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Test 1 Study Guide

by: Klawr13

Test 1 Study Guide PSY 310- 02

GPA 3.4

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About this Document

Chapter 1-3
Behavior Modification
Victoria Fogel
Study Guide
behavior, modification, Psychology
50 ?




Popular in Behavior Modification

Popular in Psychology And Social Behavior

This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Klawr13 on Thursday September 15, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 310- 02 at Grand Valley State University taught by Victoria Fogel in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see Behavior Modification in Psychology And Social Behavior at Grand Valley State University.


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Date Created: 09/15/16
PSY 310- 02 Fogel Exam 1 Chapter 1 Behavior- what people do and say Characteristics of behavior  Lawful  Can be observed  Impact on physical/social environment  Have dimensions  May be overt or covert Dimensions  Frequency  Duration  Latency  Intensity Overt- behavior that can be observed or recorded  Yelling, kicking, eating, exercising Covert- behavior that is not observable, private events  Thinking Behavior Modification- analyzing and modifying human behavior  Focus on Behavior o No labels (autism, ADHD, aggressive) o Target behavior- behavior one wants to change o Behavioral excess- occurs too much (smoking, drinking coffee) o Behavioral deficit- occurs too little (exercising) Behaviorism- guiding theoretical framework of behavior  Controlling variables o Modifying antecedents or consequences Pavlov-  Classical conditioning: salivation in response to food by dogs  Demonstrated a reflex could be conditioned to a neutral stimulus Thorndike-  Law of Effect- if a behavior produces a favorable effect on the environment it is more likely to repeat  Reinforcement Watson-  Started a movement in psychology known as behaviorism Skinner-  Expanded the field of behaviorism (Watson)  Basic principles of operant behavior (learned behavior)  Credited with laying foundation of behavior modification Common Misconceptions-  Relies on punishment  Uses bribes  Simplistic  Ignores the real causes of behavior, just treats the symptoms  Leads to people controlling each other  Ruins intrinsic motivation  Makes people dependent on external incentives  Dehumanizes people  It only works with kids and individuals with disabilities Chapter 2 Behavior assessment- measurement of the target behavior  Information about the behavior  Helps choose which treatment is best  Measuring before and after helps detect change in behavior Indirect assessment- using interviews, questionnaires, rating scales and product measures  Ex- nutritionist asking about diet Direct assessment- a person observes and records the target behavior  Ex- dance instructor, physical therapist  Direct assessment preferred Steps: 1. Define the target behavior  Labels are not behavior  Behavioral definition vs label o Ex- Studying: reading pages from a textbook, underlining sentences in the text, completing math problems, and reading notes from class  Inter-observer agreement: when two people independently observe a behavior o Agree upon what the behavior is defined as o 80-90% agreement of results 2. Determine the logistics of recording  Observer- professional, or person from client’s environment (teacher, parent)  Self-monitoring: the client records their own behavior 3. When and Where to Record  Observation period: when the target behavior is recorded  Natural setting: places which the target behavior normally occurs o Classroom, bedroom at bedtime  Analogue setting: a setting the client is not used to o Clinical playroom for a child  Structured observation- specific events, activities, or instructions occur o A parent requesting a child to do homework  Unstructured observation- none are given 4. Choose a recording method  Continuous recording- every instance of behavior recorded o Frequency, latency, intensity, duration  Real-time recording: exact time of each onset and offset of behavior o Exact frequency and duration of behavior  Product recording- indirect assessment method when behavior results in tangible outcome o Math problems correct  Interval recording- behavior occurred during consecutive time periods  Partial-time interval: simply record whether behavior occurred during each time interval  Whole-interval: behavior occurred for the whole time interval  Frequency within-interval: frequency of behavior within certain time intervals  Time-sample recording: record for only part of the time interval o Only at beginning, or end, or only 1 minute of interval  Momentary-time: if behavior occurs at exact moment o (convenient because observe doesn’t need to constantly record) 5. Choose a recording instrument  Recording must be immediate and practical  Paper and pencil  Stopwatch for duration  Smartphone with apps (discreet in today’s society) o Not for people that aren’t tech savvy Reactivity- recording a behavior can change a behavior  Minimized: client becomes accustomed to observer’s present or without them knowing you’re there Chapter 3 Graphs: primary tools to represent behavior change over time  Compare the level of behavior in baseline vs intervention o Level- how much behavior is being observed  Used to determine if treatment is necessary  Functional relationship: treatment affects target behavior  Six essential features o Y-axis, x-axis, y-axis and x-axis units/labels, data points, phase lines, phase labels Evaluating the graph  Independent variable- treatment  Dependent variable- target behavior  Y-axis: level of behavior  X-axis: unit of time  Trend- direction of data (decrease, increase, stabilize)  Overlapping data shows that the treatment was not effective Research design- determine whether treatment was responsible for change in behavior  A-B design o A= Baseline B= Treatment o Not a true research design- no replication o no functional relationship shown  ABAB Reversal o Baseline and treatment implemented twice o Treatment is replicable o Considerations:  Ethical to remove treatment?  Will level of behavior reverse?  Multiple Baseline Design (MBL) o MBL across subjects: two or more subjects o More interested in single subject research o MBL across settings: two or more settings o MBL across behaviors: same subject, two or more behaviors  Alternating Treatment Design o Compare baseline and treatment or two (or more) treatments o Conditions are alternated rapidly o Functional relationship: data is separated between two conditions (no overlap) o Multi-element design  PE class to Electronic PE class interactive  Changing Criterion o Baseline and Treatment o Multi- performance in treatment phase  goals  Smoking, coffee excess


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