New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Nutrition Exam 1

by: Abbey Marshall

Nutrition Exam 1 NUTR 1000

Abbey Marshall
GPA 4.0

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Terms that will be covered on first exam
Introduction to Nutrition
Jennifer Yoder
Study Guide
nutrition, health, intro to nutrition, digestion
50 ?




Popular in Introduction to Nutrition

Popular in Nutrition and Food Sciences

This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Abbey Marshall on Thursday September 15, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to NUTR 1000 at Ohio University taught by Jennifer Yoder in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 116 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Nutrition in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Ohio University.

Similar to NUTR 1000 at Ohio

Popular in Nutrition and Food Sciences


Reviews for Nutrition Exam 1


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/15/16
Important Terms for Exam 1 3 keys to success variety moderation proportionality nutrition is the science that links food to health and disease Hunger physiological need to eat Appetite more complex external factors senses/smells hypothalamus the hunger center cortex the feeding center macronutrients carbohydrates fats protein micronutrients vitamins minerals water Macronutrients provide energy in the form of calories Micronutrients utilize our energy nutrients Calorie heat energy needed to raise 1 gram of water 1 degree celsius c&kcal heat energy needed to raise 1,000 grams (1 liter) water 1 degree celsius How do we measure or assess "health"? National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) -under the US department of Health and Human Services -aim to find out what Americans eat, and how diet relates to health Obesity a growing epidemic -2/3 of US adults and 1/3 US children are considered overweight or obese - >35% of adults (or 1 out of 3) are currently obese Healthy People Health Objectives -US Department of Health and Human Services -Report published every 10 years Health People 2020 Overarching Goals -Attain high quality, longer lives free of preventable disease, disability, injury, and premature death -Achieve health equity, eliminate disparities, and improve health of all groups -Create social and physical environments that promote good health for all -promote quality of life, healthy development, and healthy behaviors across all stages Overall macronutrients distribution of American diet fits within recommendations from the FNB (Food and Nutrition Board) -15% kcal from protein (10-35%) -52% kcal CHO (45-65%) -33% kcal from fat (20-35%) The food sources of macronutrients that need work -diets high in animal protein, solid fat, added sugar, salt, alcohol, "empty" calories, too many calories in general -diets low in liquid oils, fiber, fruits, vegetables Proportionality = balance Balance nutrient dense and calorie dense foods Balance energy intake with energy expenditure 5 Major Goals of DGA 2016 Follow a healthy eating pattern across the lifespan Focus on variety, nutrient density, and amount Limit calories from added sugars and saturated fats and reduce sodium Shift to healthier food and beverage choices Support healthy eating patterns for all DGA - basis for menu planning Developed by USDA and DHHS Updated every 10 years Provides nutrition and physical activity advice for all Americans age 2 and older Ultimate goal is to help Americans meet nutrient needs and reduce risk for many chronic diseases Consume a healthy eating pattern that accounts for all foods and beverages within an appropriate calorie level -Imbalances between calories consumed and calories expended could lead to changes in body weight and chronic disease risk -Aim to meet nutrient needs primarily with nutrient dense foods -Fortified foods and dietary supplements may be useful -Healthy eating patterns are adaptable to socio- cultural and individual preferences Designing a well balanced meal plan A healthy eating pattern includes: A variety of vegetables from all subgroups Fruits, especially whole fruits Grains, at least half of which are whole grains Fat-free or low-fat dairy, including milk, yogurt, cheese, and/or fortified soy beverages A variety of protein foods, including seafood, lean meats and poultry, eggs, legumes (beans and peas), and nuts, seeds, and soy products Oils A healthy eating pattern limits Saturated fats (<10% of kcal) Trans fats Added sugars (<10% of kcal) Sodium (<2300 mg) If alcohol is consumed, it should be consumed in moderation, and only by adults of legal drinking age Up to 1 drink per day for women Up to 2 drinks per day for men Select PA Guidelines We need to move more Avoid inactivity Aim for at least 150 min/week moderate intensity, or 75 min/week of vigorous intensity aerobic activity For additional health benefits, increase aerobic PA to 300 min/week of moderate or 150 min/week vigorous At least 2 days/ week routine should include strength training which includes all muscle groups Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) Umbrella term Standards are continuously reviewed, revamped, and renewed (as