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by: Emily Ellis


Marketplace > University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa > REL 100 > EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE ONLY
Emily Ellis

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this includes ONLY the study guide that covers modules 1-3 with their respective quiz questions/correct answers to help you study for our first test. I have also posted a 'bundle' option for tho...
Intro To Religious Studies
Mary Rebecca Read-Wahidi
Study Guide
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emily Ellis on Thursday September 15, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to REL 100 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Mary Rebecca Read-Wahidi in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views.




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Date Created: 09/15/16
Thursday, September 15, 2016 REL 100-920 EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE (MODULES 1-3) (Module 4 is in separate file with quiz answers inside of it! :] ) Module 1: 1. In Purity and Danger, what does Mary Douglas credit with making the categories to which we ascribe? Correct Answer: social life 2. Douglas suggests that Purity and Danger was meant to: Correct Answer: attack and overturn excessively intellectualist approach to religion and turn it into a behavioral/anthropological approach 3. McCutcheon uses which of the following examples to discuss the implications of naming? Correct Answer: Mount Everest 4. Mary Douglas used which everyday distinction to discuss the power of names? Correct Answer: dirt/soil 5. What metaphor does McCutcheon use in the Introduction to your textbook to talk about curiosity about phenomena? Correct Answer: burned-out light bulb 1 Thursday, September 15, 2016 • soil or dirt? 
 • This concept gives an object a classification system based on it's relevance to a group of people
 • what may be dirt to someone may be considered soil to somebody else – all is in the eyes of the beholder
 • so, if the concept of soil/dirt refers to the evidence of an imposed system of order that can be transgressed – something • Sacred → secular 
 • belief → behavior 
 • experience → expression 
 • faith → institution 
 • private → public 
 • religion → politics 
 Broken Light Switch they more often than not tell about the namer rather than the object being named
 ARE neutral, they bear a direct relationship with some aspect of the object being named if this is the case, we should learn to challenge this!
 McCutcheon gives the example of Green Mean Time/ Green Prime Meridian
 in a name? - an awful lot!
 Politics, colonial power, personal invested interests that arranges our world around us to accomplish specific sets of goals and social cues – what other common pairings are out there? 2 Thursday, September 15, 2016 • when reaching for a light switch we automatically assume that when we flick it upward, it will turn on. However, what happens when you walk into a room of darkness due to a broken light switch? • It would be silly to assume that the reason the switch did not work is due to a powerful, invisible agent at work behind the light switch, but can we 100% write it off? • This metaphor gives us 2 life lessons: ◦ 1. reaching for the light switch is probably not a conscious, intentional activity ◦ 2. reality doesn't necessarily match our expectations • familiar patterns of human behavior do not always match the way the world seems to operate • also consider a “religious” car mechanic: he or she does not pray for the car in order to fix it – no matter how religious they may or may not be. ◦ They simply go through a classification order set up by the world around them that helps them to figure out what is wrong with the car – they do not “pray for it” ◦ classification is a social ac
 Module 2: 1. The term "religion" has what kind of linguistic roots? Correct Answer: Latin 2. All of the following terms are examples of words often (and problematically) translated as "religion" except: Correct Answer: Fulgeo 3. J. Z. Smith suggests that an adequate definition of religion is "a system of beliefs and practices that are relative to_______________": Correct Answer: Superhuman beings 3 Thursday, September 15, 2016 4. According to J. Z. Smith, all of the following are characteristics of an inadequate definition of religion except: Correct Answer: Too scholarly 5. What did the word "piety" mean to ancient Greeks in Athens? Correct Answer: An understanding public differences and rankings Notes from Religion, Definition of: Smith • long lists of definitions of religions fail to demonstrate the difficulty in the task of defining religion - all that these lists show is that there is little agreement on an adequate definition • a specific definition of religion usually comes from a particular discipline or theory of religion - example: 1. definitions that refer to social representations are rooted in sociological explanation 2. definitions that refer to religion as a symbol of mental or unconscious reality are based in psychology • though these definitions have some limitations placed on them, they are not inherently false • inadequate definitions include those that are vague with terms (“ultimate concern”, “worldview”, “the sacred”) • also, the definitions that include those that are too limited and restrictive, such as “belief in God”, would be inadequate as well - even though this definition