Sexuality exam 1 study guide
Sexuality exam 1 study guide HDFS 3040-001
Popular in Human Sexuality Over the Family Life Cycle
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ashlyn Masters on Thursday September 15, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HDFS 3040-001 at Auburn University taught by Carol L. Roberson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Human Sexuality Over the Family Life Cycle in HDFS at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 09/15/16
Chapter 1 1. What are the 4 components of sexual intelligence? • Understanding oneself sexually • Having interpersonal sexual skills and integrity o Doesn’t mean you need a lot of knowledge, but rather the skill to communicate with your partner about what works and what doesn’t o Help your partner understand what works for you o Also has to do with being true to yourself • Having accurate scientific knowledge about sexuality • Consideration of the cultural context of sexuality; understanding broader culture, political and legal contexts of sexual issues o Example: knowing that gays and lesbians have the right to marry each other in every state now 2. Know what is meant by “psychosocial” orientation, “biopsychosocial” and how we may confuse biologically innate vs. socially dictated forces in terms of sexuality • Psychological orientation: refers to a combination of psychological and social factors • Biopsychosocial: integration of biological, psychosocial and social factors 3. Islamic Middle East: focus on teachings of the Qur'an and distinguish between this and patriarchal traditions • Qur’an: opposes intercourse before marriage, values intercourse within marriage as the highest good in human life, requires both men and women to show modesty in public by wearing loose-fitting, body-covering clothing, allows for polygamy (4 wives) • Patriarchal: oppression of women, extreme sexually related restrictions and punishments, require girls to be genitally cut, insist that women be completely covered by clothing in public, sanction “honor killing” 4. China – look at general shifts in attitudes and the impacts on STIs • Went from men should not ejaculate often/women should to romantic gestures putting people at risk of persecution • Sex outside marriage was super bad and sex within marriage more than once a week was “counterproductive” which actually reduced frequency of STIs significantly • Now, there are rapidly growing rates of HIV infections 5. Read “Our cultural legacy: sex for procreation and rigid gender roles” – focus especially on the problems associated with thinking of intercourse as ‘real sex’ and male and female gender roles. • Sexual behaviors for pleasure without possibility of procreation have been viewed at various times as immoral, sinful, perverted or illegal • “Real sex” perpetuates the notions that a man’s penis is the primary source of satisfaction for his partner and that her sexual response and orgasm are supposed to occur during penetration • Devalues non-intercourse sexual intimacy • Places a lot of performance pressures on both genders • Man must always initiate sexual activity while the woman must either set limits or comply • Women face more restrictions on their sexuality than men th 6. Skip to “the 20 century and cover through to the end of the chapter. In the “Media and Sexuality” section, focus on the positive and negatives of the different types of media th • 20 century o Freud believed that sexuality was innate in women as well as in men o U.S. involvement in WWI created an environment for increased equality and flexibility of gender roles o In the 20s, there was increased independence and privacy for young people’s sexual explorations o During the Great Depression (1930s), there was a return to more restrained behavior • After WWII o Living in the suburbs became the ideal o Media started having effects- couples in separate beds but Playboy also entered houses • The Times They Are a-Changin’ o New movement for gender-role equality began in the 1960s o Oral contraceptive pill was introduced o 1960s and 1970s- attitudes toward homosexuality began to change • Media and Sexuality o Positives § Promotes greater knowledge, tolerance and positive social change o Negatives § Encourages youth to be sexually active too early Chapter 2 1. What are the roles and goals of sexology? • Role: test assumptions in a scientific way, find out whether they are true or false and document what underlying relationships they reveal • Goals: understanding, predicted and controlling/influencing the events that are the subject matter of their respective fields 2. Problems of sex survey research: non-response, inaccuracy and demographic bias • Nonresponse: refusal to participate in a research study • Self-selection/volunteer bias: the bias introduced into research study results because of participants’ willingness to respond o Those who do respond may differ in significant ways from those who don’t (maybe they’re more comfortable with their sexuality, more experienced) • Demographic bias: a kind of sampling bias in