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FSHN300: Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Brie

FSHN300: Exam 1 Study Guide FSHN 300


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This study guide includes chapters 1-6 for Exam 1. More chapters will be added after class tomorrow. I will add mock questions as well. Good luck guys!
Food Principles and Applications
Eric Stanley Milholland
Study Guide
FSHN300, nutrition, nutrition science, Dietetics, Hospitality, Colorado State University, Colorado State
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This 19 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brie on Thursday September 15, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to FSHN 300 at Colorado State University taught by Eric Stanley Milholland in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 95 views. For similar materials see Food Principles and Applications in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Colorado State University.


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Date Created: 09/15/16
Thursday, September 15, 2016 FSHN 350 Study Guide Chapter 1: Food Selection and Evaluation - Food Selection • Reasons We Choose Food: • Sensory Criteria • Nutritional Criteria • Cultural Criteria • Religious Criteria • Psychological and Sociological Criteria - Sensory Criteria 1. Sight • First impression of food • Includes color, size, texture 2. Odor • People can differentiate between 2,000 to 4,000 odors • Odors linked with memories • Better ability to perceive food when hot/warm o Ex) Hot cheese (more pleasing/more smell) vs. cold cheese (virtually no strong smell/ senses aren’t activated) 3. Taste • The 5 Stimuli o Sweet o Salt o Sour o Bitter o Savory (or Umami) ― Umami: a Japanese term for “delicious” ― Not as much a zone- more so a flavor 1 Thursday, September 15, 2016 • Taste Interactions • Factors Affecting Taste • Flavor: The combined sense of taste, odor, and mouth feel 3. Touch • Texture o Some people can only handle the texture of a cooked item while others can only handle the raw version of the same food ― Ex) Person 1 only likes the texture of raw (hard) carrots, but person 2 only likes the texture of cooked (soft) carrots ― Ex) Some people don’t like how soft avocados are… • Consistency • Astringency o Makes our mouths physically react ― Ex) Our mouths pucker with lemon • Chemesthesis: Chemically initiated senses/ foods that bring on new senses o Pain, touch, and thermal perception ― Ex) Your mouth feels like it’s hot after eating spicy food but it’s not ― Ex) Your mouth feels colder after eating mint, but it’s not 4. Hearing • We associate sounds with foods and then expect those sounds with cooking or types of food o Ex) Sizzling, crunching, popping o Ex) French bread should have a crackle when cut to indicate freshness Nutritional Criteria 1. Dietary Guidelines for Americans • Published by: USDA and DHHA 2 Thursday, September 15, 2016 • Published every 5 years o Most recent: 2016 • Includes healthy guidelines for food intake • o Updated food pyramid to a more relatable image (dinner plate with sections for what should be on the plate) o Food safety included o Picture version of an ideal/healthy plate ― ½ fruits and veggies (with a little more veggie), ½ protein and grains, glass of dairy o Supertracker ― Online tool that helps monitor and plan diet and exercise Calorie Control • Estimated goal for maintaining weight o Women: About 2,000 kcalories per day ― Differs depending on weight, activity level etc. o Men: About 2,500 kcalories per day ― Differs depending on weight, activity level etc. • Estimated guidelines for meal portions o Women: Three meals and two 200 kcalorie snacks o Men: Three meals and two 300 kcalorie snacks • Maintain Weight: Calories are “in balance” • Gain Weight: “Caloric excess” • Lose Weight: “Caloric deficit” Cultural Criteria • Ethnic Influences o Birthplace ― BBQ in the USA 㱺 Ex) Southern people are used to sweetened tea whereas other regions are generally used to unsweetened tea 3 Thursday, September 15, 2016 㱺 Ex) St. Louis, Texas, Memphis and Kansas City barbecue differently (type of meat, cooking technique, type of wood used etc.) • Geography and Climate o Areas differ in their availability of various food and produce o Climate may affect what produce can be grown there, therefore affecting people’s choices • Cultures differ in manners o Ex) Cutting pasta with your fork isn’t rude in America, but in Italy it’s highly disrespectful Religious Criteria • Foods used in religious ceremonies o Communions ― Ex) Wine and Bread • Foods prohibited by religious laws o Eating Kosher o Cows are sacred in