There are four levels of protein structure 

There are 20 different amino acids 

Each is defined by its R-group

Practice problems:

1. Are molecules with polar covalent bonds hydrophilic or hydrophobic? 2. What is the difference between cis-trans isomers and enantiomers? 3. Which end of a phospholipid is polar, and which is nonpolar? 4. Which element makes up the largest percent of human body weight? 5. What type of reaction breaks apart molecules?

6. What type of bonding creates polymers from monomers? 7. Which functional group do all carbohydrates have?

8. Define tetravalent.

9. What do starch and cellulose have in common?

10. Why are ionic bonds strong outside of water, but weak in water? 11.Which 6 elements make up a majority of human body weight? 12.What is the difference between a cation and an anion?

13.How many different amino acids are there?

14.What is the function of fat?

15.What is an R-group?

16.What causes the denaturation of proteins?

17.How many electrons can one orbital hold?

18. What is the difference between ionic and covalent bonding? 19.What is the significance of electronegativity?

20. What is the primary structure of the cell membrane?  

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