Biology 97 Chapters 1-4 Study Guide
Biology 97 Chapters 1-4 Study Guide 61860
Irvine Valley College
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Idda Colcol on Thursday September 15, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 61860 at Irvine Valley College taught by Amy McWhorter in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 58 views. For similar materials see Genetics and Evolutionary Biology in Biology at Irvine Valley College.
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Date Created: 09/15/16
Biology 97 Chapter 1-4 Study Guide I. CELL CYCLE A. somatic cells 1. 2 phases of cell cycle a) Interphase (1) G1 (growth) (a) interphase (b) gap before duplication (2) S (synthesis) (a) DNA synthesis (b) chromosome duplication (3) G2 (growth) (a) interphase (b) gap before mitosis b) Mitosis 2n -> 2n (1) Cell division that preserves chromosome number (2) Sister chromatids separate and two daughter nuclei are formed (3) 4 stages: PMAT (a) Prophase i) 3 primarily major events (1) chromatin condense into chromosomes (2) nuclear envelope breaks down (3) centrosome migrate to opposite sides of cell (b) Metaphase i) chromosomes line up at metaphase plat ii) instantaneous phase (c) Anaphase i) sister chromatids separate ii) temporarily tetraploid (d) Telophase i) “Fixing” ii) opposite of prophase iii)return to normal state iv) cleavage furrow v) nuclear envelope forms (4) Cytokinesis (a) separate event, not necessary for mitosis to be complete (b) division of cytoplasm (c) different in animal and plant cells i) animal cells: cleavage furrow into two daughter cells ii) plant cells: cell plate in plant cell forms cell wall that divides cell into two daughter cells B. sex cells 1. Meiosis 2n -> n a) independent assortment of alleles to create genetically distinct individual and overall contribute to genetic diversity b) chromosomes replicate but nucleus divides twice (1) Meiosis I - homologous chromosomes pair up, exchange, then segregate (a) Prophase I i) homologs condense and pair ii) crossing over (1) homologous chromosomes exchange genetic information (b) Metaphase I i) paired homologs attach to spindle from opposite poles ii) tetrads line up iii)independent assortment of chromosomes (c) Anaphase I i) pairs of chromosomes split up ii) no centromeres are broken apart (d) Telophase I i) two haploid cells form ii) chromosomes are still doubled (2) Meiosis II - sister chromatids separate to produce haploid gametes (a) Meiosis II is like Mitosis (b) Prophase II i) 1n, 2c ii) chromosomes condense (c) Metaphase II i) chromosomes align at metaphase plate ii) independent assortment of chromosomes (d) Anaphase II i) sister chromatids separate ii) immediately occurs (e) Telophase II i) each daughter chromosome gets own nuclear envelope (1) produces 4 haploid gametes II. RULES OF PROBABILITY A. Product rule 1. P(AB) = P(A) x P(B) 2. (A and B) ex. A = ace, B = hearts a) (A and B) - we are trying to ﬁnd ace of hearts which is just one card out of the deck, and only that card b) p(ace) = 4/52, p(hearts) = 1/4 c) 4/52 x 1/4 = 1/52 (1) 1/52 = one card out of the deck B. Sum rule 1. P(A + B) = P(A) + P(B) - [P(A) x P(B)] 2. one OR the other 3. we factor in the subtracting of the product rule if mutually exclusive doesn’t apply III.FAMILY PEDIGREES A. to be able to trace inheritance patterns B. Autosomal Dominant Traits 1. Clue: If you see affected individuals in every generation, affected alley is dominant a) just one dominant is all it takes to get affected C. Autosomal Recessive Traits 1. affected progeny do not necessarily have affected parents 2. affected individuals appear in progeny of unaffected parents a) unaffected parents are carriers 3. all progeny from two affected individuals are affected D. Finding probability that unknown individual will be affected 1. calculate chances parents carry recessive allele 2. multiple that by the chance the offspring will get the recessive alleles from both parents IV. VARIATIONS OF MENDELIAN PHENOTYPIC RATIOS A. Incomplete Dominance 1. Heterozygous offspring has intermediate phenotype between homozygous parents 2. this is a third unique phenotype 3. for incompletely dominant breeding, you never get pure-breeding B. Codominance 1. Heterozygotes exhibit phenotypes of both alleles a) both alleles are expressed in the phenotype C. Pleiotropy 1. particular gene affects multiple characteristics 2. Ex. Sickle Cell Disease a) sickled cells (genotype) affect the individual with several symptoms (phenotypes) D. Gene Interaction 1. Recessive epistasis, 9:3:4 a) recessive allele of one gene masks expression of another gene, or “is epistatic to” 2. Dominant epistasis, 12:3:1 a) dominant allele of one gene masks expression of another gene 3. Complementation, 9:7 a) at least one dominant allele from each of the two genes is needed for the phenotype 4. Duplicate genes, 15:1 a) one dominant allele from either of two genes is needed for phenotype
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