Hindu culture so beef is forbidden Psychological and Sociological Criteria • Advertising o Ex) Having an athlete promote a cereal brand to make it seem healthy o Ex) Using words like “natural” and “sugar free” to make people think it’s healthy when it’s not • Budgetary Factors o Ex) McDonalds offers 400+ calories for $1; a low income family may opt for this in order to get enough calories • Social Factors o Perceived “esteem” of foods 4 Thursday, September 15, 2016 ― People choose “popular foods” or foods that have a good reputation 㱺 Ex) Kale and acai bowls are popular because people know about their “superfood” title o Peer choices ― Ex) You may choose ramen in college but will change • Biotechnology (GMO’s) o GMO: Genetically modified organism o Alteration of genes in a bacteria, plant, or animal for the purpose of changing it’s characteristics ― Ex) Watermelon were genetically modified to be “seedless” (less noticeable seeds) • Concerns about Food Biotechnology o Allergens ― Some genetic modifications cross foods that people may have allergies with to other food 㱺 Ex) Tomatoes have been crossed with fish genes in order to increase the tomato’s frost- tolerance. Someone may have an allergy to fish, which could crossover to that modified tomato. o Gene Contamination ― Cross pollination o Religious/ Cultural Concerns • Organic Foods o Label Types: ― 100% Organic: All ingredients are certified 100% organic 㱺 Can have USDA Organic Seal ― Organic: 95% of ingredients in the product are within the criteria to be “organic” 㱺 Can have USDA Organic Seal 5 Thursday, September 15, 2016 ― Made with Organic Ingredients: 70% of ingredients in the product are within the criteria to be “organic” ― Contains Organic Ingredients: Less than 70% of ingredients are within the criteria to be “organic” o Only the USDA can verify as “organic” o Organic: ― Food that hasn’t been produced with most synthetic pesticides and fertilizers 㱺 *There can be some synthetics (which are considered safe) ― Crops that haven’t been genetically modified ― Livestock produced without antibiotics ― Food that hasn’t been irradiated 㱺 Irradiated: An exposure to radiation which improves shelf life by reducing bacteria, parasites, and viruses Food Evaluation • Two Types of Food Evaluation 1. Sensory (Subjective) Tests: Testing foods with our senses, including sight, taste, and odor etc. 2. Objective Tests: Testing food characteristics by using laboratory equipment instead of humans Sensory (Subjective) Tests • Two main types: 1. Analytical (Effective) Tests: This test determines the difference in flavor, texture etc. A trained panel carries out the evaluation. 2. Affective Tests: Tests the personal preferences pertaining to foods. Analytical Tests 1. Discriminative Test: An analytical test that determines if there is a difference in the food tested. 6 Thursday, September 15, 2016 Types of discriminative tests: A. Difference Tests: Used to differentiate samples Types of Difference Tests a. Triangle Test: Three samples of the food are presented, but two samples are the same and one is different- the goal is to see which sample the panel members choose/ if they can find the different one. b. Duo-trio Test: Three samples of food are presented but a “standard” is chosen and panel members are asked to choose which sample is closest to the standard. c. Paired Comparison Test: Two samples of food are given to the panel and the panel member is supposed to choose which has a specific characteristic. ⇒ Ex) Which is the sweetest, spiciest, etc. d. Ranking Test: More than two food samples are given and panel members are asked to provide a numerical rating to determine which sample has the most of a certain characteristic. ⇒ Ex) Which is sweeter/spicier ⇒ Ex) Cookie #1 was an 8/10 on sweetness but cookie #2 was a 7/10 B. Sensitivity Tests: Used to detect flavor Types of sensitivity tests: a) Threshold Test: This test determines the smallest concentration. b) Dilution Test: A test which finds the smallest amount of test material when mixed with a standard material. 