Cjs 102 - Exam #1 Study guide
Cjs 102 - Exam #1 Study guide CJS 102
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Tony Notetaker on Thursday September 15, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CJS 102 at Illinois State University taught by Dr. Weisheit in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views.
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Date Created: 09/15/16
Chapter I: The Old Slavery and the New How does the profitability of slavery compare with that of other illegal enterprises? Thought to rd be the 3 most profitable. Why would slave holders abuse their slaves? To get work and obedience What proportion of slaves are freed each year because of the actions of an average person? ~1/3 On average how long do slaves in America stay in bondage? 45 years How do slaves in America today compare with those in America before the civil war? These slaves are kept hidden from the outside world. They are also many different colors and races About how many people are trafficked into the U.S. each year? 14,50017,500 people About what percent of slave cases are solved each year by having criminal charges brought? Less than 1% What point in U.S. history was a time when there were no slaves? There is no point After the American Revolution, how did Congress respond to the issue of slavery and what was the result? They passed laws banning the international slave trade but it was not enforced (ultimately ignored) What happened to slavery after the Civil War and the passage of the 13th Amendment? Southerners reenslaved unemployed, poor African Americans What were the “Black Codes” and what did they do? They repressed black people in America and controlled almost every aspect of their lives. Legalized segregation was included What is “peonage?” What forms did it take? “Debt bondage slavery” Local authorities would collect African Americans who could not pay fines. Others would be tricked into signing contracts with farmers as sharecroppers. What was the Mann Act? The federal government could prosecute anyone who transported woman and forced them into prostitution. What is the most prominent form of slavery in the U.S. today? Forced prostitution What are the essential criteria for knowing if someone is a slave, and which is most important? The complete control of a person through the use of violence, hard labor for little/ no pay, and economic exploitation. The use of violence to control the slave is the most important. How do people typically enter into slavery in the U.S.? They volunteer because of “better opportunities” promised. Which foreign country seems to provide the largest number of slaves in the U.S.? China About what percentage of trafficking victims in the U.S. are children? About Half Chapter 2: House Slaves How do victims of domestic slavery usually enter into slavery? They are often here under legitimate work visas and then become enslaved after already entering the homes (legal programs). How do house slaves today compare with those of the past? House slaves today are hidden while slaves in the past were shown off and seen as a status symbol. What kinds of criminal penalties do foreign diplomats in the U.S. usually get if they are found to be holding someone in domestic slavery? They often don’t receive any punishment other than maybe being removed from the country What are some of the reasons why domestic slaves stay in the abusive environment? They fear America/ its authority figures and they fear for their family’s safety. Also some believe they must repay their debts or are loyal to their owners (feel shame). Some slaves do not know how to communicate with others (often confused) and some form bonds with children. What is the role of power in someone becoming a slave holder? Power becomes intoxicating and addicting to some people and for others their lack of power causes them to abuse their slaves (often woman) How is becoming a slave holder similar to becoming someone willing to engage in torture? These slaveholders often believe they are superior and must guide and punish “lesser” slaves. What kinds of things do slave holders do to rationalize their actions? Slave holders often believe they are helping their slaves by teaching them correct behavior. They also consider the slaves to be subhuman and lesser than they are (pets often) Why would a slave holder take photos of a domestic smiling during a family celebration? To prove, in the courts, that the slave was happy Why is domestic slavery sometimes hard to prosecute? People naturally pretend that the help is invisible so it’s easier for the slave holders to hide them in plain sight To what extent does the government keep track of domestic workers who come into the U.S. on A3 or B1 visas? A3 visa recipients put an address and no records are kept for B1 workers. There is rarely any follow up. What is the difference between someone entering the U.S. as an au pair compared with someone entering on other kinds of work visas? These women are protected through government programs. They are educated, middle class, and European. The government regulates their minimum pay and maximum work hours as well as enforcing monthly sessions with a counselor. The family also receives a background check. What would the authors do about the special visas used by foreign diplomats to bring domestic workers into the U.S.? He believes that is the root of the problem of domestic slavery and should be banned. About what percentage of slaves in America are held in domestic slavery? More than a quarter of the slaves in America What are some of the warning signs regarding domestic slavery? Unable to move freely (watched/followed), appear to be school aged but never in school, seem frightened, signs