History Exam One Study Guide
History Exam One Study Guide History 1112
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Raven Hamilton on Thursday September 15, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to History 1112 at Clayton State University taught by Shane Bell in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see Survey of Modern World History in History at Clayton State University.
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Hist 1112 Test 1 Study Guide Chapter 15 Martin Luther A German monk who was dissatisfied with the Catholic church. He wanted the German princes to establish a reformed German church, and believed that reading the bible was important and salvation could be achieved through faith alone. Protestant Reformation religious reform movement divided Western Christian church into Catholic and Protestant in 16 century; led by Martin Luther. 95 Theses Martin Luther posted this on the doors of the church in Vittenburg, Germany on October 31st 1517. This was basically a list of grievances or charges being placed upon the officials in the Catholic church. For this Martin Luther was excommunicated in January of 1521. Johannes Gutenberg 1455/56 created the first true book produced form movable type (bible). Printing With the advent of movable type printing and Johannes Gutenberg’s bible, more people began to read, research and learning increased, and standard textbooks were developed. Before the new printing technology, the process of making books involved carving the letters into wood and stamping it onto paper. Because this process was so grueling, books were reserved for the nobility who could afford them. With movable type, the cost of books decreased while the literacy rates in Europe increased. Indulgences people would purchase indulgences to reduce their time in purgatory or another person’s time. These were usually attached to relics which people collected to gain certainty of personal salvation. Justification by Faith the act by which a person is made deserving of salvation. Erasmus (14661536) “the philosophy of Christ”. John Calvin native of France who converted to Protestantism and was forced to flee to Switzerland. He authored a book titled ‘The Institutes of the Christian Religion’ which was a synthesis of the Protestant thought and emphasized the doctrine of predestination. Ulrich Zwingli (1484 1531) appointed cathedral priest in 1518, promoted evangelical reforms in Zurich, Switzerland. He disagreed with some issues in Martin Luther’s Protestant movement. When war broke out in Switzerland between the Protestants and Catholics, Zwingli was captured, cut up, burned, and his ashes were scattered. Switzerland home to two major movements, Zwinglianism and Calvinism. War between Protestants and Catholics in 1531 brought an end to Zwingli. Calvinism, from French native John Calvin, would later become the bigger reformation movement. Predestination idea put forth by John Calvin, stated that God has already determined who will be saved and who won’t. Henry VIII brought about the English Reformation because of his desire to divorce his first wife, Catherine of Aragon. Catherine was the wife of Henry’s brother Arthur who died of sickness. Henry married Catherine soon after Arthur’s death in order to keep the royal family on the throne, however Catherine’s inability to bear a legitimate male heir left Henry desperate for divorce. The pope refused the divorce because it was against church beliefs. Henry found his way around this with the protestant reformation (creation of Anglican church) and the Act of Supremacy, and married his mistress Anne Boleyn. She was beheaded and he married a few more times before his death from syphilis. Anabaptists a radical group of religious reformers who believed in adult baptism and complete separation of church and state. The Amish are decedents of groups such as this. Catholic Reformation also referred to as the ‘Counter Reformation’, this movement was seen as a way to counteract the Protestant Reformation. During this movement, changes were made to the Catholic church and traditions. These changes included the formation of the Society of Jesus (Jesuits), reformation of the papacy, and the initiation of the Council of Trent. th Renaissance period in European history that encompassed a revival of the arts in the 15 century and a religious renaissance in the 16 century. Elizabeth I daughter of Anne Boleyn and King Henry VIII, she is considered to be one of the greatest monarchs in English history. During her reign the Spanish armada attempted to invade England in 1508, however the fleet was destroyed by a storm before reaching the shore. The people of England took this to be divine intervention which strengthen support of Queen Elizabeth. She was also referred to as the “virgin queen” because she never married. Absolutism also referred to as ‘absolute monarchy’. In this system the monarch of a country held absolute power and control. Louis XIV (16431715) also referred to as “The Sun King”, he practiced absolutism as a monarch (divineright). During his reign wars were fought from 1667 to 1713. After his death, France was impoverished and acquired many enemies who were scorned by his totalitarian attitude. Thirty Years’ War (16181648) This war began as a struggle between Catholics and romans and ended as a conflict between nations. It concluded with the signing of the Peace of Westphalia and France emerged as a dominant nation. The Holy Roman Empire ended as well. Chapter 16 Ottomans established by a group of Turks in the late 13 century under