which certain segments of society (such as white, middle class, white-collar workers) are disproportionately represented in a study population • Inaccuracy: people aren’t honest when taking a survey • Purposeful distortion: participants may maximize or minimize sexual activity which could include socially desirable responses 3. Kinsey studies • Goal: determine patterns of sexual behavior in American males and females • Method: interviews o Book says survey research, but it’s wrong. HE INTERVIEWED • Interviewed over 20,000 subjects in the 1940s and 50s and gave people an idea of how frequently people masturbate, have premarital sex, extramarital sex, etc. • Let people know how similar/dissimilar their behaviors are to others • Made sex research respectable and led to more research in the field 4. NHSLS study? • Goal: study the sexual attitudes and practices of American adults • Method: survey research • Another more recent study that looked at sexual behaviors in the US • Masturbation: men 60%, women 40% • Extramarital affairs: men 24%, women 15% • Orgasm during sex (always) o Men 75%, women 29% 5. What can be concluded about violent pornography and sexual aggression/rape? What about the impact of alcohol on sexual responsiveness? • Exposure to sexually violent media can lead to increased tolerance for sexually aggressive behavior, greater acceptance of the myth that women want to be raped, reduced sensitivity to rape victims, desensitization to violence against women and, in some cases, an increased probability of committing a rape • Drinking enhanced sexual pleasure 6. Masters and Johnson? What did they conclude about the female orgasm? • Method: direction observation • Conclusion: no biological difference between clitoral and vaginal orgasms • Looked at physiological responses during sexual activity • More recently, fMRIs have been used to look at changes in the brain during sexual thoughts or activities • Other experimental research may be limited in the types of questions that can be addressed (sexual orientation for example) 7. What are the advantages and disadvantages of Internet-based surveys? • Advantages: cheaper, people are less influenced by social desirability and more inclined to shared information that they might not disclose in person, collection and management of data are more efficient, provides an almost limitless pool of potential study respondents • Disadvantages: association with considerable sample-selection bias, low response rates, multiple survey submissions, privacy issues 8. What are the questions that should be considered in evaluating research? • What are the researchers’ credentials? • Through what type of media were the results published? • What approach or type of research method was used? Were proper scientific procedures adhered to? • Were a sufficient number of subjects used? • Is it reasonable to apply the research findings to a larger population beyond the sample group? • Is there any reason to believe that the research methods could have biased the findings? • Are there any other published research findings that support or refute the study in question? Chapter 3 1. Structures • Vulva: overriding term for the external structures • Mons veneris: area over the pubic bone, where you see pubic hair o Functions of hair § Vaginal secretions associated with sexual arousal held there § Can enhance sexual pleasure; cushions during sexual activity, may also trap bacteria, etc. § Help prevent vaginal infections • Clitoris: only function appears to be sexual arousal/pleasure o Many more nerve endings than the vagina itself o Stimulation is the most common way that women experience orgasm 2. Internal structures • Vagina o Grafenberg spot (G-spot): front wall of vagina § Stimulation can cause sexual arousal, orgasm, even sometimes ejaculation o Douching: washing out the vagina § Just say no! § Leads to increased pelvic inflammatory disease, endometriosis, increased susceptibility to infections (leading cause of vaginitis), transmission of HIV, ectopic pregnancy, decreased fertility o Feminine-hygiene sprays o Also cause problems, including potentially ***ovarian cancer (talcum powder also possibly implicated in ovarian cancer) • Other structures o Fallopian tubes: pair of tubes along which eggs travel from the ovaries to the uterus 3. Vaginitis and urinary tract infections • UTIs o Causes- bacteria that enter the urethral opening o Ways to avoid- drink cranberry juice, urinate after intercourse or after anything is put into the vagina, wipe front to back • Vaginitis o Causes- when the natural balance of the vagina is disturbed, when a nonnative organism is introduced o Ways to avoid- wear underwear lined with cotton o Why is it important to use a condom if you have more than one sexual partner? § Vaginal fluids are very acidic; semen is very alkaline and after intercourse, the pH of the vagina increases for several hours, making it susceptible to bacterial infections § With regular partner, vaginal pH adjusts rapidly, but with multiple partners, it doesn’t adjust as rapidly so risk for