would cover monotheistic religions - it would not cover polytheistic religions or religions that do not believe in any god at al 4 Thursday, September 15, 2016 adequate definitions would include those that would mention it as a “system of beliefs • & practices that are relative to superhuman beings” - this definition moves away from any other definition that depicts an “experince” or “worldview” - however, this definition would exclude the following: Nazism, Marxism, secularism, varieties of nationalism, & civil quasi-religious movements • a proposal for a useful definition would be one that which: 1. is anthropocentric 2. is empirical available 3. is cross-culturally applicable PIETY- an understanding of public differences and rankings DHARMA- the Sanskrit term for the cosmic system of duties and obligations that affects all aspects of samsara (which itself names the almost endless cycle of births and rebirths) EUSEBIA- Greek term that referred to the ceremonials of worship as found in Acts 26:5 and James 1:26,27 PIETAS- Latin term having to do with the quality one is thought to possess as a result of properly fulfilling social obligations, expectations, & ritual procedures DIN- Arabic term that gives to the modern concept of the notion that there is a debt that must be settled Module 3: 1. What is the focus of an essentialist definition of religion? Correct Answer: the core aspect or essence that defines religion 5 Thursday, September 15, 2016 2. According to Tillich, religion is defined as one's ________ Correct Answer: ultimate concern 3. Paul Tillich was so concerned with the false concern with nation and nationalism because: Correct Answer: having left Germany during the rise of Hitler, he had first-hand knowledge of the potential ills of governmental power. 4. Tillich’s time in the U.S. led him to critique which of the following characteristics about the West? Correct Answer: material wealth and success 5. All of the following were key components of Tillich's understanding of faith except: Correct Answer: certainty Key Essentialists Rudolf Otto (1869-1937) German Protestant theologian • “the idea of the holy” (1917) • • religions identify by feeling of awe and fascination in the presence of mysterious tremendum (compelling, yet reeling mystery of it all) Friedrich Schleiermacher (1768-1834) • German theologian • essence of REL was the “feeling of absolute dependence” 6 Thursday, September 15, 2016 Gerardus van der Leeuw (1890-1950) • Dutch phenomenologist • essence of REL is “power” Paul Tillich (1886-1965) • early 20th century theologian • essence of REL as “an ultimate concern” William James (1842-1910) • late 19th century psychologist of REL • essence of REL is experience to “religious geniuses” that, once expressed, taught, reproduced, and institutionalized, it was prone to deteriorate Mircea Eliade (1907-1986) • historian of religions • essence of REL as the experience of the sacred (which he defined as those that are not profane) • Essentialists name something as REL, if and only if, it possesses a certain quality or trait Remembering Mary Douglas- dialogue trying to define the essence of “eusebia” is set within a context full of conflicts over rank and power Defining by example: Are definitions and examples the same? Greek Euthyphro answers “what is piety?” with “doing what I am doing • now” (prosecuting criminals) aka not very pious • Socrates looks for the ESSENCE of piety 7 Thursday, September 15, 2016 **Questions to ponder from Socrates** Is something pious because the gods love it, or do they love it because it is pious? SO… Is religion a function of human behavior, needs, and interests, or does it have an essence? Phenomenology- the investigation of that which is observable - limits itself to describing rather than explaining experience • the study of that which appears or presents itself Criticisms of Phenomenology • not objective enough • too objective • too abstract or ahistorical J.Z. Smith: Essence a term usually taken to mean what a thing “is” intrinsically • • what attributes or characteristics must be found in a particular thing if it is to belong to a certain kind • is distinguished from accidental attributes Animism- an obsolete term employed to describe belief systems of traditional peoples that appear to hold that phenomena have spirits or souls • coined by Tylor in 1871 & should be used with caution 8 Thursday, September 15, 2016 The Holy- generally meaning completely good absolute moral attribute denoting the consummation of moral goodness • there’s a little “extra” in the meaning of “holy” - above and beyond the meaning of goodness Essentialism- the approach that assumes an enduring identity, core, substance, or essence that lurks deep within objects, making them what we ay they are Edward Burnett Tylor • 19th century anthropologist • wrote “Primitive Culture” which was published in 1871 • he said that an immature definition of religion limits it to a private, intellectual activity, aka, religion = believing in this or that without emphasis on behavioral or social factors • religion is private Emile Durkheim • influential sociologist • wrote “Elementary Forms of Religious Life” • said religion is a collective things where a unified group called a Church agree upon practices that are relative to sacred things - set apart and forbidden - to show that the idea of religion is inseparable from the Church • religion is public 9


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