Sociology 1311 Exam #1 Study Guide
Sociology 1311 Exam #1 Study Guide 1311
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SOCI 1311 - 004
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Belma Radoncic on Thursday September 15, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 1311 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Dorthy, Kalanzi in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 111 views. For similar materials see Sociology in Sociology at University of Texas at Arlington.
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Date Created: 09/15/16
Chapter 1 1.)Auguste Compte is the Father of Sociology 2.)Compte’s Theory of Social Development a. Theological Stage (the divine) i. People took a religious view that society expressed God’s will b. Metaphysical Stage (the transition stage) i. People saw society as a natural rather than a supernatural system c. Positivism Stage (science) i. Applied the scientific approach first used to study the physical world to the study of society 3.)Theoretical Paradigms a. Structural Functional Paradigm b. Social Conflict Paradigm c. Symbolic Interaction Paradigm 4.)Structural Functionalist Paradigm a. A framework for building theory that sees society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability i. Ex. Society working as an organism, just like the human body has organs that work together. b. Macro approach (a broad focus on social structures that shape society as a whole) 5.)Social Conflict Paradigm a. A framework for building theory that sees society as an arena of inequality that generates conflict and change b. Macro approach (a broad focus on social structures that shape society as a whole) c. Always looks for conflicts in society i. Ex. The Rich vs. The Poor ii. Males vs. Females iii. Majorities vs. Minorities (race) iv. Young vs. Old 6.)Symbolic Interaction Paradigm a. A framework for building theory that sees society as the product of the everyday interactions of individuals b. Micro approach (a close up focus on social interaction in specific situations) c. Believes that society is created by everyday social interactions Chapter 2 1.) Types of Variables a. Independent- the variable that causes the change i. Ex. In an experiment that wants to test the effects of different types of soil on plant height, the independent variable is the type of soil because it is what causes the change in plant height. b. Dependent- the variable that changes i. Ex. Because the plant height is what will change depending on the independent variable (soil), it is considered the dependent variable. 2.) Spurious Correlation a. An apparent, but false, relationship between two or more variables i. Ex. Low income and crime rates. It is believed that children who come from low income families are more likely to commit crime. This is false, though it is believed to be true. The crime rate depends on other factors as well. 3.) Reliability a. Consistency in measurement i. Ex. A good bathroom scale will give an accurate measurement of weight each time it is used 4.) Qualitative vs. Quantitative Qualitative Quantitative Does not use statistical Uses statistical methods methods More interpretive, reveals Provides data to calculate averages and percent meaning Ex. Observations, interviews, Ex. Calculating the average numerical income of adults diary entries, etc. ages 20-30. 5.)Hypothesis a. An unverified statement of a relationships between variables (an educated guess). i. Ex. “Males are more likely to eat more pizza than females.” is an educated guess or hypothesis. 6.)Androcentric a. Approaching a topic from a male-only perspective 7.)Gynocentric a. Approaching a topic from a female-only perspective (less common) 8.)The Research Process a. General Theory Hypothesis & Deductive Phase Specific Observations Generalization & Inductive Phase 9.)Inductive Logic a. Reasoning beginning with observations & ending with a theory i. Ex. Observing boys and girls eating pizza at a party and coming up with the theory that boys eat more pizza than girls based on your observation. 10.) Deductive Logic a. Begins with theory then observation & testing theory i. Ex. You come up with the theory that boys eat more pizza than girls, then go to a party with pizza to test out your theory. Chapter 3 1.)Culture refers to: a. Values b. Beliefs c. Behavior d. Material Objects 2.)Values a. Desired standards, considered good or beautiful i. Ex. Covering up cleavage in females, no sex before marriage, etc. 3.)Beliefs a. Specific statements that people hold to be true or right i. Ex. People of Christian faith have a belief that Jesus is their lord and savior 4.)Non-Material Culture a. Intangible ideas, things you cannot physically touch or see. b. Ex. Music 5.)Material Culture a. Tangible things, things you can touch, feel, or see. b. Ex. Food, clothing 6.)Cultural Anthropology looks beyond our world to discover patterns and meanings another world may have. 7.)All Societies Experience: a. Birth b. Death c. Basic needs like water & shelter But, meanings attached differs. Ex. Death as passage from one world to another in one culture and death being viewed as the end in another. 8.)Ethnocentricity a. Our beliefs & behaviors are right, other cultures are wrong i. Ex. It is normal behavior to not burp at the dinner table in the USA, but in Asian countries burping is considered a compliment. The view that the USA behavior is correct and the Asians behavior is incorrect is ethnocentricity. 