infection increases rapidly (unless partners use condoms) 4. Ectopic pregnancies • A pregnancy that occurs when a fertilized ovum implants outside the uterus, most commonly in a fallopian tube 5. When ovulation and menstruation occurs during the menstrual cycle • Regardless of cycle length, ovulation occurs 14 days before the onset of menstruation 6. Menarche: a girl’s first menstrual period • Timing related to heredity, health, and altitude • Decrease in age over time associated with increased obesity • Non-organic food also causes the age to decrease o The pesticides (the hormones/steroids in them) can affect age of menarche • Some evidence suggests that the peak in estrogen mid-cycle (at ovulation) is associated with increased sexual interest (for women) o More likely to initiate sex then and have more orgasms • Other research suggests that women find “rugged” men more attractive at ovulation, but “softer” men more attractive throughout the rest of the cycle 7. Menstrual cycle and fertility • Take day 1 as beginning of cycle. Average cycle is 28 days • For a regular cycle, ovulation occurs at day 14 – plus or minus 2 days, and then sperm may last 2-5 days in a woman’s reproductive tract so add 2 days on each side: this means that on average, “unsafe” days would be days 10-17 • For an irregular cycle of 31 days, the “unsafe” days would be approximately days 6-21 • Note though, that even for “regular” women, stress and other factors may impact the menstrual cycle 8. Menstrual cycle problems • PMS/PMDD (premenstrual dysphoric disorder): relation to drops in estrogen levels in the week prior to menstruation • Physical symptoms include bloating, pain, increase in food cravings • To decrease symptoms: exercise, low salt intake, sexual activity • Psychological symptoms include irritability, depression, mood swings, lack of emotional stability • Control: SSRIs/oral contraceptives can help • Dysmenorrhea: painful menstruation o Primary (caused by overproduction of prostaglandins) o Secondary (caused by a range of other factors including endometriosis, pelvic inflammatory disease, etc.) • Amenorrhea: absence of menstrual periods o Primary: never have had a period § Causes include problems with reproductive organs, hormonal imbalances, poor health, etc. o Secondary: once had a cycle but now don’t § Causes include anorexia nervosa, high levels of exercise, anabolic steroid use, stress, etc.) 9. Menopause: cessation of menstrual periods (average age is around 51) • You’ve officially hit menopause when you haven’t had a period for a year • Most symptoms occur 2 years before and after (not everyone experiences symptoms) • Hot flashes is the most common symptom o Vary by person, ethnicity • Other common symptoms: thinning of vaginal walls, decreased lubrication may impact sexual pleasure o Primary treatment is vaginal estrogen creams • May be at more risk for UTI’s 10. Hormone replacement therapy • The use of supplemental hormones during and after menopause or following surgical removal of the ovaries • Controversial • In 2002, NIH halted Women’s Health Initiative trails because of increased rates (26%) of breast cancer in women taking HRTs – when fewer women took the hormones, rates of breast cancer in postmenopausal women dropped 11% and estrogen-fueled tumors dropped 15% • Also found: 29% more likely to have a heart attack – especially if over 60 • Increased risk of stroke, blood clots, memory loss • Positive impacts of HRTs o 35% reduction in colorectal cancer • Decrease in hip fractures 11. Different disorders/cancers • Breast cancer o Practice regular self-exam and get regular mammograms beginning by age 40 (or earlier if medically indicated) o Breast cancer § In young women, more aggressive and higher mortality rates § In men, because of late diagnosis, high mortality rates o Risk factors that you can impact § Weight gain- in younger women, doesn’t increase risk but in postmenopausal women, it increases the risk 2-3x and starts at BMI of 27 (5’5” weight 165) § Hormones (HRT; body fat) § Exercise- at least 30 minutes/day – brisk walking or better § Limit exposure to pesticides, plastics, etc. (see book) § Births before 30 and breastfeeding are protective § Limit alcohol consumption o Risk factors that are hard to impact § Age- average age of diagnosis is 62; highest rates in those over 70; overall risk = 1 in 8 § Family history- risk is 2x as high if you have a first-degree relative § Genes- BRCA-1 or BRCA-2 • 60% lifetime risk – but only about 5% of cases § Breast density § Menstrual periods (starting early, menopause late) o DCIS (ductal carcinoma in situ): early stage breast cancer § Confined to the ducts- means it won’t spread yet § Hard to diagnose § Can lead to overtreatment • Cervical cancer- detected by pap smears o Get one between 3 years of being sexually active or at age 21, whichever comes first o Most cervical cancers caused by Human Papilloma virus (HPV) o Over 25% of college students infected with HPV o Vaccine now available for young girls (have to have it before exposure to HPV) – and boys o Have