Bio 1050-02 EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE
Bio 1050-02 EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE BIO 1050
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This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kelsey Notetaker on Thursday September 15, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 1050 at Wright State University taught by Amy Wissman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 64 views. For similar materials see Biology of Food in BIO at Wright State University.
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Date Created: 09/15/16
Bio 1050-02 Exam 1 Study Guide: CH 1 Organic means: -Containing carbon Inorganic means: -Not containing carbon What are nutrients? -Compounds in foods that sustain your body processes What is a Phytochemical? -It is a non-nutrient compound that contributes to health & may play a role in ﬁghting chronic diseases. What is an experimental group?: -Group given a speciﬁc treatment What is a control group?: -Group given a placebo What is a placebo? -A sugar pill that has no impact on the individuals health when ingested. What factors inﬂuence food choices? -Taste. -Advertising. -Whats good for you. -Culture/Upbringing -Cost/Convenience. -Habits & emotions. -Social reasons & trends. What are the 6 classes of essential nutrients? -Carbohydrates -supply glucose, a major energy source. -Fats (lipids) -major energy source -cushion and insulate the body -Protein -can provide energy but is better suited for growth and maintenance of muscle, tissues & organs. -making hormones & enzymes, immune system -Vitamins -Organic compounds ( C- based) -Minerals -Inorganic substances (Phos, Calcium, Mg) -Key roles in body processes and structures. -Water -Vital for many processes in out body -Part of chemical reactions (ex. energy production) What are the two categories of essential nutrients? -Macronutrients & Micronutrients Which essential nutrients are Macronutrients? -Carbohydrates, Fats, and Proteins -these nutrients are needed in higher amounts and provide energy Which essential nutrients are Micronutrients? -Vitamins, Minerals & Water What are calories? -Measurement of energy in foods How many calories do proteins and carbohydrates provide? -4 kcals/g How many calories do fats provide? -9 kcal/g How does nutrition effect health? -Having good nutrition will help to avoid chronic deﬁciencies, and will reduce the risk of many chronic diseases. What are the chronic diseases directly tied to nutrition? -Heart disease -Cancer -Stroke -Diabetes -Osteoporosis, high bloody pressure & obesity. The current average american diet is high in: -Sodium -Saturated fat -Calories The current average american diet is low in: -Vitamin E -Calcium -Fiber Obesity Trends: -Over the last two decades, rates of overweight and obesity have risen signiﬁcantly in the US. -65% of american adults & 15% of children (ages 6-19) are overweight. -Take in more calories than we burn. -A lot of people are living sedentary lifestyles due to technology, jobs, etc. -Increased rate of Type 2 diabetes (especially children), heart disease, cancer, and stroke. What is the scientiﬁc method? -Observation -Hypothesis -Experiment to test hypothesis -Conclusion, with hypothesis supported or not. CH 2 What is nutrient density?: -Amount of nutrients per calorie in a given food. Nutrient-dense foods provide more nutrients per calorie than less nutrient-dense foods. What is energy density?: -A measurement of the calories in a food compared with the weight (grams) or volume of the food. What is a nutritional facts panel?: -The area on the food label that provides a uniform listing of speciﬁc nutrients obtained in one serving of the food. What are DV’s?: -Established reference levels of nutrients, based on a 2000-calorie diet, that are used on food labels. What are food labels?: -Tell you what is in the package. -First ingredient is the most abundant ingredient in the food. What are the three key principles of a healthy diet? -A balanced diet -A variety of foods -Moderation (adequate amount of nutrients&energy) What are DRI’s -Tells you how much of each nutrient you need in order to maintain good health. -comprise 5 reference values -EAR -RDA -AI -UL -AMDR What is EAR? -Estimated average requirement -average daily intake level estimated to meet the needs of half the people in a certain group. What is RDA? -Recommended dietary allowance -average daily intake level estimated to meet the needs of nearly all people in a certain group. -What is AI? -Adequate intake -average daily intake level assumed to be adequate. -used when an EAR cannot be determined What is UL? -Tolerable Upper Intake Level -Upper level our body can tolerate without being harmed, aka to avoid toxicity. -ex) Vitamin A can be stored