9.)Cultural Relativism a. Understanding a culture in its own terms i. Understanding behaviors in terms of the: o Purpose o Function o Meaning 10.) Culture Shock a. Disorientation due to inability to make sense out of one’s surroundings, i. ex. A conservative Arabic woman coming to America and being shocked at the sight of women in shorts and tank tops. 11.) Ideal Culture a. Behaviors mandated by values & norms, the way it “should be” i. Ex. Monogamy 12.) Real Culture a. The way things actually occur in everyday life i. Ex. Extramarital relationships, same sex marriage 13.) High Culture a. Cultural patterns that distinguish a society’s elite, shows the “social status”. i. Ex. Mansions, first-class seats 14.) Popular Culture a. Cultural patterns that are widespread among society’s population i. Fashion statements such as wearing shorts during the summer 15.) Subculture a. Cultural patterns that set apart some segment of society’s population i. Ex. The “goth, emo, punk” group of people. 16.) Counterculture a. Cultural patterns that strongly oppose those widely accepted within a society i. Religious cults done by a small religious group. 17.) Symbols a. Anything that carries a particular meaning recognized by people who share culture i. Ex. American flag represents a meaning of freedom to the American people. b. Meanings vary from culture to culture c. Meanings can even vary greatly within the same groups of people 18.) Language a. A system of symbols that allows people to communicate with one another i. Ex. English, Spanish, French, etc. 19.) Non-Verbal Language a. Use gestures sparingly i. Ex. The “come here” gesture with the index finger in USA is considered obscene and insulting to other cultures 20.) Norms b. Rules and expectations that guide our behavior c. Types: i. Proscriptive- should not; prohibited ii. Prescriptive- Should, prescribed like medicine d. Socially Constructed e. We don’t pay attention to them, but they control us Chapter 4 1.) Society a. People who interact in a defined territory and share culture 2.) Visions of Society a. Gehard Lenski i. Technology is what moves us from one society to another b. Karl Max i. Social conflict c. Max Weber i. The power of ideas d. Emile Durkheim i. Specialization of labor 3.) Gehard Lenski a. Simple to technological complex resemble one another i. Ex. People are homogenous b. More complex societies reveal striking cultural diversity 4.) Karl Max & Society a. Highlights the struggle between segments of society over valued resources i. Ex. Capitalists- own and operate businesses for profit ii. Proletariats- sell their labor for wages iii. False Consciousness- explaining social problems as short comings of individuals rather than society iv. Class Consciousness- when workers recognize they’re a class united against capitalists b. Argued that there was no middle class and that society was the root of problems, not the individuals c. Marx believed that workers must replace false consciousness with class consciousness and rise against and destroy capitalism d. The history of all existing societies is the history of class struggles i. Conflict over the distribution of wealth and power e. Examples of how social conflict has changed society according to Marx: i. Minimum wage ii. Child labor laws iii. Equal pay for both genders 5.) Capitalism and Alienation a. Alienation- experience of isolation and misery resulting from powerlessness b. Capitalism alienates workers in 4 ways: i. From the act of working: 1. Workers have no say 2. Work is tedious and repetitive ii. From the products of work: 1. Have no ownership in the product of their work iii. From other workers: 1. Work becomes competitive iv. From developing their full human potential: 1. Only trained in one thing 2. Can’t develop all possible skills c. “The Solution is Revolution” i. Marx said that, “in time workers would realize they held the key” ii. Change would be revolutionary, perhaps violent iii. Believed a socialist society would bring class conflict to an end 6.) Max Weber & Society a. Reason and ideas are the movers of society b. Traditional to the rational society c. Traditional society is dominated by statements and beliefs passed from one generation to another d. Rational society is based on deliberate calculations, human thought of the most efficient way to complete a task e. The Protestant Ethic i. How reason or ideas move society ii. The ideas of the Calvinists (Christians) paved the way to capitalism 7.) Calvin Doctrines (how ideas change society) a. The fall b. Hell certain for all c. Predestination d. No one knew if they were chosen e. The call f. Material possessions (sign) g. Hard work led to surplus h. Classes evolved, the rich and the poor i. Capitalism was born j. The religious ethic became the work ethic 8.) Emile Durkheim a. Formulated a theory of anomie i. Anomie- a state of lawlessness b. Modern society is the root of anomie c. Gives little moral guidance to individuals i. Ex. Mass shootings, riots 9.) Durkheim and Social Change a. The key to societies change is division of labor b. Division of labor refers to specialization of economic activity c. Specialization of labors can be things such as farming and factory work d. From mechanical to organic solidarity i. Mechanical Solidarity 1. Social bands based on common sentiments and shaved moral values 2. Ex. Characterized by kinship homogenous societies ii. Organic Solidarity 1. Social bonds based on specialization and interdependence 2. Ex. We need the garbage collectors, senators, tax payers, etc. 10.) What holds society together? a. According to Gerhard Lenski: i. Technology b. According to Karl Max: i. The elite force on “uneasy peace” (conflict) c. According to Max Weber: i. Ideas, rational thoughts, reasons d. According to Emile Durkheim: i. Specialization of labor
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