New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

PUR3000 Exam 1 Review

by: Anna Cappelli

PUR3000 Exam 1 Review PUR3000

Marketplace > University of Florida > PUR3000 > PUR3000 Exam 1 Review
Anna Cappelli
GPA 3.85

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

This exam review covers ch.1, 2, 3, 4, & 12 for the upcoming exam - this covered both lecture notes and textbook readings.
Principles of Public Relations
Study Guide
public relations
50 ?




Popular in Principles of Public Relations

Popular in Department

This 35 page Study Guide was uploaded by Anna Cappelli on Thursday September 15, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PUR3000 at University of Florida taught by Kong in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 128 views.


Reviews for PUR3000 Exam 1 Review


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/15/16
Ch.1, 2, 3, 4 & 12 EXAM 1 REVIEW Ch.1 What is Public Relations? PR is most extensively developed in U.S. It is hard to document PR in the rest of the world because it can include marketing, promotion, direct mail, advertising, etc. Since opening its economy to market capitalism, China’s PR industry is thriving PR is becoming a widely taught subject throughout worldwide universities Main definition: “PR is the management of communication between an organization and its publics” Deliberate – PR activity is intentional Planned – PR activity is organized, systematic – requiring research & analysis Performance- effective PR is based on actual policies & performance Public Interest – PR activity should be mutually beneficial to the organization and the public 2-way communication – art of listening & engaging in a conversation w/ various publics management function – PR most effective when it is a strategic & integral part of decision making by top management Corporate communications – encompasses all communications of the company, including advertising, public affairs, etc. Spin – any effort by an individual/organization to interpret an event or issue according to a particular viewpoint Flack – press agent PR is a process – series of actions, changes, or functions that bring about a result – RACE PR plays 2 roles in this process: 1) interacts directing w/ external sources of information and 2) becomes the vehicle through which management reaches the public w/ assorted messages The basic process is manifested in a variety of ways (many job opportunities) Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC) Marketing Objectives Coordinatied Communication Strategies Targeting * Big Idea * Media Timing Advertising PR Sales Direct Packaging Promotion Response Program Evalution 2 Advertising MARKETING COMMUNICATION OF PR PUBLIC RELATIONS Marketing  Your image is how others perceive you  Crisis communication /management - informing public & preventing situation from happening again (BP oil spill in 2010) Definition  The management of communication between an organization and its publics – Grunig & Hunt  A communication function of management through which organizations adapt to, alter, or maintain their environment for the purpose of achieving organizational goals – long & Hazelton  PR is a strategic communication process that builds mutually beneficial relationships between organizations and their publics Communication management function between organizations and their publics? Who says? what? to whom? Through what channels? With what effects? Communication is a receiver-phenomenon Organizations: profit, non-profit, government 3 Publics: community members, stockholders, consumers, employees, media, government agencies, activists, etc. Key words for defining PR Management function – deliberate & planned, persuasive & advocacy Relationships Research, strategy, evaluation Advocacy Public interest – ethics Continual process Solve problems Performance – bottom line Communication – all types, especially 2-way communication Contribution to the bottom line Awareness & information Organizational motivation Issues anticipation Opportunity identification Crisis management Overcoming executive isolation Social responsibility Influencing public policy RACE: Process of PR Research Action Communicatio Evaluation 4 Research – what is the problem or situation? Action (program planning) – what is going to be done about it? Goals and objects Communications (execution) – how will the public be told? Take advantage of the media and edit your messages Evaluation – was the audience reached and what is the effect? Case Study Research – Cruise ship sunk because there was an unknown rocky outcrop, investigation of whether it was captain or ship’s fault. Action – Reimbursement for cost of travel and medical expenses to each passenger and arrest of the captain. Communications – the public will probably be informed via news headlines and press releases from the company – they will probably emphasize that there was no way of knowing the rock was there. Evaluation- the effect of this situation is that the cruise line will probably have to take extra safety precautions in the future as well as witness a large decline in their business for a while. Components of PR Counseling Employee/member relations Media relations