the leadership of Osman (12801360). This group expanded their territories and founded the Osmanli dynasty. Others found that this sounded like ‘Ottoman’, which stuck and is how they got their name. Ottoman rule proved to be more tolerant and beneficial than the previous empire of Byzantine. Suleyman the Magnificent (15201566) led Turks to seize Belgrade in 1521, gained victory of Hungarians at the Battle of Mohacs, and expanded the empire to Vienna Harem women A woman’s place within the harem depended on the ability to birth a male heir. The women were often slaves, but were educated and trained and often exercised influence. Unlike popular belief, few of theses women were used as sex slaves to the Sultan. Safavid Empire Muslims who were not ethnically Muslim. Their empire was to the east of the Ottoman empire, was centered in the ancient civilization of Persia, which is now Iran, and lasted about 200 years. The state language within the empire was Farci (?). After the death of Shah Abbas, the empire was strong for a while but then was plagued by a series of militant rulers who curtailed freedoms previously enjoyed by citizens. The Ottomans began to seize territories along the western border and the empire collapsed in 1723. Mughal Empire (Gunpowder Empire) a group of Muslims that establish the Mughal empire which is centered in India. Founders of this empire were not natives of India, the originated in the region north of the Ganges River. The culture within the empire was mostly Islamic with Persian and indigenous influences. There is a mix of Hindus and Muslims. Women within this empire were heavily controlled by traditions and customs like purdah and sati. Taj Mahal built by Shah Jahan as a memorial to his wife, Mumtaz Muhal. It took decades to complete and put an economic toll on the Mughal empire, but is considered one of the most beautiful buildings in the world. Shah Jahan (16281652) During his reign he killed all his rivals for the throne, expanded the boundaries of the empire, built the Taj Mahal, and experienced a growth of domestic problems. Grand Vezir the chief minister, acts as a gobetween for the Sultan and his councilors. Mehmet II (14511481) succeeded the throne following Bayazid. Captured Constantinople which led to it’s fall in 1453 subsequently leading to the end of the Holy Roman Empire. Selim I consolidated Turkish control over Mesopatamia. Also, during his reign, he gained victory over the Mamluks, deafiting them in Syria in 1516. He declared himself caliph (successor to Muhammad). Lepanto location of Turkish defeat by Spanish in 1571. The Spanish destroyed a Turkish fleet which stunted the empire dominion over the Mediterranean and left them to stay on the southern shores. Millet administrative unit of each religious minority. Each group had their own patriarch or priest who dealt with government. Sufism another form of the Muslim religion. Akbar (15561605) took the throne at the age of 14. Under his rule the empire expanded from the Himalaya Mountains to the Godavari River. He practiced religious tolerance and created a new form of worship called the Divine Faith (DiniIlahi). Babur (14831530) founder of the Mughal Empire, descendant of great Asian conqueror Tamerlane. He inherited part of Tamerlane’s empire and in 1517 crossed the Khyber Pass into India. He and his army captured Delhi in 1526 and thus gained control of the northern plains. Aurangzeb (16581707) reforms, religious intolerance, and rebellions marked his rule. Purdah women in the Mughal empire were barred from associating with men outside of the home. Chapter 17 Samurai Japanese warriors, changed from the status of warrior into managers. Honor see in class film quiz Portugal First of the European countries to establish contact and trade with China and Japan. Jesuits came to China to spread Catholic religion. They realized that Confucianism ran deep in Chinese society. In studying the religion, the concluded that they must draw parallels between Christianity and Confucianism to draw converts. Kangxi (16611722) Arguably the greatest ruler in Chinese history. He pacified the nomadic peoples on the northern and the western frontiers. Became his rule as a child and reigned for six decades. He was a patron of the arts and beloved by man of his subjects. Created a Sacred Edict that delineated proper Confucian behavior. During his reign he was tolerant of foreigners and there was competition among Dominicans and Franciscans. Oda Nobunaga (15681582) seized Kyoto, spent last years trying to consolidate his rule. Toyotomi Hideyoshi (15821598) went from a farmer’s son to leading Osaka and most other areas of Japan. He created a national currency and had control of islands Shikoku and Kyushu. Expelled Christian missionaries in 1587 for interference in local Japanese politics. Tokugawa Ieyasu (15981616) Began most powerful and lengthiest of all Japanese shogunates Dutch Westerners were banned from trading with Japan in 1612. After this eviction, only the Dutch remained and were allowed to trade with Japan once a year. Nagasaki harbor The city of Nagaski was first ceded to the European missionaries by a converted diamyo. It was utilized by the Society of Jesus (Jesuits)for missionary and trading purposes Qing The Manchus policies provoked resistance and they forced the Chinese to adopt Manchu dress and hairstyle. However, being the ethnic minority, they realized that they needed to adapt to Chinese practices. There was a population explosion from 7080 million in 1390 to 300 million at the end of the 18 century. This was due to political