2. Descriptive Test: Determines what the difference is in the food tested. Descriptive factors: 7 Thursday, September 15, 2016 a. Flavor Profiles: Used to describe flavors such as vanilla, caramel, etc. b. Texture Profiles: Used to describe textures such as smoothness, moistness, etc. Affective Tests • Given to untrained customers Types of Affective Tests: A. Hedonic Test: Determines which food is more pleasurable by rating aspects, such as mouthfeel, appearance, odor, taste etc. a. “How much do you like this product?” b. 9 Point Scale is used c. Taste test participants rate and rank the products by using smiley faces, 1-10 ranking system to describe if they liked it or not B. Preference Test: Determines which aspects in a product are more desirable/ preferable Type of Preference Test: a. Paired Preference Test: Two samples of food are presented and panel members have to decide which sample they prefer more. ⇒ Ex) “Yes I like this sample, but I prefer the sweeter sample.” Taste Panels • Can range from randomly chosen to highly trained testers • Usually at least 5 people • Includes all genders and ages • General Panels o Rules: ― Must be free of colds ― Can’t chew gum before the test ― Can’t eat anything at least an hour before the test ― Can’t be a smoker ― Can’t have any strong likes or dislikes for the food about to be tested 8 Thursday, September 15, 2016 Sample Preparation • Samples must be the same size • Samples must be of the same part of the food o Ex) Brownie: Couldn’t test a middle piece (gooey) against a corner (crispy edges and gooey center) because they have different qualities o Ex) Chicken: Couldn’t compare a chicken thigh with a chicken breast because they are different in texture, etc. Objective Evaluations • Objective: Same results with no subjectivity • Physical/chemical evaluation • Tests are performed with laboratory equipment NOT humans o This helps to reduce human error • Analyzes the content and overall safety of the food Physical Tests • Size and shape • Weight • Volume • Density • Moisture • Texture: • Viscometer: Tests the viscosity (flow) of fluids Chemical Tests • In house v. food testing laboratories • Electronic noses o Detects certain chemicals which are responsible for aromas Sensory v. Objective Evaluation 1. Sensory Evaluation • More expensive and time-consuming • Extremely important for product research and development 9 Thursday, September 15, 2016 2. Objective Evaluation • More reliable and repeatable • Not subject to human opinion • Great for routine quality control Basic Food Chemistry • Atoms o Basic building block of matter o Individual elements on the periodic table o Protons: Positive charge (+) o Electrons: Negative charge (-) ― Dictates the # of bonds that an atom can form 1. Ex) H—(1 bond) 2. Ex) –O--(2 bonds) 3. Ex) –N—(3 bonds) I I 4. Ex) –C—(4 bonds) I • Molecule o Unit of 1+ types of atoms held by chemical bonds ― Ex) H2O • Compound o Substance of unlike atoms Water • Water: The simplest nutrient that is the basis for many things in the food world o Free Water: ― Spoils Quickly because of higher water content ― Ex) Watermelon or tomatoes spoil more quickly because their molecules are free to interact with mold (spoils quickly) o Bound Water: ― Spoils less quickly because of lower water content 10 Thursday, September 15, 2016 ⇒ Ex) Bread: Bread has H2O that is chemically bound therefore it can’t interact freely with mold (doesn’t spoil as quickly) ― Has to be freed through some type of reaction • Structure o Neutral charge o Dipolar ** Takes longer to cook at higher altitude Water Chemistry • Speci▯ic Heat: Heat is required in order to raise the temperature of 1 gram of something by 1 • Freezing Point: Liquid changes to a solid • Melting Point: Solid changes to a liquid • Boiling Point: Liquid changes to a gas • Measuring Calories (Note: Number stats shouldn’t be on the exam) o 1 Calorie equals the energy needed to raise 1 gram of water by 1°C o 1 Kilocalorie=1,000 calories ― Kilocalories=kcal ― Calories=C ― c=common reference Water Functions in Food • Heat Transfer o Water both transfers and moderates heat ― Allows for even distribution of heat ― More effective than other heating methods • Acts as a buffer to temperature changes o Ex) Fat has a specific heat of .5, which means it heats twice as fast as water • Universal Solvent o Solvent: Substance in which another substance is dissolved ― Usually liquid o Solute: A substance dissolved in a solvent ― Usually Solid o Solution: A homogenous mixture of a solute dissolved in a solvent 11 Thursday, September 15, 2016 o Solubility: Ability of one substance to blend uniformly with another substance o Precipitate: To separate or settle out of a solution o Colloidal Dispersions: Solvent with particles that are too large to go into solution, but do not precipitate out ― Suspension ― Emulsion o Osmosis: Solvent move across semi permeable membrane to side with higher solute concentration, equalizing solute concentration o Osmotic Pressure: Pressure or pull when 2 different solutes concentration solutions are on either side of a cell membrane o Dehydration occurs in warm temperatures o Hydration occurs in cool temperatures o Solutes reduce water activity through osmosis • Hydrolysis o Water breaks chemical bonds into other substances