Community Relations Research Publicity Public Affairs Government Affairs Issues Management Financial Relations Industry relations Development/ Fundraising Journalism vs. PR 5 Main component writing many components: writing, special events, counseling Not necessarily management management skills required Ascribes to objectivity advocacy role Mass audience communicate w/ highly segmented audiences Single channel of media employer variety of channels Informs Informs to change attitudes and behaviors Advertising vs. PR Paid space/time free placement Guaranteed placement no guaranteed placement Selling goods & services generate public understanding External audiences internal & external audiences Mass media outlets wide range channels Specialized communications create favorable environment Marketing vs. PR Makes $ for organization saves $ for organization 6 Builds markets 4 goods & services builds relationships & good will Deals w/ external audiences wide range of internal/external audience Persuasive, customer based includes many mgmt. & comm. functions Restricts PR to product publicity & promotion accommodative through dialogue, both costumers and non Integrated Marketing Communication (IMC) Social media Website PR Internal search Commoonsati markSEOng & Integrat ed marketin campagi n TV/Radio Events Marketing Advertising Marketing Other Terms for PR 7 For fortune 500 companies: corporate communication (165), PR (64), public affairs, communication, corporate relations, corporate public affairs Public information – social service agencies, universities & government agencies Community relations – social service agencies Public affairs – military Negative: flack, flak, spin, spin doctors Where PR practitioners work? 34% Corporations 19% Nonprofits/foundations communicationssing/marketing 10% Government 8% Educational institutions 8% independent consulting Fields of PR National average for all practitioners is $63,000 8 More than 20 years of experience, average $103 for men and $81 for women Shortage of men in field (70% are women) Essential Career Skills Writing skills research ability Planning expertise problem-solving Business/economics competence expertise in social media Ch.2 The Evolution of Public Relations The Roman Catholic Church was major practitioner of PR throughout the middle ages by using stages events, propaganda, and symbolism to persuade thousands to follow during the Crusades. The printing press was also developed during middle ages which profoundly influenced gathering and distribution of information PR played large role in American independence – Sam Adams “the father of press agentry” Tom Paine’s Common Sense Hamilton’s Federalist Papers 9 1800s was a period of growth and expansion in US and golden age of press agent – also age of hype which is the shrewd use of the media and other devices to promote an individual, cause, or even a product/service individual who best represents hype and press agentry is Phineas T Barnum, the great American Showman Edward Bernays Believed PR should emphasize the application of social science research and behavioral psychology to formulate campaigns and messages that could change people’s perceptions and encourage certain behaviors. Freud’s cousin. Ivory soap, “torches of liberty,” and light’s golden jubilee Other pioneers George Creel- persuaded newspapers/magazines to contribute news to encourage Americans to save food and invest heavily in liberty bonds Arthur Page- credited with establishing the concept that PR should have an active voice in higher management – corporate PR Benjamin Sonnenberg- “most influential publicist of the mid-twentieth century” Rex Harlow – “father of PR research” and first fulltime PR educator Leone Baxter – credited with founding the first political campaign management firm in the US Warren Cowan – one of first firms to serve the movie industry in 30s 10 Eleanor Lambert - credited with putting American designers on the map when Europeans dominated the industry Elmer Davis- mounted a PR effort to promote the sale of war bonds, obtain press support for wartime rationing, encourage planting of “victory gardens” and spur higher productivity among American workers to win the war Moss Kendrix – credits with being first African American to acquire a major corporate account, Coca-Cola Company Major Contributions by Industrialists, Presidents Henry Ford –America’s first major industrialist and among first to use two basic PR concepts Samuel Insull- created a monthly customer magazine, issued a constant stream of news releases, and even used film for PR purposes – he started the “bill stuffer” by inserting company information into customers’ bills Teddy Roosevelt – master of promoting and publicizing his pet projects. First president to make extensive use of news conference and press interviews to drum up public support when congress was resistant The booming economy after world war II produced rapid growth in all areas of PR Reasons for PR expansion: Major increases in urban/suburban populations The growth of a more impersonalized society, represented by big business, big labor, and big government Scientific and technological advances, including automation and computerization