regular pap smears – it could save your life o But HPV is also a cause of oral, anal and penile cancers • Ovarian cancer o Hard to detect o Report any abdominal or pelvic pain, bloating, feeling full, difficulty eating that lasts for 3 weeks. Early detection is the key o CA125 blood tests may be useful, but both false positives and negatives § False positive: says you have cancer but you don’t § False negative: says you don’t have cancer but you actually do Chapter 4 1. What is the benefit of kegel exercises for men? • Stronger and more pleasurable orgasms • Better ejaculatory control • Increased pelvic sensation during sexual arousal 2. What is smegma and what health issues are associated with it? • A cheesy substance of glandular secretions and skin cells that sometimes accumulates under the foreskin of the penis • Unpleasant odor, becomes grainy and irritating and can serve as a breeding ground for infection-causing organisms 3. The penis • Mostly composed of blood vessels, tissues, muscle, cylinders composed of sponge-like material o Sponge-like material engorged with blood when the male is sexually excited à erection o Muscle tissue primarily at base, and this helps with ejaculation and urination • Foreskin: covers all or portions of glans • Glans has greatest concentration of nerve endings – but men vary in terms of where they prefer to be stimulated 4. Circumcision: removal of foreskin • Often performed early during infancy but may occur at different times in different cultures • Religious vs. medical benefit o In the past 2-3 years, they’ve said there are medical benefits o Less likely to build up smegma, less likely to get STIs, less likely to get penile cancer • Historically, no analgesia, but now realization that infants do feel pain and experiencing that pain can have long-lasting impacts o Still less than half receive anything for pain 5. Scrotum and testes • Scrotum: loose, except when moves closer to body when cold or during sexual activity (protective, sign of impending orgasm) • Testes o ***Functions: secretions of sex hormones and production of semen § Commonly missed on exam o Form in abdomen and migrate during fetal development to the scrotum • Cryptorchidism: one of more of testes fail to descend o Most that will eventually descend do so in the first 6 months o If not, medical intervention may be required (or infertility, testicular cancer may result) • Semen: made of a variety of compounds and not harmful to swallow unless male is HIV positive o Taste of semen depends on diet § Diets high in fruits/veggies and low in meats tend to be sweeter 6. Male sexual functions • Erections o Begin prenatally and occur during infancy (often during diaper changes) o Nighttime erections occur primarily during REM (dream) sleep § May lead to nocturnal emissions or erections evident upon waking § ***NOTE: REM is not same as stage 3 or 4 sleep • This is commonly missed on exams • Ejaculation o Can have orgasms without an ejaculation § Pre-pubertal boys § Men can also train themselves to do so – and then more likely to have a second orgasm o Can have multiple orgasms but only the first has any significant ejaculate o Two phases of ejaculation (or orgasm as mostly they occur simultaneously) § Emission phase: at this point, man experiences “ejaculatory inevitability” • “No stopping it now” § Expulsion phase: contractions of muscles around urethral bulb and base of penis leading to expulsion of ejaculate 7. Penile cancer – rare but deadly if not treated • One common cause is HPV • Risk factors o Age, multiple sexual partners, STIs (especially genital warts), poor hygiene (smemga under the foreskin), lack of circumcision • Symptoms o Genital lesions, sores, penis pain, bleeding from the penis (indication of advanced disease) • Treatments o Removal of the cancerous area, chemo, radiation o In severe cases, removal of the penis • Metastasizes early, so early detection is important 8. Testicular cancer • Risk factors o Abnormal testicle development, undescended testicles, Klinefelter’s syndrome, exposure to certain chemicals, HIV • Two types o One slow-growing that shows up primarily in 30s and 40s; sensitive to radiation o One fast growing (and several varieties of this) • Symptoms o Lump or swelling in testicles o Discomfort or pain in testicle, back, lower abdomen or scrotum • Self-exam very important • Treatment o Surgery, chemo, radiation nd st 9. Prostate cancer- 2 most frequently diagnosed cancer in men (skin cancer is 1 ) • Risk factors o Over 50, African-American, painters, tire factory workers, exposure to cadmium, farmers • Being a vegetarian appears to be protective • Symptoms o Urinary issues (frequency, pain, dribbling, leakage, retention), pain with ejaculation, lower back pain, pain with bowel movements, elevated PSA readings (though false positives are possible and these also increase with age) • Treatment o Active surveillance, surgery, radiation, hormonal treatments to lower testosterone levels, chemo 10. Heat and testicles • Testicles pull away from the body in heat and towards the body in cold 