stability, the introduction of new crops, and the arrival of new species of faster growing rice from southeast Asia. Industrialization was also introduced to China during this period with a growth of manufacturing and commerce, however the social elites in China preferred agriculture over industrialization. They retained most of the Ming political system and had a devotion to Confucian principles. Because of their status as minorities within China, the Manchus given noble privileges to ethnic Manchus. Established a rule that the Chinese could not settle in Manchuria. Ming Their decline in the 16 century was due in part to a series of weak rulers. There were internal problems with the economy which suffered from inflation from silver and from the trade disruption by the English and Dutch. During this period was also a “little ice age” which cooled temperatures and affected crop yields negatively. Peasant revolt led by Li Zicheng in Beijing in April of 1644. The following month the Manchus conquered Beijing and created the Qing (Pure) Dynasty. th Macao The Portuguese established the settlement of Macao in the 16 century. Manchus Asian group who took over control of government in China following the Ming. Referred to themselves as the Qing dynasty. This dynasty reigned from 1644 to 1911. Qianlong(17361795) during his reign the first signs of internal decay emerge and corruption in the central government led to unrest in rural areas. Canton The first English trading post established in China, 1699. Licensed trading firms served as exclusive conduits for trade with the English. Francis Xavier The first Jesuit missionary to arrived in Japan in 1549. Daimyo members of prominent families. By transforming the fief into a form of wages, the daimyo were able to ameliorate the economic pressure they experienced. Daimyo duties for the shogun created economic pressures on the nobility. Ronin term used to refer to unemployed Japanese warriors (Samurai). Chapter 18 Paris Homestead of the French Revolution which influenced many other movements thereafter. Copernicus (14731543) Authored On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Bodies which was published in 1543 following his death. Within the book it describes his heliocentric theory. Newton (16421727) English scientist who is considered one of the greatest scientists. He was president of the royal society and was educated at the University of Cambridge in England. He established the three laws of motion and the laws of gravity, and provided mathematical evidence to support it. These findings were published in his book Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy (Principia). He always invented Calculus. Gravity one of the three laws of motion, discovered by Isaac Newton, which explained the orbits of planets as well as occurrences on Earth. Philosophes French term that essentially means ‘enlightenment thinkers’. They tended to be professors, journalists, and from the urban middle class. Adam Smith put forth the idea of economic liberalism in his book The Wealth of Nations. He writes that the government should have three functions: to protect against invasion, defend citizens for injustice, and to keep up public works (roads, bridges, etc…). Laissezfaire French term meaning ‘left alone’ Seven Years’ War In the 1760’s the British have colonies along the east coast of America. A war took place during that time referred to as the Seven Year’s War. This war was also call the French and Indian War and was fought in Europe, India, and North America. The English win this war and take control of colonies in North America. However, the money spent on this war caused Parliament to impose taxes on the colonies. The colonists disagree with this which ultimately leads to the Declaration of Independence in 1776. Parliament shared power with monarch in England, worked as a system of checks and balances. Parliament had the ability to create laws and levy taxes. Enlightened absolutism a form of monarchal absolutism that utilized portions of ideas from the Enlightenment. 3 Estate commoners of society, consisted of skilled crafts people, shopkeepers, and other wage earners. 1789 Colonies win freedom from the English and also the start of the French Revolution. French Revolutiondisparity between the the social classes (1 , 2 , and 3 Estates), issues within the economy, unemployment, and food shortages led to an overthrow of the old regime in France. Louis XVI assembled the EstatesGeneral in 1789 to address the financial issues of the country. Disagreement between the estates led to the 3 estate declaring itself a separate “National Assembly”. When the monarchy came to dismantle rd the group, the people of France backed the 3 estate and stormed Bastille. Following this victory, the National Assembly proceeded to destroy the old regime and establish a new one. Reign of Terror program launched by the French National Convention and the Committee of Public Safety in which 16,000 people were executed by guillotine in the course of 9 months. Robespierre gained control of the French Committee of Public Safety following the threat of invasion caused by the French Revolution. Napoleon Born in 1769, Napoleon was Italian and named Napoleone Buonaparte. He was in the French military and rose to the rank of brigadier general. He gained control of France through participation in a coup. The Consulate, a new form of Republic, made Napoleon consul for life. He later crowned himself emperor of France in 1804. His reign was short and ended with his defeat at Waterloo in Belgium, and his exile to the