The communications revolution in terms of mass media 11 Bottom-line financial considerations often replacing the more personalized decision making of a previous, more genteel society Two-way communication – there’s balance between the organization and its various publics – can influence each other The 1970s was an era of reform in the stock market and investor relations The most dramatic change between 1950-2000 was the transformation of PR from a male dominated field to a female dominated one Latest development is the advent of social media Other current developments: A multicultural world Recruitment of minorities Public demand for transparency Expanded role for PR Corporate social responsibility Outsourcing to PR firms Managing the 24/7 news cycle Continued growth of digital media The need for lifelong professional development Increased emphasis on measurement 4 models of PR press agentry/publicity (1840-1900) propaganda & publicity, one-way, truth not essential, source – receiver, little, counting, P.T Barnum, sports/theatre/entertainment, 15% public information (1900-1920s) 12 disseminate information, source-receiver, little; readability, readership, Ivy Lee, government/nonprofits, 50% two-way asymmetric (1920-present) scientific persuasion, two-way imbalanced effects, source-receiver, formative, evaluative of attitudes, Edward Bernays, competitive business, agencies, 20% two-way symmetric (1960s-present) mutual understanding, two-way, balanced effects, group-group, formative, evaluative of understanding, Arthur Page/educators/professionals, regulated business/agencies, 15% th PR in the 19 C Age of the press agent PT Barnum and pseudo-events Although not ethical (used bribery and exaggerations to garner attention), some aspects of PR have roots in press agentry Used in publicity and promotion to populate the western world Roots of PR PR efforts change form just hype to facts and information Edward Bernays, first person to call himself PR counsel, also taught first course in PR at NYU Father of modern PR PR has no identifying founder, though many credit Ivy Lee as first practitioner of PR, or first PR counselor 1964- Harvard first fundraising brochure 13 1758- Columbia University first press release 1900- Publicity Bureau, first PR agency opened creel committee and office of war information adaptation of PRSA code of ethics in 1954 first PR firm: The Publicity Bureau – established in 1900 first client: Harvard University first in-house PR: Westinghouse helped market/promote use of alternative current battle of the currents between Westinghouse and Edison Torches of Liberty Women and smoking propaganda The first world war changed all notions of traditional gender roles – with men away at war, women were forced to move out of the home an into the workplace The 1920s were a time of intense movement demanding equality for women Key PR figures Phineas T Barnum Ivy Lee Edward Bernays Doris Fleischman Arthur Page Rex Harlow: father of PR research Major developments that influence PR Global economy Environment Increased management role Increased issues management Increased crisis management Proliferation of publics 14 Fragmented media New media technology More one to one communication International relations Higher priority on internal communication Professionalism of the field Classic Campaigns Edward Bernays 1923 – Ivory Soap Consumer research: no scent and pure Focused on its purity and ability to float Created the carving contest Why was it successful – the reason why targeting children? Give what the consumers want Based on research Create the new consumption of the soap through carving event Children took showers once a week so if taking showers once a day, how much soap sales could be increased? Using purity and soft concept Today’s PR Increasing the importance of intercultural communication The principles of PR in each country vary to some extent because of different cultural characteristics In global markets like today, without understanding other cultures, PR cannot be successful Remember PR is communication and relationship management function Communication is a receiver phenomenon 15 Without understanding who our audiences are, PR for any purpose will fail Ch.3 Ethics & Professionalism Kant’s absolutist – something is either completely right or wrong Aristotle’s existential – balance between two extremes Mill’s utilitarian – the end can justify the means as long as the result caused the least harm or the most good The largest national PR organization in the world in the Public Relations Society of America (PRSA) Holds annual meeting and publishes 2 major periodicals – PR Tactics is a monthly tabloid of current news and professional tips – The Strategist is a quarterly magazine that contains in-depth articles about the profession and issues touching on contemporary PR practices PRSA is the parent organization of PRSSA – PR Student Society in America The second largest organization is the International Association of Business Communicators (IABC) Publication is Communication World The third largest organization is the International PR Association (IPRA) Based in London Frontline – its major online publication There are many other