×
Log in to StudySoup
Get Full Access to Irvine Valley College - BIOL 61860 - Study Guide - Midterm
Join StudySoup for FREE
Get Full Access to Irvine Valley College - BIOL 61860 - Study Guide - Midterm

Already have an account? Login here
×
Reset your password

IRVINE VALLEY COLLEGE / Biology / BIOL 61860 / Do humans have homologous chromosomes?

Do humans have homologous chromosomes?

Do humans have homologous chromosomes?

Description

School: Irvine Valley College
Department: Biology
Course: Genetics and Evolutionary Biology
Professor: Amy mcwhorter
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: chromsomes, Inheritance, variation, Cell, division, gene, and interaction
Cost: 50
Name: Biology 97 Chapters 1-4 Study Guide
Description: 9/15/2016 Please note, these are just main concepts covered in the lectures. This does not cover all of the information from the book, but whatever professor emphasized in class.
Uploaded: 09/16/2016
3 Pages 30 Views 1 Unlocks
Reviews


Biology 97 Chapter 1-4 Study Guide


Do humans have homologous chromosomes?



I. CELL CYCLE

A. somatic cells

1. 2 phases of cell cycle

a) Interphase

(1) G1 (growth)

(a) interphase

(b) gap before duplication

(2) S (synthesis)

(a) DNA synthesis

(b) chromosome duplication

(3) G2 (growth)

(a) interphase

(b) gap before mitosis

b) Mitosis 2n -> 2n

(1) Cell division that preserves chromosome number

(2) Sister chromatids separate and two daughter nuclei are formed

(3) 4 stages: PMAT

(a) Prophase

i) 3 primarily major events

(1) chromatin condense into chromosomes


In what phase does the centrosomes migrate to opposite sides of the cell?



(2) nuclear envelope breaks down

(3) centrosome migrate to opposite sides of cell

(b) Metaphase

i) chromosomes line up at metaphase plat

ii) instantaneous phase

(c) Anaphase

i) sister chromatids separate

ii) temporarily tetraploid

(d) Telophase

i) “Fixing”

ii) opposite of prophase

iii) return to normal state

iv) cleavage furrow

v) nuclear envelope forms

(4) Cytokinesis

(a) separate event, not necessary for mitosis to be complete

(b) division of cytoplasm

(c) different in animal and plant cells


Which of the following actions do not take place during mitosis?



If you want to learn more check out What happened during the partition of pakistan and india in 1947?
We also discuss several other topics like In which chapter in ramayana is sita kidnapped?

i) animal cells: cleavage furrow into two daughter cells

ii) plant cells: cell plate in plant cell forms cell wall that divides cell into  two daughter cells

B. sex cells

1. Meiosis 2n -> n  

a) independent assortment of alleles to create genetically distinct individual and  overall contribute to genetic diversity  Don't forget about the age old question of Who should observe the person?

b) chromosomes replicate but nucleus divides twice

(1) Meiosis I - homologous chromosomes pair up, exchange, then segregate

(a) Prophase I

i) homologs condense and pair

ii) crossing over If you want to learn more check out What are the three names that refer to the study of biological bases of behavior?

(1) homologous chromosomes exchange genetic information

(b) Metaphase I

i) paired homologs attach to spindle from opposite poles

ii) tetrads line up

iii) independent assortment of chromosomes

(c) Anaphase I

i) pairs of chromosomes split up

ii) no centromeres are broken apart

(d) Telophase I

i) two haploid cells form

ii) chromosomes are still doubled

(2) Meiosis II - sister chromatids separate to produce haploid gametes (a) Meiosis II is like Mitosis

(b) Prophase II

i) 1n, 2c

ii) chromosomes condense

(c) Metaphase II

i) chromosomes align at metaphase plate

ii) independent assortment of chromosomes

(d) Anaphase II

i) sister chromatids separate

ii) immediately occurs

(e) Telophase II

i) each daughter chromosome gets own nuclear envelope

(1) produces 4 haploid gametes  

II. RULES OF PROBABILITY  

A. Product rule  

1. P(AB) = P(A) x P(B) We also discuss several other topics like How to describe the vector position on curve?

2. (A and B) ex. A = ace, B = hearts

a) (A and B) - we are trying to find ace of hearts which is just one card out of the  deck, and only that card

b) p(ace) = 4/52, p(hearts) = 1/4

c) 4/52 x 1/4 = 1/52 We also discuss several other topics like What is title design in cinema?

(1) 1/52 = one card out of the deck

B. Sum rule  

1. P(A + B) = P(A) + P(B) - [P(A) x P(B)]

2. one OR the other

3. we factor in the subtracting of the product rule if mutually exclusive doesn’t apply  III. FAMILY PEDIGREES

A. to be able to trace inheritance patterns

B. Autosomal Dominant Traits

1. Clue: If you see affected individuals in every generation, affected alley is dominant a) just one dominant is all it takes to get affected

C. Autosomal Recessive Traits

1. affected progeny do not necessarily have affected parents

2. affected individuals appear in progeny of unaffected parents

a) unaffected parents are carriers

3. all progeny from two affected individuals are affected

D. Finding probability that unknown individual will be affected

1. calculate chances parents carry recessive allele

2. multiple that by the chance the offspring will get the recessive alleles from both  parents

IV. VARIATIONS OF MENDELIAN PHENOTYPIC RATIOS

A. Incomplete Dominance

1. Heterozygous offspring has intermediate phenotype between homozygous parents 2. this is a third unique phenotype

3. for incompletely dominant breeding, you never get pure-breeding

B. Codominance  

1. Heterozygotes exhibit phenotypes of both alleles  

a) both alleles are expressed in the phenotype  

C. Pleiotropy  

1. particular gene affects multiple characteristics  

2. Ex. Sickle Cell Disease  

a) sickled cells (genotype) affect the individual with several symptoms (phenotypes) D. Gene Interaction

1. Recessive epistasis, 9:3:4

a) recessive allele of one gene masks expression of another gene, or “is epistatic  to”

2. Dominant epistasis, 12:3:1

a) dominant allele of one gene masks expression of another gene

3. Complementation, 9:7

a) at least one dominant allele from each of the two genes is needed for the  phenotype

4. Duplicate genes, 15:1

a) one dominant allele from either of two genes is needed for phenotype

Page Expired
5off
It looks like your free minutes have expired! Lucky for you we have all the content you need, just sign up here