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Exam 1 Review

by: marina.lopez Notetaker

Exam 1 Review 1223

marina.lopez Notetaker
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Exam Review
Human Anatomy and Physiology 1
Mr. Kyle Harris
Study Guide
50 ?




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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by marina.lopez Notetaker on Thursday September 15, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 1223 at Temple University taught by Mr. Kyle Harris in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology 1 in Kinesiology at Temple University.

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Date Created: 09/15/16
Tuesday, September 13, 2016 Lecture 5 Exam 1 Study Guide *Specific Questions on Exam* I. Structure and Function A. Structure determines Function 1. Ball and socket joints are rotational (Femer) B. Function modifies Structure 1. Muscles grow with functional strain (Broken Limb) II. Feedback Mechanisms A. Negative 1. Body is abnormal and returns to normal a) Light headed heart rate increases b) Normal Body temperture maintnence B. Positive 1. Self-amplifying 2. Change leads to cont. movement in same direct. (eventually out of balance) 3. Response enhances original stimulus a) Contractions during pregnancy b) Disease creates rising body temperature III. Stress A. Stimulus creates imbalance in internal enviornment 1. Disturbs homeostatis a) Internal (Blood Pressure, Pain, Unpleasent Thoughts) b) External (Heat, Cold, Loud Noises) Chemical Elements IV. A. Element- Composition 1. Most Common Elements in Body a) 1) Oxygen 2)Carbon 3)Hydrogen 4)Nitrogen 5)Calcium 6)Phosphorus 7)Potassium B. Atom- simplest particle, composition, electrically neutral, interactions 1. Nucleus = center a) Surrounded by electron shell 2. Electrons: single negative charge, little mass a) Valence electrons interact with other atoms & determine chem. behavior 3. Protons: Single + Charge, Mass = 1 amu 4. Neutrons: No Charge, Mass = 1 amu C. Molecule- simplest particle D. Ions- carry a charge due to unequal protons and electrons 1. Ionization- transfer of electrons from one atom to another (increase valence shells stability) a) Ex: Transfer from a sodium (11P 12N 11E) to a chlorine atom (17P 18N 17E) 2. Anion- atom gained electrons (net negative charge) Tuesday, September 13, 2016 3. Cations- atom that lost an electron (net positive) 4. Ions of opposite charge attract a) Ex: Sodium(-) Chloride(+) = Sodium Chloride V. Chemical Reactions- Making and Breaking Bonds BetweenAtoms A. Anabolism or Sythesis Reactions B. Catabolism or Decomposition Reactions VI. NucelicAcids A. 2 KINDS 1. RNA(RibonucleicAcids) a) 70-10,000 nucleotides in length b) formed in nucleus c) move into & stay in cytoplasm after formation d) Function: carry out order for protien synthesis by DNA (1) Is able to leave nucleous using complimentary pair (whisper down the alne) e) Similar to DNAexcept 2. DNA(DeoxyribonucleicAcid) a) Double Row of nucleotides (1) Alternating Phosphate Group (2) Deoxyribose Sugar (a) 4 Nitrogenous Bases (Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine, Guanine) (b) Complimentary Pairs: i) A-T ii) T-A iii) C-G iv) G-C b) Gene: segment of a DNAmolecule that carries the instructions for making 1 protien c) Genetic Code: amino acids to be manufactured B. Two Roles: Carry & Replicate genetic info 1. 2. Provide instructions for building protiens 3. Large Complex Molecule 4. Located in Nucelus 5. Control Structure & Function of entire Organism C. Composition 1. Carbon 2. Hydrogen 3. Oxygen 4. Nitrogen 5. Phosphorus D. Nucleotides are building blocks of NucleicAcids 1. 3 Components a) Phosphate Group b) Nitrogenous Base: 1 of several c) 5 Carbon Sugar: Ribose or Deoxyribose VII. ATP-Mitochandria A. Adenosine Triphosphate 1. Provides energy for cell to carry out its function 2. Consumed withing 60 seconds and Continually Replenished 3. Formed by breakdown of glucose 4. When high energy bonds are hydrolyzed the energy in the bond is released for cellular use (Hydrolicice?) 5. ATP=ADP+P(i)+ENERGY a) ADP=Adenosine Diphosphate b) P(i)= Inorganic Phosphate Group VIII. Other Nucleotides: A. GTP: gUANOSINE B. cAMP IX. Glycocalyx-carbohydrate (fuzzy coating) A. Functions: 1. Cell recognition 2. Adhesion and protection 3. unique to everyone 4. sticky surface helps bind cells X. Microvilli- increase surface area for absorbtion (visual: little hairs) A. Brush boarder actin filaments shorten microvilli XI. Intercellular Junctions (How much flexibility do they need?) Tuesday, September 13, 2016 A. All cells (except blood) anchor one another by intercellular junctions B. Adjacent cells are bound by lateral contacts C. Reduce or eliminate extracellular space 1. Tight Junctions- a) protien molecules in adjacent plasma membranes fuse together b) forms impermeable junction (zipper) c) prevents passage d) Example: GI & Urinary Tracts e) Nothing can get inbetween the cells and destroy the entire tissue 2. Desmosomes- a) protien filaments hold adjacent cells together b) plasma membranes dont touch c) prevent seperation of tissue layers d) Resists tension forces e) Example: Uterus, heart epidermis f) Hemidesmosome- Half of a desmosome (Base of Membrane) 3. Gap Junctions- a) Connect cells by holllow cylinders composed of transmembrane protiens (CONNEXONS) (1) Allows small molecules and electrical excitation to pass through prevents passage b) Cardiac and Smooth Muscles XII. Cytoplasm= Cytoskeleton & Cytosol A. Cytosol-Intercellular Fluid 1. Clear structureless Fluid Gel (ICF) B. Cytoskeleton (Shape Cells) 1. Cells have flexible internal network or protien (Metal Pipe) 2. microfilaments tiny rods contractil protien (Actin) In bundles in muscle cells (shortens muscle) 3. microtubules (helps transport nutrients) XIII. Protien Organization by Function A. Structural Protiens: Fibrous Protiens 1. provide tensile strength 2. insoluble 3. chemically stable a) collagen: bone, tendon b) keratin: hair, skin, nails c) elastin: ligaments B. Functional or Globular Protiens 1. Globular in shape 2. Water soluble 3. Mobile 4. ChemicallyActive: a) Crucial role in metabolism b) Unstable (1) Ex:Antibodies &Antigen (2) Protien based hormones (3) Enzymes: Catalyst for most chemical reactions Functional Protiens XIV. A. Denaturization: globular protien in cell membrane loses shape 1. with shape it loses fuction a) reversible or irreversible B. Enzymes: 1. Biological Catalyst XV.


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