groups but on an international level, there is the global alliance for PR and 16 communication management as well as regional associations i.e. European PR Confederation (CEPR) PRSA’s Code of Ethics: Advocacy, Honesty, Expertise, Independence, Loyalty, and Fairness National Association of Broadcast Communicators (NABC) promotes ethical standards for things like VNRs 5 prerequisites for a profession like PR: education, training, literature, research, and code of ethics the two major academic journals in PR are the PR Review and the journal of PR Research both provide a variety of articles about PR and communications theory, campaigns and survey research the best know research center for PR is the Institute for PR (IPR) – headquartered at UF strategic PR center at USC one major step to improve standards and professionalism in PR around the world has been the establishment of accreditation programs The IABC model – the approach used by most national groups is to have written and oral exams and to have candidates submit a portfolio of work samples to a committee of professional peers The PRSA model – PRSA was the 1 PR group in the world to establish an accreditation program. Candidates are required to take a preview course, complete readiness questionnaire, and show a portfolio of work to a panel of professional peers before taking the written exam, which is available at test centers throughout the US. Some groups are beginning to require CE as a prerequisite 17 There are 3 areas that raise ethical concerns when dealing with the media. They are: gifts to journalists, the linkage between buying ads and getting news coverage, and transparency and disclosure issues. 3 basic value orientations  utilitarian: decisions are based on what would cause the least harm or best, greatest happiness to the greatest number of people  a shortcoming of utilitarianism is that it does not consider thee communication’s intentions or moral obligations  absolutist: every decision right or wrong regardless of consequences  existentialist: which calls for a balance between 2 extremes. Decisions are based on immediate practical choice without pre-described value system. What is ethics? Value system by which a person determines what is right or wrong, fair or unfair, just or unjust Expressed by moral behavior in specific situations The Ethical Advocate We are advocates of what we believe to be the truth and not merely blind advocated for our organizations Code of Professional Conduct PRSA (Public Relations Society of America) Big 3 IABC (International Association of Business Communicators) IPRA (International Public Relations Association) 18 -Practically every national PR organization has a code of ethics PRSA values -Advocacy, honesty, expertise, independence, loyalty, and fairness Code of Ethics The primary purpose of establishing codes of ethics in not enforcement, but rather education and information Legal, ethical, in good taste, sensitive to cultural values and beliefs Members are encouraged to be truthful, accurate, and fair in all of their communications Code for Specific Situations Internet PR – internet transparency Truth and accuracy Disclose any affiliations in chat room postings Reveal background of experts Respect copyrights, trademarks Video news release (VNR) Information accurate and reliable, avoid misleading or intentionally false information Sponsor must be clearly identified at the opening of the video and on all advisory materials and scripts Any persons interviewed must be accurately identified by name, title, and affiliation Ethical dealings with the news media Goal to achieve trust through highly ethical and professional behavior 19 Gifts of any kind can contaminate the free flow of information, including paying costs of travel Avoid conflicts of interest Transparency is important Use front groups Front groups: seek to influence the public policy process by disguising or obscuring the true identity of their members or by implying representation of a much more broadly group than exists Examples: the global climate coalition (created 1989) a front group for various oil, gas, automobile, and chemical companies in order to cast doubts on legitimacy of environmental problems Licensing: Arguments For Passing of rigid examinations and tests of personal integrity could call themselves PR counselors, otherwise would have to call themselves something else. Licensing would protect the public from incompetent opportunities who do not have the knowledge, talent or ethics required. Define the practice of PR Establish educational requirement Set uniform ethical codes Protect consumers Protect qualified PR practitioners from unfair workers Raise credibility Arguments Against Infringement on the first amendment Difficult to define PR 20 Too much emphasis would be placed on education Voluntary accreditation sufficient Civil and criminal laws already exist to deal with malpractice No legislative interest since health and welfare of people are not at risk Would only assure minimum competence Creditability not always improved by licensing Accreditation A voluntary certification program for PR professionals, administered by PRSA Purpose is to unify and advance the field, improve