and splits them into 2 or more substances o “Hydro”: Water o “Lysis”: Breaking down Carbohydrates • Composition o Carbon—Carbo (C) o Water--- Hydrate (H2O) • Sugars, Starches, and Fibers of Food o Cn(H2O)n • Mostly found in plants o Made during photosynthesis Monosaccharides • Ribose: Found in nucleosides and vitamin B • Arabinose: Part of structure of plants • Fructose: Fruit sugar found in many plants • Galactose: Rare to find in nature o Part of lactose 12 Thursday, September 15, 2016 Disaccharides • Sucrose: Table sugar • Lactose: Milk sugar o Not able to be digested by some • Maltose: Malt sugar o Found in beer, cereal, and some infant formulas Oligosaccharides • Raffinose and Stachyose o Found in beans o Digesting them will produce gas • Fructo-oligosaccharides o Found in fruits and vegetables o Prebiotics • Used as a bulking agent/ fat replacer in commercial foods Polysaccharides • Starch o Amylose and amylopectin o Digestible by humans • Glycogen o Stored energy for animals o Digestible by humans 13 Thursday, September 15, 2016 o Turned into lactic acid during slaughter • Fiber o Indigestible by humans o Only found in plant food o Soluble vs. Insoluble ― Both have benefits o Cellulose ― Hemicellulose ― Pectic Substances ― Others (Insulin, vegetable gums etc.) Lipids • Also known as “fats” • Fat vs. Oil o Fats are solid at room temperature o Oils are liquid at room temperature ― Exceptions: Coconut, Palm, and Fish Oil • Made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen • Not water soluble o With the exception of acetic acid • Triglycerides: Three fatty acids o 95% of lipids in foods are triglycerides 14 Thursday, September 15, 2016 • Fatty Acids o The length is determined based off the number of carbon atoms o The saturation is determined by the number of single bonds between carbon atoms ― Saturation= No double bonds • Phospholipids o Contains phosphorus which helps to build strong bones and teeth o Used as emulsifiers ― Ex) Lecithin • Sterols o Cholesterol only found in animal foods o Plant sterols can lower risk for coronary heart disease Proteins • Contain Nitrogen Atoms o This is different from carbohydrates and lipids o Human body can make most necessary (for survival) carbohydrates and lipids, but can only synthesize approximately 50% of proteins o Exposure to different bacteria and enzymes can help form produce like milk and cheese • Made From Amino Acids • Complete vs. Incomplete Proteins 15 Thursday, September 15, 2016 o Most animal proteins are complete o Most plant proteins are incomplete ― Plant sources have some essential nutrients but in smaller amounts o Complimentary Proteins: Two or more incomplete proteins that, when together, provide amounts of all the essential amino acids ― Ex) Grains and Legumes ― Ex) Legumes, seeds, and nuts • Functions of Proteins in Foods 1) Hydration 2) Denaturation/ Coagulation 3) Enzymatic Reactions 4) Buffering 5) Browning a. Grilling allows us to “brown” Vitamins and Minerals • Vitamins o Organic ― Contain carbon o Can be destroyed by heat, light, or oxygen o No kcalories 16 Thursday, September 15, 2016 • Minerals o Nonorganic ― Do not contain carbon ― Found on periodic table o Can’t be destroyed by heat, light or oxygen o No kcalories o Microwaving is the best way to conserve vitamins and minerals • Functions of Vitamins and Minerals in Food 1) Enrichment: Adding nutrients or vitamins that a product lost through the process a. Ex) When wheat is processed to be flour, it loses vitamins and iron- these are added back in and now the flour is “enriched” 2) Fortification: The product never had a specific vitamin so it was added to increase intake of that vitamin a. Ex) Salt or milk o Antioxidant: A compound that prevents oxidation which then causes deterioration o Free Radical: Unstable molecule that is very reactive and damages cells ― Antioxidants protect your body from free radical damage Nonnutritive Food Components • Food Additive: Any substance that is added to foods 17 Thursday, September 15, 2016 • Over 3,000 food additives like: o Salt o Sugar o Corn Syrup • Purpose of Food Additives o Improves appeal o Extends the storage life o Maximizes performance o Protects the nutrient value • Improving Appeal o Color ― Certified colors vs. natural colors ― Ex) Sometimes an artificial green is added to mint ice cream to make it seem better or to seem like it has a true mint flavor. Original mint ice cream should be white though. o Texture • Plant Compounds o Beneficial (Phytochemicals) o Harmful (Natural Toxins) ― Caffeine ⇒ Natural Stimulant 18 Thursday, September 15, 2016 ⇒ Methylxanthines 19


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