PSYCH Critical Thinking Study Guide Exam 1
PSYCH Critical Thinking Study Guide Exam 1 Psyc 130
Long Beach State
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Camryn Hohneker on Thursday September 15, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psyc 130 at California State University Long Beach taught by Judy Quon in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 60 views. For similar materials see Critical Thinking in Psychology at California State University Long Beach.
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Date Created: 09/15/16
Study Guide: Exam 1 Critical Thinking: use of those cognitive skills or strategies that increase probability of a desirable outcome The 8 Key Factors: use: application those: more than one, but not all cognitive: mental skills/strategies: different methods/approaches; degree of expertise increase: more likely probability: chance of something desirable: what’s wanted outcome: the end result System 1 Thinking: fast, automatic, based on intuition feelings vs fact based on experience System 2 Thinking: slow, effortful intentional gather/evaluate information aka critical thinking Bounded Rationality: thinking is limited 1. incomplete knowledge of consequences 2. incomplete list of all possible situations 3. limited mental processing abilities “Critical” refers to evaluating the thought process and its outcomes o goal directed, intentional, conscious o aka Directed Thinking Nondirect Thinking: Thinking that involves little conscious evaluation automatic response aka Automatic Thinking habits and routines Critical Thinking Benefits Evaluate if our critical thinking is valid or not o Emotional reactions, prejudice, traditions, etc. Fewer Social Problems o Divorce, friends, loneliness, etc. Fewer Community Problems o Juvenile delinquency, vandalism, theft, murder, etc. Better Justice Systems o courts Less World and Domestic Conflict o Politics, wars, economic situations. We Want to Change How People Think not to manipulate, but to educate and benefit society transfer of training: goal of education metacognition: our knowledge of what we know o how we learn How to Change Ways of Thinking: A: Attitude (Your Choice) K: Knowledge (Content) S: Skills (Practice) 6 Key Factors to Critical Thinking (Attitude) 1. Willingness to Plan: 1. Examine Situation 2. Identify goal 3. identify action steps 4. before taking action 2. Flexibility: 1. From the original choice 2. Open to other choices 3. Persistence: 1. Persevere despite 2. hardship/barriers 4. Willingness to Self-Correct: 1. Admit mistake and 2. Change action 3. To correct mistake 5. Being Mindful: 1. Consciously Monitor 2. Outcomes of Plan Actions 3. For Feedback on progress/mistakes 6. Consensus-Seeking: 1. Reach agreement between 2. Two or more people who are 3. Interdependent Framework for Thinking: 1. What is the goal? 2. What is known? 3. Which critical thinking skills will get you to your goal? 4. Have you reached your goal? Q1 Chapter 1: Obstacles to Critical Thinking: 1. Unmet Survival Needs: A basic need is missing. a. food, shelter, water b. is an obstacle when attention is on unmet need rather than the current situation, leading to incorrect action for the situation c. strategy: meet needs first d. Identify: i. correct action for situation (CT) ii. incorrect action taken (Lack of CT), because of focus on iii. specific unmet need 2. Psychological Blocks: strong positive or strong negative feelings a. is an obstacle when focus is on feelings rather than the current situation, leading to incorrect action for situation b. strategy: feel your emotions, but only act when thinking logically (emotions aside) c. Identify: i. correct action for situation (CT) ii. incorrect action taken (Lack of CT), because of focus on iii. specific feelings 3. Stereotypes, Prejudice, Bias: a. Stereotypes: generalizations about a person because of a person’s group membership instead of merit b. Prejudice: negative feelings toward a person based on group membership instead of merit c. Bias: positive feelings toward a person based on group membership instead of merit i. is an obstacle when generalizations/feelings lead to incorrect action d. Identify: i. correct action for situation (CT) ii. incorrect action taken (Lack of CT), because of focus on iii. specific negative/positive feelings e. stereotypes > prejudice/bias > discrimination 4. Unreflective Acceptance of Cultural/Societal Attitudes: a. Cultural Attitudes: shared values, beliefs, and traditions of one’s group (ethnic, work, social, etc.) b. Societal Attitudes: shared values, beliefs, and traditions of two or more cultural groups i. is an obstacle when other cultural/societal attitudes is rejected simply because its different ii. which leads to incorrect action c. Identify: i. correct action for situation (CT) ii. incorrect action taken (Lack of CT), because of rejection iii. specific cultural or societal values, beliefs, or behaviors 5. Blind Obedience: people act on command of authority person a. is obstacle if obedient action harms person b. Requester has authority factors (job, title, degree, etc.) c. Identify: i. correct action for situation (CT) ii. incorrect action taken (Lack of CT), because followed iii. specific command of iv. specific authority person 6. Habit and Conformity a. Habit: specific environmental cues trigger a person’s action automatically i. based on experience b. Conformity: choose to change action to