practice, signifies a high level of experience and competence More jobs are being posted as “APR” only apply Since 1965, but the universal accreditation program was formed in 1998 2003 program overhauled – preview course complete readiness questionnaire portfolio reviewed by panel of professionals rigorous written and oral examination five years of professional experience approximately one quarter of PRSA members are APR 21 Ch.4 Departments & Firms In the beginning, the primary objectives of a PR department were promotion and publicity. Organization and departments the executive in charge of a corporate communications department usually has one of three titles: manager, director, or VP a VP of corporate communications may have direct responsibility for the additional activities of advertising and marketing communications Arthur Page promoted the title: Chief Communications Officer (CCO) to match the common management rubric of CMO, CFO, or even CEO. Job levels: entry-level technician, supervisor, manager, director, executive According to accepted management theory, PR is a staff function Levels of influence Advisory – lowest level, staff function is only advisory: line management has no obligation to take recommendations or even request them. 22 Compulsory-Advisory – organization policy requires that line managers at least listen to the appropriate staff experts before deciding a strategy – most effective Concurring authority – places PR in position of reviewing and approving all materials and communications with external audiences – may also limit the freedom of PR department The four areas that require cooperation to avoid possible friction and turf battles are: Legal – legal staff is concerned with the possible effect of any public statement on current or potential litigation Human resources – believe they should control the flow of information. PR counters that satisfactory external communications cannot be achieved unless effective employee relations are conducted simultaneously Advertising – advertising and PR departments often collide because they compete for funds to communicate with ex Marketing – tends to think only of customers or potential buyers as key publics, whereas PR defines publics in a broader way – any group that can have an impact on the operations of the organization Nowadays, PR firms provide a variety of services i.e. marketing communications, executive speech training, research and evaluation, crisis communication, media analysis, community relations, events management, public affairs, branding and corporate reputation, and financial relations. Because of the counseling function, we use the phrase PR firm instead of agency throughout the book. 23 The three major holding companies: Omnicom (NY) was the largest, WPP group (London) second in worldwide revenues, and Interpublic Group is the third. Public Relations Departments CEO’s in a recent study of 200 organizations gave PR a 184% return on investment, a figure just below that of customer service and sales/marketing PR saves money by: Reducing cost of litigation, regulation, legislations, pressure campaign boycotts Reducing lost revenue that results from bad relationships Bad relationships=angry publics= activism Helping make money by cultivating relationships with donors, customers, employees, shareholders, and legislators Organizational structure Large corporations may be more likely than small firms to include PR in policy making process Reasons: Highly competitive environments Must be sensitive to public opinion Establishing corporate identity More spotlight = more scrutiny Capabilities of PR executives Perceptions and expectations of top management Structure – who does PR report to? Goal: PR is a permanent part of the dominant coalition Line and staff functions 24 A line manager delegates authority, sets goals, hires, and influences work of others Staff positions have no direct authority but indirectly influence others’ work Levels of Influence Advisory: on lowest level, the staff function may be only advisory (ineffective) Compulsory-advisory: organization policy requires that line managers at least listen to the appropriate staff experts before deciding on a strategy (most effective) Concurring authority: places PR in the position of reviewing and approving all materials with external audiences Sources of Friction Legal: concerned about possible effect of any public statement on current or potential litigation Human resource turf battle over employee communications Advertising: compete for funds to communicate with external audiences Marketing: key publics defined much larger in PR beyond consumers and potential consumers Suggestions to reduce such frictions Serve together on key committees Head of departments equal job titles Al department should report to same superior utilize informal networks Written policies should spell out responsibilities 25 Outsourcing: A growing trend Major trend to outsource a range of service Fortune 500 companies are spending 25% of budget on outside firms 90 of them use outside companies to some degree outsourcing because there are not enough internal resources, supplementing staff during peak times, and saves the organization