needed) Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine Set for both US and Canada Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) "average daily level of intake sufficient to meet the nutrient requirements of nearly all healthy individuals" Meets 97-98% of a populations needs Used for setting individual nutrient and energy goals Adequate Intake (AI) "established when evidence is insufficient to develop an RDA and is set at a level assumed to ensure nutritional adequacy" Calcium and Vitamin D for example DRIs established in 1997, but reports only for AI (no RDA or EAR) 2010 RDA, EAR, and UL published Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) "average daily nutrient level estimated to meet the requirements of half (50%)of the health individuals in a group" Used to establish RDA RDA = 1.2*EAR Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) "the highest level of daily nutrient intake that is likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects to almost all individuals in the general population" Represents intake from food, water, and supplements Ceiling, not a goal Nutrition Quackery: 101 What to look out for: Consumer testimonials; before/after photos Rapid weight loss claims No diet or exercise required Long term/permanent weight loss claims Clinically proven/doctor approved claims Digestive System: Overview Functions: digestion, absorption, elimination of wastes, assists immune system Autonomic control-involuntary, occur without us even thinking Highly regulated by CNS, ENS, and hormones serves to protect us from the environment Organs of the GI tract Mouth/oral cavity Esophagus Stomach Small intestine Large intestine Accessory Organs Pancreas Liver Gallbladder Lumen hollowing opening inside the GI tract Motility movement of food through the GI tract Peristalsis coordinated muscular movement that propels food along GI tract Sphincters muscular rings that prevent the backflow of food matter through the GI tract Lower esophageal sphincter Pyloric sphincter Ileocecal valve Anal sphincters Mechanical Digestion Physical breakdown of food by means of chewing, ripping, tearing, and muscular contractions (churning, peristalsis) Chemical Digestion Chemical breakdown of foods by acid and enzymes secreted into the GI tract Digestive enzymes Enzymes end in "ase" amylases: breakdown carbohydrate proteases: breakdown protein lipases: breakdown fats Bolus moistened mass of food that moves from the mouth through the esophagus to the stomach chyme watery mixture of partially digested food and digestive secretions feces mass of water, fiber, tough connective tissues, bacterial cells, and sloughed intestinal cells formed in the large intestine and excreted through the anus Mouth/Oral cavity Mechanical digestion -Chewing/churning, biting, swallowing Chemical digestion -Salivary amylase/lipase Sense of taste- 5 tastes -sweet, sour, bitter, salty, umami Food leaves as bolus Esophagus Allows movement of bolus from pharynx to stomach Lower esophageal sphincter relaxes upon swallowing No chemical digestion Stomach Holding tank for food Mechanical digestion -Churning/mixing Chemical digestion -Gastric secretions and enzymes Food leaves as chyme Absorption -water, alcohol, some medications Stomach Secretions Produce enzymes -Pepsin begins protein digestion -Gastric lipase digests fats to a small extent Produce mucus -Protects stomach from acid Produce hydrochloric acid (HCl) -Denatures proteins -Activates some digestive enzymes -Solubilizes some minerals Produce intrinsic factor -Involved in vitamin B-12 absorption Small Intestine Site of most chemical digestion and absorption Three segments (1)Duodenum (~10 inches) (2)Jejunum (~4 feet) (3)Ileum (~5 feet) Chemical Digestion in the Small Intestine Chyme passes from stomach into small intestine (duodenum) Pancreas releases pancreatic juice Bicarbonate Pancreatic enzymes Gallbladder releases bile Small intestinal cells produce some enzymes Villi fingerlike protrusions that participate in digestion and absorption of food Absorption from the Small Intestine Villi New intestinal absorptive cells are constantly produced in crypts of small intestine Microvilli Absorptive cells (enterocytes) Microvilli extensive folds on the mucosal surface of the absorptive cells; increase surface area x 600 Absorptive cells (enterocytes) intestinal cells that line villi and participate in nutrient absorption Passive diffusion diffusion of nutrients across the absorptive cell membranes Facilitated diffusion uses a carrier protein to move nutrients down a concentration gradient Active absorption involves a carrier protein as well as energy to move nutrients (against a concentration gradient) into absorptive cells Phagocytosis and pinocytosis forms of active transport in which absorptive cell membrane forms an indentation that engulfs a nutrient to bring it into cell Large Intestine No villi or enzymes Absorption of water, some minerals, vitamins Five segments (1)Cecum (2)Ascending colon (3)Transverse colon (4)Descending colon (5)Sigmoid colon Rectum Anus Inside the Large Intestine Components of feces -Water -Undigested fiber -Tough connective tissues (from animal