in body if taken too much it can build up and be toxic to the liver. What is AMDR? -Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range -Recommended ranges of intakes for energy-containing nutrients daily -Carbohydrates 45-65% of daily cals -Fat 20-35% of daily cals -Protein 10-35% of daily cals What is a food guidance system? -A visual diagram that provides a variety of food recommendations to help create a well-balanced diet. What is the concept of MyPlate? -An example of a food guidance system -Helps you build a healthy diet based on the current Dietary Guidelines for Americans. -Shaped into the visual of a place setting, depicts 5 food groups. What are the 5 food groups? -Fruits -Vegetables -Grains -Proteins -Dairy -Nutrient Dense Foods vs. Energy Dense -Eat more nutrient dense food and less energy dense foods. Why are DV’s useful?: -It shows you how the nutrients in your foods ﬁt into your overall diet -If a serving provides 20 percent or more of the DV, it is considered high in that nutrient. -If a serving provides 5 percent or less of the DV, it is considered low in that nutrient. What are the three types of label claims? -Nutrient content claims -Health claims -Structure/Function claims CH 3: What is digestion?: -processes of breaking down larger molecules of foods into smaller absorbable molecules What are the two forms of digestion? -Mechanical digestion -Chemical digestion What is mechanical digestion? -Breaking food down by chewing and grinding or moving it through the GT tract with peristalsis. What is chemical digestion? -Breaking down food with enzymes or digestive juices. What are enzymes?: -Substances that produce chemical changes or catalyze (speed up reactions of) chemical reactions. -If a word ends in “ase” it’s an enzyme. (but doesn't HAVE to end in “ase” to be an enzyme) What is absorption? -When digested nutrients move into the tides where they can be transported an used by the body’s cells. What are the organs of digestion in order? -Mouth, pharynx -Esophagus -Stomach -Small Intestine -sphincter between these -Large Intestine *Accessory organs: salivary glands, liver & gall bladder, pancreas. What is the function of the mouth? -Begins the breakdown of food -Mastication (chewing, mechanical digestion) -Moves the bolus (food mass) into the pharynx and is swallowed. What is the function of the esophagus? -Contains the Lower Esophageal Sphincter (LES) also called the “cardiac sphincter” -Sphincter closes to prevent back ﬂow of hydrochloric acid, if it doesn't it causes heartburn (acid reﬂux) What is the function of the stomach? -Continues mechanical digestion by storing, mixing and preparing food. -Churns food with digestive juices for several hours. -Plays a role in chemical digestion because it produces powerful digestive secretions. Some include enzymes, hormones, HCI, gastrin, etc. -Pyloric sphincter allows about 1tsp of chyme to enter small intestine every 30 seconds. What is the main function of the small intestine? -Most digestion and absorption of food occurs in the SI -Has three segments -Duodenum -Jejunum -Ileum -Wall has three structural features -circular folds -villi -microvilli -all three of these increase surface area What is the main function of the large intestine? -Final organ of the GI tract. -Absorbs water, forms & stores feel material. -Has three sections -cecum -colon -rectum What is the main function of the liver? -secretes bile -helps regulate metabolism What is the main function of the gallbladder? -stores bile -releases bile into small intestine when fat is ingested What is the main function of the pancreas? -produces hormones, enzymes and sodium bicarbonate (which neutralizes the acid in chyme What is the pyloric sphincter? -sphincter in the bottom of the stomach What is chyme? -semi liquid substance of partial digested food Once chime passes through the small intestine it comes to the _____ before entering the large intestine? -ileocecal sphincter What is the primary function of the ileocecal sphincter? -to prevent back ﬂow of fecal contents from the LI into the ileum. What is the epiglottis? -A ﬂap that prevents food from entering the trachea when you swallow What is peristalsis? -the forward, rhythmic contraction that keeps food moving through the moves food through GI tract. What is segmentation? -motion that mixes chyme with the chemical secretions of the intestine. What is the role of enzymes in digestion? -Break down substances we eat. Organs that secrete Enzyme Substrate Products them saliva amylase starch maltose stomach protease (pepsin) & proteins partly digested proteins hydrochloric acid pancreas proteases (trypsin) proteins peptides & amino acids pancreas lipases fat emulsiﬁed by bile fatty acids & glycerol pancreas amylase starch maltose intestinal peptidases