money Agencies and Firms Small mom and pop shops, boutique specialty firms, global firms with 80 offices and 3000 professionals 9000 PR firms in US about 50% of US, revenues generated by 10 largest firms major growth sectors in descending order: technology, financial products and services, industry, government and nonprofit, health care, consumer and retail until 1970s, most PR firms privately owned in 1973, Car Byoir & Associates, then the largest US PR firm, was purchased by the advertising firm of Foote, Cone, & Belding then most PR firms bought by advertising agencies now both advertising and PR firms owned by diversified holding companies with global reach toward integration of services Communication Conglomerates PR and advertising firms are being purchased by large, diversifies firms The big 3 26 WPP Group Publics Omnicom Interpublic Group President – Exec VP- Senior VP- Account Supervisor – Account Exec – Assistant Account Exec Assistant account exec – routine maintenance work such as compiling media lists, gathering information, writing rough drafts Account Exec – direct contact with client and handles most of the day-to-day activities Account Supervisor – in charge of one major or several smaller accounts Senior vp – operations Exec vp President – overall Fees and Charges Hourly fee- basic hourly fee plus out of pocket expenses Retainer fee – being “on call” for advice, basic monthly charge, set hours Fixed project fee: least popular among PR firms and more popular among clients because you have a fixed cost Advantages of Firms Objectivity Variety of skill and experience Extensive resources Offices throughout country/global Special problem-solving skill Credibility Disadvantages of Firms 27 Superficial grasp of client’s unique problems Lack of full-time commitment Need for prolonged briefing period, long learning curve Resentment by internal staff Need for strong direction by top management Need for full disclosure and confidence Expensive Challenges (from agency perspective) Executives fail to define objectives Clients fail to provide specifics Clients are penny-wise Guaranteed results Quick change in perception or attitude Make an organization what it is not Internal Department: Advantages Knowledges of the organization Economical for the organization Accessible/available to top management Team membership Internal Department: Disadvantages Develop “tunnel vision” May become dominated Limited knowledge and expertise Benefits for working in firms Gain eclectic amount of experience quickly Variety Rapid advancement 28 Fast paced, more exciting Networking opportunities Learn a variety of skills, more PR resources available High emphasis on practical skills to start Benefits for working for companies Less daily pressure, more long term results Less turnover, more stability Higher starting salary, may have better benefits, more opportunities for profit-sharing stocks Can have more emphasis on management See impact Ch.12 Public Relations & The Law Libel and Defamation Libel and slander are often collectively referred to as defamation Defamation involves a false and malicious communication with an identifiable subject who is injured by loss of money, loss of reputation, or mental suffering Libel suits can be avoided through careful use of language 29 Some offensive communications, such as negative reviews by a theatre critic, fall under the “fair comment” defense Invasion of Privacy When publishing newsletters, companies cannot assume that a person waives his or her right to privacy just because of his or her status as an employee Companies must get written permission to publish photos or use employees in advertising materials, and they must be cautious in releasing personal information about employees to the media. Copyright Law Copyright is the protection of creative work from unauthorized users Published works are by definition copyrighted, and permission must be obtained to reprint such material The “fair use” doctrine allows limited quotation, as in a book review Unless a company has a specific contract with a free- lance writer, photographer, or artist to produce work that will be exclusively owned by that company, the freelancer owns his or her work New copyright issue has been raised by the popularity of the internet and the ease of downloading, uploading, and dissemination images and information Trademark Law A trademark is a word, symbol, or slogan identifying a product’s origin that can be registered with the US patent and trademark office Trademarks are always capitalized and used as adjectives rather than nouns or verbs 30 Companies vigorously protect trademarks to prevent their becoming common nouns One for of trademark infringement may be “misappropriation of personality” the use of a celebrity’s name or image for advertising purposes without permission Regulations by Government Agencies Commercial speech is regulated by the government in the interest pf public health and safety, and consumer protection Corporate Speech Organizations have the right to express their opinions and views about a number of public issues Federal election rules now allow direct corporate support of candidates for office However, there is still