foods) -Bacteria -Dead intestinal cells Large bacterial population (>500 different species) -Probiotics - microorganisms that reside in large intestine and provide health benefits -Prebiotics - substances that increase growth of probiotic microorganisms Probiotics microorganisms that reside in large intestine and provide health benefits Prebiotics substances that increase growth of probiotic microorganisms Pancreas Secretes digestive enzymes for "everyone" (carbohydrate, protein, and fat) Secretes bicarbonate to help neutralize strong gastric acid Pancreas Secretes *INSULIN in response to high blood sugar Secretes *GLUCAGON in response to low blood sugar *hormones of metabolism Liver Detoxifies drugs and alcohol Produces bile (which emulsifies fat) Synthesizes glycogen Synthesizes lipoproteins (ie: HDL, LDL) Packages and stores nutrients Gall Bladder Stores bile (fat emulsifier) Bile Produced by liver Stored in gallbladder Released into duodenum Necessary for digestion and absorption of dietary lipids Enterohepatic Circulation Description of how bile is reabsorbed from SI and returned to liver for future use Nutrient Absorption and transport sugars-glucose amino acids-to different amino acids short chain fatty acids- for energy or storage lymphatic system-long chain fatty acids 3 main storage issues liver muscle adipose Glycogen glucose Liver -generous -release into bloodstream for other tissues -limited capacity Muscle Adipose energy warehouse -excess energy of carbs, lipids, fats, and alcohol -unlimited storage house of energy Is muscle a storage tissue for excess protein? NO -active tissue -do not want to pull amino acids from tissue -excess, dismantled, or glucose or other energy use Anabolic Building up (feasting) Catabolic Tearing down (fasting) Amphibolic both anabolic and catabolic properties Energy from Nutrients carbs-4 cals of energy fat-9 cals of energy protein-4 calf energy + nitrogen Metabolism of carbohydrates Anabolic End Products of Carbohydrates -glycogen (liver and muscle) -adipose (fat) Catabolic End Products of Carbohydrates -Glucose which goes to CO2 + H20 + energy (ATP) Metabolism of Fat Anabolic End Products of Fat -Adipose (fat) Catabolic End Products of Fat -Fatty acids which goes to CO2 + H20 + energy (ATP) Metabolism of Protein Anabolic End Products of Protein -new cells, new tissues (bone, muscle, tendon) -Adipose (fat) if too much Catabolic End Products of Protein -Amino acids which goes to CO2 + H20 + N +energy (ATP) nitrogen break down of amino aces that are inefficient Nutrition and Genetics Genetic variation can alter: -Nutrient requirements -Susceptibilities to diseases -Responses to diet and lifestyle changes Genome an organism's complete set of DNA Epigenome the way that genome is marked and packaged inside the cell nucleus Epigenetics changes in gene expression caused by mechanisms other than changes in the DNA sequence Nutrigenetics how genetic makeup affects response to diet Nutrigenomics how diet(environment) influences gene expression Nutritional Diseases with a Genetic Link CVD, obesity, diabetes, certain types of cancer -genetics and nutrition affect diseases to varying degrees -monogenic vs. polygenic Direct - To- Consumer Genetic Testing Pros: Becoming more affordable Easy access Increase awareness of genetic disease Personalized/targeted therapy more effective Cons: Vulnerable to scams - unreliable, unproven, invalid testing Average consumer lacks knowledge to accurately interpret results Could lead to undue worry and anxiety Potential invasion of genetic privacy (insurance, employers, extended care facilities) Heartburn Relaxation of lower esophageal sphincter allows gastric contents to reflux into esophagus Symptoms Gnawing pain in chest ("heartburn") Nausea Gagging Coughing Hoarseness Recurrent heartburn = gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) -can damage to lining of esophagus Remedies for Heart Burn Try dietary intervention first Reduce/avoid/eliminate food irritants Eat smaller, frequent meals Avoid lying down immediately after eating Elevate the head of the bed 6 to 8 inches Severe GERD may require medical treatment Antacids Proton pump inhibitor Motility agent Constipation/Diarrhea Alteration in fluidity, frequency, or amount of bowel movements Causes can be multifactorial Medication, infection, dietary supplements, lack of/too much fiber, stress Treatment varies Main goal is to restore normal bowel behavior Manipulation of dietary fiber and hydration status Medication may be needed in extreme cases Celiac Disease and Gluten Sensitivity Autoimmune with genetic predisposition Intolerant to gluten Wheat, barley, rye Less than 1% population diagnosed Nonceliac Gluten Sensitivity/Gluten Intolerance Experience symptoms of celiac disease GI symptoms Fatigue, headache, muscle and joint pain, difficulty sleeping Show positive results when gluten is reduced or eliminated from diet 3 keys to success variety moderation proportionality


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Amaris Trozzo George Washington University

"I made $350 in just two days after posting my first study guide."

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.