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# Physics 1 Exam Review PHYS 1301

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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Hannah B. on Thursday September 15, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PHYS 1301 at University of Texas at Dallas taught by Dr. Lunjin Chen in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see College Physics in Physics at University of Texas at Dallas.

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Date Created: 09/15/16

PHYSICS EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE -USE 3 SIG FIGS (unless otherwise stated) Page 1 of 3 Slope of a line = (Δy)/(Δx) = (y2-y1)/(x2-x1) -measures the steepness on a line Slope has a sign. -y increases as x increases = positive slope -y decreases as x increases = negative slope -y does not change = slope is zero -x does not change = slope is undeﬁned The slope of a curve at a point is deﬁned as the slope of the straight line that is tangent to the curve at that point. -A tangent line is a straight line that touched a curve at a single point and does not cross through it. Scientiﬁc notation: the decimal number is written with one digit to the left of the decimal point, multiplied by the appropriate power of 10. a x 10^b Page 2 of 3 How to Use Signiﬁcant Figures -all non-zero digits are signiﬁcant -zeros are signiﬁcant when -between non-zero digits -after the decimal point (ex. 1.0700 has 5 sig ﬁgs) -zeros are not signiﬁcant when -they are leading (ex. 0.000100 has 3 sig ﬁgs) -trailing zeros without a decimal point (ex. 10700 has 3 sig ﬁgs) A physical parameter is quantiﬁed by: (1) a number or vector, and (2) a unit of measurement. -unit of measurement tells us how the physical quantity compares against a standard -standard (si) units: mass = kg, time = sec, length = meter Two Types of Physical Parameters -scalar: represented by a number and a unit -vector: (capital letter with arrow) represented by magnitude (number and unit) and direction (ex. velocity and position are vectors) Vectors -need a reference point (ex point of origin on graph) -need a coordinate to help describe the position (x and y coordinate) Three Ways to Describe a Vector 1. graphically through an arrow with direction denoted by the arrow direction and magnitude denoted by the arrow 2. numerically through magnitude and direction of a vector (A and θ) A = sqrt(Ax^2 + Ay^2) and θ = arctan(Ay/Ax) 3. numerically through the components of a vector (Ax and Ay) Ax = Acosθ and Ay = Asinθ The angle θ is measured counterclockwise from the positive x axis (0-360 degrees). Page 3 of 3 Vector Addition (R = A+B) -Moving B vector so that B’s tail lies at A’s tip -Then R vector is from A’s tail to B’s tip -Ax = 3m and Ay = 3m -Bx = 0m and By = 2m -Rx = Ax+Bx = 3m and Ry = Ay+By = 1m Vector Subtraction (R = A-B) -Moving B vector so that B’s tip lies at A’s tip -then R vector is from A’s tail to B’s tail -Ax = 3m and Ay = 3m -Bx = 0m and By = 2m -Rx = Ax-Bx = 3m and Ry = Ay-By = 5m Vector Multiplication (R = cA) OR Page of 3 Kinematic Deﬁnitions -position (noted r with arrow): an object’s location relative to some origin or other reference point (frame of reference) -diplacement (noted as Δr with arrow): a change in an object’s position Δx = x2-x1 and Δy = y2-y1 Practice Problem -A postal employee drives a delivery truck along the route shown. Use components to determine the magnitude and direction of the truck’s resultant displacement. -distance traveled by employee = 9.7 km Page 5 of 3 Kinematic Deﬁnitions -Average Velocity (v with arrow): the temporal rate of change of an objects position -change in position / change in time -Average Acceleration (a with arrow): the temporal rate of change of an objects velocity -change in velocity / change in time Suppose the postal employee moves 1km/min from O to C. What is x&y components of the average velocity from to to tb? What is the x&y components of the average acceleration from to to tb? Page 6 of 3 Relative Velocity Start with Simple 1D Kinematics -1D kinematics means motion in a straight line -only one component of a vector (the other is 0) Graphic Representation of Average Velocity on a Graph of x(t) Page 7 of 3 Graphic Representation of Instantaneous Velocity of a Graph of v(t) Graphic Representation of Instantaneous Velocity of a Graph of x(t) Average Velocity Versus Average Speed -speed is scalar, not a vector. average speed is equal to the total distance travelled divided by the total travel time -velocity is a vector. average velocity is equal to displacement vector divided by the total travel time Page 8 of 3 A straight line means a constant slope. For this case, a constant acceleration. Page 9 of 3 1D Kinematics -constant acceleration in a straight line -ax = constant (including zero) 1D Kinematics in Y Direction -constant acceleration in a straight line -ay = constant (including zero) Free Fall is a constant acceleration -vertical motion subject to a constant acceleration due to gravity -magnitude g = 9.8 m/s^2 and direction is vertically downward -ay = -9.8 m/s^2 (we choose positive y as upward direction) Page 10 of 1 3 An apple is thrown up with a speed 5m/s from the ground. What is the maximum height reached and the time at which it is reached? 2D motion -motion in a plane -still interested in position, displacement, velocity, and acceleration -we need both x and y components of a vector Types of 2D Motion -Projectile Motion -horizontally constant velocity (ax = 0 m/s^2) -vertically constant acceleration due to gravity (ay = -9.8 m/s^2 downward) -gun shot, angry birds, fountain water, kicked football -Uniform Circular Motion -circular trajectory -constant speed Equations Governing the Projectile Motion Page 11 of 1 3 The ﬂight of a baseball. The baseball is hit with an initial speed v0 = 37.0 m/s at an initial angle θ = 53.1 degrees. Find the maximum height reached by the ball. Find the horizontal range R (the horizontal distance from the starting point where the ball hits the ground). Page 12 of 1 3 Uniform Circular Motion -speed does not change, but velocity direction changes, there is a non-zero acceleration -acceleration in UCM points toward the center of the circle (arad) arad = v^2 / R (R = radius) Practice Questions 1. For a projectile launched horizontally, which of the following best describe the horizontal component of a projectile’s velocity? The horizontal component of the projectiles velocity remains a non-zero constant. 2. For a projectile launched horizontally, which of the following best describes the vertical component of a projectiles velocity? When positive vertical direction is deﬁned upward: the vertical component of the projectile’s velocity continually decreases. When the positive vertical direction is deﬁned downward: the vertical component of the projectile’s velocity continually increases. 3. For general projectile motion, which of the following best describes the vertical component of the projectile’s acceleration? The vertical component of a projectile’s acceleration remains a non-zero constant. 4. For general projectile motion, which of the following best describes the horizontal component of a projectile’s acceleration? The horizontal component of a projectile’s acceleration is zero. Page 13 of 1 3

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