some blurring of lines between what is considered “commercial speech” and “free speech” as illustrate by the Nike case Employee Speech in the Digital Age Employees are limited in expressing their opinions within the corporate environment Employee e-mail and surfing the internet are subject to monitoring Employees can be fired for revealing trade secrets or harassing fellow employees companies can set guidelines for keeping a blog and for participating in virtual online communities such as second life. Guidelines for reducing legal risks View legal counsel as a resource 31 Analyze legal trends/learn from others’ mistakes Anticipate litigation in development of documents Spokespersons trained in both law and public relations Work with legal counsel to institute a compliance program Promote ethical guidelines Avoid litigation through communication Conspiracy To provide advice or tacitly support an illegal activity of client or employer Participate in illegal action such as a bribery or cover up information Counsel policy behind illegal action Cooperate in any other way to further an illegal action Defamation Libel – printed falsehood slander – false oral statement Defamation – any false statement about a person or organization that creates public hatred, contempt, ridicule or inflicts injury or reputation (collective term for both) Person making statement was malicious or negligent Private individuals more success winning defamation suits, public figures have an extra test with actual malice (NYT vs. Sullivan) Corporations are increasingly considered “public figures” Avoiding Lawsuits for Defamation Accompany opinion with supporting facts 32 Clearly label statements of opinion review context of language Truth is traditional defense against defamation Control words spoken in anger Fair comment and criticism allowed Invasion of Privacy Places limits on what information can be collected about citizens and who has access to the information For example, organization newsletters:  Keep the focus on organization-related activities  Have employees submit “personals” in writing  Double check all information for accuracy  Check to see if there is someone embarrassed  Do not rely on second hand information  Do not included racial, ethical or age designations of employees Copyright Copyright protects specific expression of an idea, not an idea in general Can copyright written, musical, dramatic, pictorial, graphic and sculptures works and motion pictures Cannot copyright ideas raw (databases), methods of operations, concepts, utilitarian objects such as lamps or typefaces Copyright protection is life plus 70 years for individual works and 95 years for corporations from publication Fair Use vs. Infringement Fair use allows partial use of copyrighted material with source attribution 33 Permission is required if used in advertisements or promotional brochures Fair use is allowed for criticism, comment, or research, particularly without multiple copies produces Quantity – likely to infringe copyright Government documents cannot by copyrighted Photography and artwork – retain ownership of work, sell use of Freelance writers – depends on negotiation and contracted agreement, but does have right to their own work Copyright on internet, similar to hard copies, difference with uploading materials by third parties First Amendment & PR Protects freedom of expression from governmental control – federal and state Adopted in 1791, not interpreted by the supreme court until the 20 C Court has ruled that it applies to most media, thus publishers and broadcasters have constitutionally protected right of expression just as do individuals Not all content comes under 1 amendment, such as fighting words that provoke violence or symbolic actions that interfere with government Also, persons or corporations whose expressions defame, invade privacy or disturb peace may have to pay damages Generally, a person will be held accountable for speech that damages another only after he expresses it: prior restraints on expression are presumptively unconstitutional 34 1992 court ruling, hate speech cannot be banned simply because its content is offensive to some Government Agencies Regulations Federal trade Commission (FTC) – the Langham act provides power to prosecute for distributing false or misleading information (advertising, marketing or PR) Protects consumer rights Violators typically sign consent decree, no wrongdoing acknowledged but change promotion can be fined Information accurate, substantiated, not hyped, celebrities actually use product, government agencies don’t endorse products, describe research in enough detail, product not new if more than 6 months old or just repackaged, avoid misleading product demos Securities and exchange commission (SEC) monitors the financial affairs of publicly traded companies, protects interest of stockholders Covers public disclosure and insider trading, misleading info and failure of timely disclosure; can be 35


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Anthony Lee UC Santa Barbara

"I bought an awesome study guide, which helped me get an A in my Math 34B class this quarter!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.