peptides amino acids intestinal sucrase sucrose (sugar) glucose & fructose intestinal lactase lactose glucose & galactose intestinal maltase maltose glucose What are the main carb, protein & fat-digesting enzymes & the organs that secrete them? - ^^^ What are the hormones involved in digestion & hunger? -Gastrin: signals the rest of the GI tract to prepare for digestion -Ghrelin: hormone that tells you you're hungry -Leptin: hormone that is released by fat cells & tells you you're done eating -Secretin: released by SI when acidic chyme enters the duodenum -Cholecystokinin: released by intestinal cells when partial digested protein & fat enter the SI How does the circulatory system transport absorbed nutrients through the body? -It transports nutrients to liver & rest of body How does the lymphatic system transport absorbed nutrients through the body? -It distributes larger fat molecules through lymph into blood What are some digestive disorders covered in class? -Esophageal problems -heartburn (acid reﬂux) -IBS -involves changed in colon rhythm -Celiac -autoimmune disease of SI. Involves inability to digest gluten -Chron’s -inﬂammatory bowel disease. Involves inﬂammation and swelling of intestines. -Colon cancer -One of the leading forms of cancer. Often begins with polyps on lining of the colon. CH 4 Where do most of the carbohydrates we eat come from? -Plant foods What are carbs made of? -linked units of sugars (glucose, fructose, etc..) -Plants make based unit of carb - glucose / fructose through photosynthesis (plants use sunlight to produce glucose) -Plants store energy to use when needed (growth) How many types of carbs are there and what are their names? -2 types. Simple carbs & complex carbs What are the types of simple carbs? -monosaccharides (single sugar molecule) -Glucose, Fructose, & Galactose -disaccharides (2 monosaccharides linked) -Maltose, Sucrose, & Lactose ex) Lactose = glucose + galactose What are the types of complex carbs? -Starch, Glycogen, & Fiber What is starch? -Storage form of glucose in plants What is Glycogen? -Storage form of glucose in animals -Stored in liver & muscle cells -Body can convert it to glucose when needed What is Fiber? -A non-digestible polysaccharide. (part of the plant we eat but cannot digest) -Can be soluble or insoluble (usually get both in food) -Insoluble moves quickly through your body -Soluble moves slowly through your body How does your body use carbs? -For energy. (it is an energy-yielding macronutrient) Which enzymes are used in carb digestion? -salivary amylase -pancreatic amylase & maltase -sucrose -lactose What is the storage form of glucose in plants? -starch What is the storage form of glucose in animals? -glycogen How much carbohydrates do you need daily? -Minimum of 130 grams daily What are good choices of carbs? -A variety of nutrient-dense, low-saturated-fat foods. -Eat fewer simple carbohydrates & more complex carbohydrates What are bad choices of carbs? -high-sugar foods containing lots of calories and saturated fat but few other nutrients Grains: -Bran layer is ﬁber & nutrients -Germ layer is protein & nutrients -Endosperm is starch, protein and B-vitamins What is the relation of ﬁber & whole grains & their importance? -Most reﬁned grains contain little ﬁber, however whole grains do -Whole grains have vitamins, minerals, ﬁber & phytochemicals -Fiber can be added to promote regular bowel movements. Name several types of sugar substitutes: -polyols, tagalose, saccharin, aspartame, acesulfame-K, sucralose, rebaudioside A, neotame. What is blood glucose regulation? -process by which the levels of blood sugar are maintained by the body. -Insulin and glucagon are the main hormones involved. What is insulin? --lowers blood sugar -helps glucose enter cell (opens a gate) -blood shower level lowered -extra glucose stored as GLYCOGEN What is glucagon? -secreted when blood sugar is low -releases stored glucose from liver into the blood -blood sugar level increased What is diabetes? -When someone isn't producing enough insulin/they have developed insulin resistance. -Glucose cant enter cells, so body is ﬂooded with glucose. body thinks its fasting since sugar isn't entering cells -Liver pumps out stored glucose, causing more glucose in the blood. -Fat is being brown down (as fuel). releases ketones causing acidic blood (ketoacidosis) What is type 1 diabetes? - less common/rare -autoimmune disorder— body attacks insulin producing cells of pancreas -need external source of insulin What is type 2 diabetes? -more common— 90% of diabetics have this type -overweight at increased risk of developing -insulin resistant cells -and/or over-exhaustion of the insulin-producing cells for years = little or no insulin production of their own
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