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Cal State Fullerton - HIST 110 - Class Notes - Week 6

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Cal State Fullerton - HIST 110 - Class Notes - Week 6

School: California State University - Fullerton
Department: History
Course: World Civilization to 16th Century
Professor: Stefan Chrissanthos
Term: Winter 2016
Tags: Egyptian
Name: HIST 110A - Egyptian History
Description: Egyptian History
Uploaded: 09/16/2016
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background image I. Egyptian History 
A. Egyptology 
1. from June to October, the Nile floods → when it returns it leaves silt(fertile soil)  grow crops from October to February  harvest crops from February to June  2. Nile provided food: fish, muscles, turtles 
3. divided into 31 dynasties 
       B. Protodynastic Period(Dynasties 1 – 3)  1. 3100 B.C. ~ Narmer unifies upper and lower Egypt → becomes first pharaoh → 
builds a capital in Memphis 
2. came up with solar calendar(365 days); day = 2 unites of 12 hours  3. first to do brain surgery(drill hole in head to remove fluid)  4. began using hieroglyphics ~ 3100 B.C.  “picture writing”; at first, it didn't work very well because one symbol could mean 
several things 
created papyrus(paper) from reed  created ink from gum and carbon by pressing them together  5. built first pyramid in 2650 B.C.  Designed by Imhotep, who was also a surgeon; first commoner to become a “god” 
when he died 
made of limestone  “step” pyramid          C. Old Kingdom  1. 2500 B.C. ~ Great Pyramid is built for Pharaoh Cheops  built in the Valley of the Kings  covers 15 acres of land; made of 2.3 million blocks(2.5 tons/block); 495 feet high  2. Nubia = Sudan  had quarries → cut limestone → sailed up the Nile with blocks → blocks dragged 
to building site on sleds → ramp used to get to top → blocks dropped on top of 
each other → took 20 years to build and 100,000 men 
3. 2200 B.C. ~ country splits → second pharaoh in Thebes         D. First Intermediate Period ~ 2200 B.C.  1. Nomads begin robbing people  2. Mentuhoter becomes pharaoh in Thebes → takes over all of Egypt         E. Middle Kingdom ~ 2050 B.C.  1. Mentuhoter kicks out the nomads  2. time of trade → trades with fertile crescent  3. Senworsret III ~ R. 1863 – 1842 B.C.  Wants to trade with Africa → wants gold, slaves, ivory, and animal skins  to get there, he had to go through Nubia → builds fortresses along the Nile to 
protect businessmen 
4. 1700 B.C. ~ country invaded from the North by “sea people”(refugees) → conquer top  half        of Egypt(lower Egypt)         F. 2 nd  Intermediate Period  1. 1575 B.C. ~ sea people forced to leave 
background image        G. New Kingdom ~ 1575 B.C.  1. Time of great pharaohs  2. Thutmose III ~ R. 1479 – 1425 B.C.  Created Egyptian army → generals = his sons; used chariots  attacks fertile crescent → invades 17 times to frighten the local population  takes over the holy land(wheat), Lebanon(oranges and lemons), and 
Syira(wood) 
also gets slaves from each area  3. Ramesses II ~ R. 1278 – 1213 B.C.  Had 8 wives and 100 kids → 2 of his wives were his daughters  conquers Nubia  builds new cities and temples(built by slaves)  4. 1130 B.C. ~ inflation → people become poor → begin committing crimes  5. 1087 B.C. ~ New Kingdom ends         H. Egyptian Women  1. didn't have total equality, but had basic equality  could own property(including slaves), start a business, testify in court, or be sued  2. didn't know how to read or write  very few knew how(royalty)  wasn't that bad because most men were illiterate too  3. main job: have kids  4. marriage was based on monogamy(except for pharaoh)  5. divorce was uncommon and discouraged  reason: infertility  wanted women with child­bearing hips  6. Queen Nefertiti ~ 1350 B.C.  Used her beauty to advance  most of what we know about her is from wall paintings  painted at equal size of her husband ~ significant because it suggested that she 
was equal in every way 
painted doing sacrifices to gods → only pharaoh was meant to do this  painted as a soldier with a sword and shield, killing people  7. Ikhnaton ~ “The Heretic”  married to Nefertiti  didn't believe in polytheism → only believed in Rei  closed the temples to other gods  once he died, the Egyptians went back to worshiping multiple gods  to punish him and his wife, the Egyptians removed their bodies from the pyramid 
and threw them away 
       I. Egyptian Religion  1. polytheism – worshiped multiple gods  Re = sun; top god  Osiris = lord of the gods  Isis = mother goddess; in charge of infertility; Osiris's sister/wife  Horace = god of sky; had head of a hawk 

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School: California State University - Fullerton
Department: History
Course: World Civilization to 16th Century
Professor: Stefan Chrissanthos
Term: Winter 2016
Tags: Egyptian
Name: HIST 110A - Egyptian History
Description: Egyptian History
Uploaded: 09/16/2016
3 Pages 14 Views 11 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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