island of Saint Helena. Geocentric theory This theory stated that the heavenly bodies resided in concentric spheres that moved in circular orbits around Earth. Within this was the belief that God and all saved souls resided in the Empyrean Heaven. An imperfect, motionless, Earth was in a state of constant change at the center of the universe. Galileo Galilei (15641642) discovers the similarity of the composition of other planets and the moon to the Earth. The first to observe the sky through a telescope, however he DID NOT invent it. He published a book called The Starry Messenger in 1610. In this book he writes about his discoveries through the telescope such as the moons of Jupiter and sun spots on the Sun. The church tells Galileo that he must recant his publishing. He somewhat recants but is essentially placed on house arrest for eight years. After his death in 1642, the advancement of these findings came to a pause in Italy. Rene Descartes (15961650) Known for the quote, “I think, therefore I exist”. Advocate of rationalism and Cartesian dualism. John Locke Wrote Essay Concerning Human Understanding. The idea is that people are born as blank slates (tabula rosa). At the time, these ideas are revolutionary. Voltaire (16941778) His contribution to the Enlightenment was a critique of traditional religious. He favored religious toleration. Voltaire was the pen name his used for his many writings. Rousseau (17121778) Wrote a book entitle The Social Contract. Believed that the entire society agrees to be governed by its general will. General will is not only political but also ethical, representing what entire community ought to do. Wrote extensively about education. He believed that children’s education should be based on natural instincts. Cottage industry also known as the “putting out” system. Entrepreneur purchased raw materials for textile production which would be manufactures by rural laborers. These laborers produced yarn and cloth. Joseph II of Austria (17801790) abolished serfdom, eliminated internal trade barriers, and instituted a new penal code. Catherine the Great policies favored the landed nobility at the expense of the serfs. Was known for expansion into Poland and toward the Black Sea. Chapter 19 Industrial Revolution Industrial movement of the 19 century that began in England. Cholera disease that broke out in an epidemic in Britain. It broke out three separate times and devasted the population of the country. Great Britain the forefront country of the industrial revolution. First to create large cities and move from an agricultural government. Lead the world in industrial endeavors. Karl Marx German native who pioneered the ideas of socialism in his treatise The Communist Manifesto. Socialism idea that the redistribution of money and assets could solve issues within a government. Basically puts everyone of the same level, leaving none without and none with too much. Congress of Vienna Great Britain, Austria, Prussia and Russia meet in 1814 to arrange a peace agreement. The leader of this congress was Prince Klemens von Metternich who claimed legitimacy. This congress was a conservative effort to restore order after the chaos of the French Revolution and contain liberalism. Revolutions of 1848 In France industrial and agricultural depression led to the overthrow of King Louis Philippe and the assembly of a new government. Failure to implement change led to the Austrian revolt against their German rulers and resulted in the liberation of Hungary. The Austrian revolts failed as well as those in Italy. Crimean War 1853 war between the Russians and the Turks over the right to protect Christian shrines in Palestine. The British and French came to the aid of the Turks and pushed Russia back. Their defeat was finalized by The Treaty of Paris in 1856 in which they were forced give up territory. The war was costly in terms of deaths and destroyed the Concert of Europe. King Victor Emmanuel II (18491878) Italian king. Named Count Camillo di Cavour prime minister in 1852. During his time as prime minister, Cavour led Italy to unification through Piedmont’s army. Guiseppe Garibaldi (18071882) Italian patriot who raised an army of volunteers referred to as the Red Shirts. He conquered Naples and many other areas and turned his victories over to Cavour Piedmont. FrancoPrussian War 1870, resulted in the withdrawal of French troops from Rome. RussoJapanese War 190405 in which the Russians were defeated and resulting in their backing down of supporting the Serbs in their fight against Austria. Triple Alliance of 1882 Germany, Italy, AustriaHungary unite against France in order to counteract the alliance being made by France and Russia against Germany. Triple Entente of 1907 Standing opposed to the Triple Alliance is Britain, France and Russia. The industrial factory created a new labor system, workers were required to work regular hours and shifts. Railroadscreated new means of transportation and jobs for citizens in the United States during the Industrial Revolution. British Factory Act of 1833 prohibited children under the age of nine from working, and restricted hours for those under 18. Liberalism term for those who derived beliefs from the Enlightenment. Believed in protection of human rights. Writing Issues From in class discussion, use notes. Formal writing how your essay should be written. Passive voice history should be written in this tense. Thesis main argument of essay. Colloquialism Topic sentence should have one at the beginning of each paragraph.
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