11. Truths vs. myths about penis size • Size doesn’t matter • Only the outer 1/3 of the vagina is rich in nerve endings • Penile width seems more important to women than length • Depth of penetration depends more on sexual position than anything else • Both heterosexual women and gay men worry more about a very large penis 12. Obesity and male sexuality • Impacts include: o Difficulties getting/maintaining an erection related to cardiovascular issues and diabetes (actually a good way to measure cardiovascular health: “the penis is the dipstick of the body’s health”) o Atherosclerosis impacts small arteries in the penis o Diabetes damages both blood vessels and nerves in extremities o Testosterone levels drop (loss of interest) o Penis effectively shrinks: for every 50 pounds overweight, lose 1 inch of penis length o Severely obese men develop “buried penis syndrome” – fat and skin cover pubic area and can lead to bacterial and fungal infections; in some instances, scar tissues on penile shaft contracts and pulls the penis inside the body; may be increased risk of penile cancer 13. Active surveillance • Most common “treatment” for prostate cancer (be watching for it before it happens because it metastasizes so quickly) Chapter 5 1. Sex and gender terms • Sex: biological maleness or femaleness (or variations) • Gender: psychological and sociocultural characteristics associated with our sex – is a result of socialization • Gender identity: whether one views self as male or female psychologically 2. Know the major steps of gender identity • Chromosomal sex • Gonadal sex • Hormonal sex • Internal reproductive structures • External genitals • Sex differentiation of the brain 3. Biological determinants of sexual anatomy • Genetic or chromosomal sex: determined by sex chromosomes – XX, XY or variations • Development of reproductive structures o Develop as homologous sexual structures at 4-6 weeks (the structures look the same) o Differentiated into testes (7-8 weeks) or ovaries (11-12 weeks) • Then begin to produce hormones that stimulate the development of internal and external structures (genetic signals cause differentiation) 4. What happens in the absence of androgens • Fetus develops female structures 5. Sex differentiation of the brain • Female o Hypothalamus becomes estrogen sensitive, influencing cyclic release of hormones o Two hypothalamic areas are smaller in female brain o Cerebral cortex of right hemisphere is thinner in female brain o Corpus callosum is thicker in female brain o Less lateralization of function in female brain compared to male brain • Male o Estrogen-insensitive male hypothalamus directs steady production of hormones o Two hypothalamic areas are larger in male brain o Cerebral cortex of right hemisphere is thicker in male brain o Corpus callosum is thinner in male brain o More lateralization of function in male brain compared to female brain 6. Intersex: a term applied to people who possess biological attributes of both sexes (hermaphrodites) 7. Turner’s syndrome: female XO 8. Klinefelter’s syndrome: male XXY • Males are sterile, have undersized external genitalia and may exhibit some breast development • Usually identify as male, but some gender identity confusion 9. Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS): chromosomal male who are insensitive to androgens • Have female genitals, shallow vagina, typically raised as females o Which seems ok as they also lack masculinization of the brain 10. Fetally androgenized females: masculine-appearing external genitalia but identified as female by medical tests • Usually reared as female and have female gender identity but many also take on many traditionally male behaviors and some assume male gender identity 11. DHT-deficient males: chromosomally XY but when they’re born they look female • When they hit puberty and get a big hit of androgens, they develop male external genitalia • Tends to happen in small clusters of particular areas (ex: Dominican Republic) 12. What should parents do when they have intersex children? • Don’t do surgery. Wait until the child is old enough to make the decision for themself 13. Transsexualism and Transgenderism • Not about sexual orientation • Etiology unclear, but most report sense of being at odds with genital anatomy in childhood; some evidence related to prenatal exposure to hormones (m2f- less efficient production of testosterone, for example) • Transgenderism: identify as a certain gender and act/dress like that gender with which you identify • Transsexualism: take the step of changing (to at least some degree) sexual anatomy o Males somewhat more than females (m2f > f2m) o First live as other sex for a year, then may have biological treatments o M2f is easier surgery and individual may be able to experience orgasm o F2m is more difficult, natural erections don’t occur but if clitoral material is maintained, may experience orgasm o Most adjust well • If cross-dress just for sexual satisfaction, considered to be transvestites not transsexuals
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