group norm for acceptance by group i. unrequested c. is an obstacle when action taken is incorrect because better ones exist d. Identify: i. correct action for situation (CT) ii. incorrect action taken (Lack of CT), because of seeing iii. specific cues or iv. specific group norm 7. One-Sided Thinking: only one view considered when other relevant views exist a. is obstacle when view is biased, incomplete/false, leading to incorrect action Strategy: ask what are the other views Halpern Chapter 2: Memory: The Acquisition, Retention and Retrieval of Knowledge Bounded Rationality: the idea that when individuals make decisions, their rationality is limited by the available information, the tractability of the decision problem, the limitations of their minds, and time available to make the decision Metacognition: the higher-level cognition; the thinking about thinking; knowledge about cognition and control of cognition Memory as Mediator of Cognitive Processes All intelligent systems (humans, animals) can learn and remember All thinking skill are tied to memory How info is remembered is complex o Tend to exaggerate memorable events o Tend to underestimate unmemorable events (bad/embarrassing events) o Events between learning and recall can interfere with the recall of information; accuracy is uncertain Memory as Mediator of Cognitive Processes Timeline: Learning retaining and recalling info involves a passage of time o Information is learned at one point and recalled at a later time (seconds to a lifetime) o Events between learning and recall interfere with recall of info Learning----------------------------------Memory-------------------------Act of Remembering Acquisition (Time 1) Retention Interval Retrieval (Time 2) (short term memory: ie. Notes) (Long term memory: ie. Exams) --- Memory is connected with “cues” present from when the memory is formed (ie. Accident- location, people, sounds, etc.) One cue can be associated with many memories due to repeated experiences o this allows interference More cues associated with one memory -> more likely for recall to occur Associations can form without conscious awareness (this happens most of the time) Memory as Mediator of Cognitive Processes- Varieties of Memory: Declarative Memory: recall of information that can be verbally stated (easily stated) (2 types): o Episodic Memory: recall of highly visual and personal experiences. Mental diary o Semantic Memory: recall of objective and general knowledge information. Mental dictionary or encyclopedia. laws, history, mathematics, etc. NOT personal experiences or emotions. It’s factual Procedural memory: recall of motor processes and/or mental processes. o Mostly motor processes and it’s difficult to verbally describe o gymnastics, reading map, etc. Muscle memory. Automatic memory: Effortless recall of stored information due to repetition o (ex. Habits, routines) Vs. Effortful memory: intentional recall of mentally stored information. (ex. Learning new information) Acquisition: 7 Strategies that Promote Learning 1. Pay Attention: conscious processing of information o Have to pay attention to acquire information o Limited ability to process information; subset o Individual differences influence focus (interests, needs, etc.) o To improve memory-pay attention to paying attention o Evidence of paying attention- read words out loud, trace letters/object/person with object, take notes, etc. 2. Monitor meaning: track comprehension of information. o Improves memory. Evidence is summary or explanation of information. 3. Distribute Learning: study across a longer time span with more sessions and less information per session. 4. Get organized (by categories): individual factors are grouped together by a common principle (ex. Colors, animals) 5. Retrieval Cues for recall (different from the text): o Retrieval Cue: environmental factor associate with specific memories. Seeing the cue brings the memory into conscious awareness. (ie. Perfume, song, sunset, etc.) o Multiple cues: retrieval cues associated with one memory 6. Overlearn: repeatedly review information for faster recall and few or no errors o (ex. Playing piano, reciting ABCs, multiplication tables, etc.) 7. Noncognitive Factors: Need to address since all interfere with ability to pay attention o 1. Physical needs (hunger, sleep, water) o 2. Drugs o 3. Lack of time (focus on time limits rather than the target/goal information) -- Retention Duration of different types of memory o 1. Sensory Memory: occurs within the senses all objects in visual/audio field are available IF they can be attended to quickly Visual ¼ to ½ second Audio 4 seconds o 2. Short term memory (STM)/working memory: memories stored up to 1 minute; limited capacity Chunking: combines several related items into one code: can remember “more” info External Memory Aids: reading written information o lists, calendars, etc. Mnemonics (intentional memory aids): mental strategies to increase recall list of words o 1. First Letters: first letter of each word to form word of all first letters to increase recall of list insert vowels, but use lower case Why Does Forgetting Occur: Two Themes Interference theory of forgetting: blocked recall of information because of previously learned or subsequently learned information o well supported Decay of Forgetting: information gone from memory because of passing of time o little support
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