Unit 2 Key Vocabulary Terms
Unit 2 Key Vocabulary Terms COM 110
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Hanna Roberts on Thursday September 15, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to COM 110 at Illinois State University taught by Lisa Martin in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views.
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Date Created: 09/15/16
● Significant topics: ● Brainstorming: techniques used to generate topic ideas ● Personal inventory: a brainstorming technique that organizes thoughts by creating different categories and listing topics under each category ● Concept mapping: a brainstorming technique that creates a visual organizer of the narrowing down of ideas to create a manageable topic ● Generalpurpose statement: overall intent of the message; typically, to inform, persuade, entertain, or commemorate ● Informative speech: a speech that presents information that contributes something of significance to the body of knowledge of your audience; most typically about a(n) object, person, event, process, or concept that they would not know otherwise ● Persuasive speech: a speech that is controversial in some way and attempts to influence the audience’s attitudes, beliefs, or actions with regard to the issue; typically about current events, social issues, local issues, or beliefs ● Entertainment speech: a speech that is designed to make an important point or to have a serious message presented in a creative or humorous way ● Commemorative speech: a speech presented as part of celebrations of anniversaries, national holidays, or important dates and are accompanied by tributes to the person or persons involved ● Specificpurpose statement: statement indicating the direction or focus the speaker will take with his/her topic ● Thesis statement: a clear and concise sentence that provides an overview of the entire presentation ● Audience Analysis: process by which we gather and analyze information about our listeners and adapt our message to their knowledge, interests, attitudes and beliefs ● Frame of Reference: a person’s experience, goals, values, attitudes, beliefs, culture, age, gender, and knowledge that he/she brings to the communication encounter ● Audience Demographics: general characteristics about each person, such as age, sex, gender, sexual orientation, cultural background, income, occupation, education, religion, group membership, political affiliation, and place of residence. Knowing this general information about your audience will help you choose and develop topics with your audience in mind ● Speaking Situation: situation composed of the size and type of audience, the setting and audience’s interests, knowledge, and attitude toward the topic ● Captive Audience: group of individuals who are required to attend a presentation and who may not have an inherent reason for listening to a speech ● Voluntary Audience: group of individuals attending a presentation with a particular interest in doing so ● Attitudes: ● Values: deeply held, stable conviction about what is good or bad, right or wrong with respect to human existence including such concepts as fairness, justice, freedom, love, security, and honesty ● Beliefs: acceptance that something is true even if we can’t prove that it is true ● Interviews: method of collecting information about audience members; done by asking members about their knowledge, interests, and attitudes on a topic ● Open Question: allows the interviewee to respond indepth ● Closed Questions: gives the interviewee a choice between options such as yes or no ● Questionnaire: method of gathering information about audience members in which the audience provides written answers to questions ● Scaled or continuum Questions: type of question that allows you to gauge attitudes on a continuum ● Advanced information seeker: ● Information literate: ability to find appropriate sources, analyze the material, evaluate the credibility of the sources, and to use and cite those sources ethically and legally ● Research questions: questions that guide the research process; probes the researcher’s as well as the audience’s knowledge on the topic ● Hidden Web: requires a subscription or account to access information ● Open Web: freely available to anyone with Internet access ● Government documents: ● Newspapers and news sources: ● Reference sources: short, factual articles that contain key concepts about a topic ● Statistics: numerical method for summarizing data; statistics can take such forms as means, medians, ratios, and percentages ● Analogy: comparison using defining characteristics of one concept to another ● Literal analogy: analogy that is based on a comparison of actual events ● Figurative analogy: comparison that draws upon metaphors to identify the similarities in two things that are not alike ● Fact: statement that is verifiable as true ● Example: specific instances developed at varying lengths and used by speakers to make an abstract idea concrete ● Brief example: specific case used to support a claim ● Extended example: substantially more developed example compared to brief examples; also referred to as narratives, stories, or anecdotes ● Hypothetical example: imaginary situation that could conceivably take place in the way it is described ● Testimony: quotes or paraphrases from an authoritative source ● Representative sample: critical measure of the reliability and validity of statistics ● Typicality: test that assesses the extent to which your example is normal ● Bias: source that provides an opinion that is so slanted to one perspective that it is not objective or fair. Also, a source that has something to gain or lose in people accepting a point of view ● Timely: speaker should incorporate recent information that accounts for the laws, regulations, and attitudes that currently exist ● Oral citation: information that the speaker says aloud to the audience during the speech; consists of information about who authored the material, a statement about the credibility of the author, the date the information was published, and relevant information about the source ● Oral Organization Strategies: plans that will allow you to devise an effective structure for your speech and enable your audience to better follow and comprehend your message ● Chronological Pattern: organization strategy that arranges ideas by a time sequence ● Spatial Pattern: organizational strategy that arranges ideas according to place or position ● Topical Pattern: organizational strategy that arranges each main point by subtopic of a larger topic ● Causal Pattern: organizational strategy that highlights the causeeffect relationships that exist among the main points ● Transitions: words or phrases that demonstrate key relationships among ideas and also indicate a speaker is leaving one point and moving on to another ● Transitional Devices: transitions, internal previews, internal summaries, and signposts that provide links to claims throughout the speech, provide a sense of organization, and ultimately make it easier for the audience to follow and remember the ideas presented ● Internal Preview: brief statement of what the speaker will discuss next ● Internal Summary: brief review of what has just been discussed before moving on to the next point ● Signpost: words that signal the next point to be made ● Preparation outline: ● Body: portion of the speech containing the main points ● Conclusion: the end of the speech, which summarizes the key points of the presentation as well as provide a memorable close ● Subordination: ranking of ideas from the most to least important ● Coordination: arrangement of points of the speech into successive levels, with the points on the same level having the same importance and grammatical structure ● Introduction: beginning of a speech that prepares the audience to listen to the speech; it includes attention getter, relevance statement, credibility statement, thesis statement, and preview statement ● Speaking outline: brief outline that helps you remember key points as you are speaking ● Delivery notes: reminders written into a speaking outline regarding delivery elements, such as when to adjust your rate, tone, and movement ● Primacy/recency effect: theory that suggests people pay more attention to and remember information that is presented first and last ● Attention getter: strong opening statement that uses some kind of creative device to capture your audience’s attention and motivate them to listen ● Rhetorical question: question that is posed aloud to the audience with the purpose of having them think about, not state, the answer ● Relevance statement: statement made to the audience that explains how the speech will specifically relate to the audience ● Credibility statement: statement made to the audience that explains why the speaker is interested in, has personal experience or connection with, or shows expertise about the topic ● Competence: listeners perceive a speaker to be competent if he or she is prepared, organized, and knowledgeable ● Character: listeners perceive a speaker to possess good character if he or she is honest and trustworthy, and has the listener’s best interests in mind ● Thesis statement: clear and concise statement that provides an overview of the entire presentation ● Preview statement: statement that provides more detail about each of the main claims before speaking about them ● Summary: review of main points that prepares your audience for the end of the message ● Signpost: words that signal the next point to be made ● Memorable close: last statement made in a speech that indicated in a powerful way that the presentation is complete and should be remembered
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