of assault, and appear to be disoriented, confused, etc. Chapter 3: Slaves in the Pastures of Plenty What proportion of Immokalee farm workers are male? ~95% Why aren’t the farm workers who harvest tomatoes in Florida paid minimum wage? They have no fixed hours and even the hours logged are doctored. Also, their work depends a lot on weather/ farm conditions. If their pay is so low, why don’t farm workers take on a second job? The farm workers never know when they need to be available so they must be available at all times. What does the National Labor Relations Act of 1935 have to do with the ability of farm workers to unionize or go on strike? Farmworkers are not covered under the Act so they can unionize but they are not protected from getting fired. Why don’t the farm operators simply pay the workers a bit more? The cost to grow food and the amount of money they receive from bigtime buyers don’t allow them much profit so they pay the workers less to save money. Why don’t enslaved farm workers try to escape? They fear for their/ their family’s lives, they are isolated (unable to communicate), and they feel honor bound to pay for their debt. What is the purpose of the Coalition of Immokalee Workers (CIW)? To improve the lives of farm laborers What does the CIW do to accomplish its purpose? The CIW talks to workers about their conditions and wages. When they discover something wrong in the system they investigate the problem. Who was Miguel Flores? What did he do and what eventually happened to him? Flores was a man who ran a giant slavery ring with his partner Sebastian Gomez. He would was very violent with the workers (often killed them) and did not pay them their wages. Eventually, he was sentenced to 15 years in federal prison. How did the federal government respond to the acts of Miguel Flores? At one point the government investigated him and found him “in compliance.” After Flores was convicted the government passed the Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act (2000) Why is the CIW able to more effectively investigate cases of farm worker slavery than the federal government? The federal government cannot spend as much time and energy on these cases. The CIW also has no restrictions on their work. Why does the CIW target the large corporations that buy the produce made with slave labor? The big corporations are the ones buying to goods and they have all the power in the system. What did the CIW want when it boycotted Taco Bell? They wanted Taco Bell to a pay the workers a penny more per pound of tomatoes. How did Burger King respond to the demands of the CIW? They would not pay the extra penny per pound and instead offered jobs to the workers. What are the advantages of bringing civil lawsuits against those involved in trafficking? They’re doesn’t have to be criminal conviction (which is harder). It makes it expensive to have slaves as opposed to paid workers. Victims get the chance to speak out. What are the disadvantages of bringing civil lawsuits against those involved in trafficking? They take time and money that some workers do not have. Also they fear for themselves and their family. What are the good things and the problems with the Guest Worker Program? Good: They employers are required to pay for the workers expenses on the way to the job. The worker is also supposed to be given ¾ of the hours promised in his contract. BAD: The government does not watch this program. The employers can do almost anything they want and it will go unnoticed. How has the Department of Labor (DOL) changed over time regarding investigations into the abuse of workers? They have become less involved. The Wage and Hour Division’s investigations decreased 14% between 1974 and 2004. Chapter 4: Supply and Demand What is a “Gorilla Pimp?” A pimp who uses violence to keep control of the woman What is “copping?” The pimp sweet talks the girl and she starts to believe they are dating. What does it mean when a girl becomes a “bottom female” in prostitution? The pimps most trusted prostitute. She collects the money from the woman, posts bond when he is in jail, and often recruits new prostitutes. What do the authors say about the description of prostitution in such films as “Pretty Woman?” The description does not in any way compare to the lives of real prostitutes. What is a “john school,” what is its purpose, and does it seem to work? It is an intervention program designed to teach “johns” the negative impacts of prostitution. The school does seem to be working and it is also cost effective. What do police in most cities do when they find a john visiting a prostitute? The johns usually go home to their families. What is the “Players Ball?” It is a ball where pimps from around different areas gather to show off their expensive style, clothes, etc. There are often awards and honors given to the most successful pimps. According to the Department of Health and Human Services, what are some of the harms inflicted on women by pimps? Drug addiction, physical injuries, mental illness, sexually transmitted diseases, PTSD and more What is the attitude of pimps regarding their prostitutes’ exposure to sexually transmitted diseases? They do not care about diseases as long as the girl can still work What are the average ages at which children are first used in prostitution? 11 14 years old How does the law view Americans who travel to other countries to have sex with children? It is still considered illegal and a form of trafficking. What are some of the problems of building criminal cases against sex tourists who target children? Money, evidence, also bringing victims to America and having them be cooperative with the trial can be difficult From the viewpoint of nonprofit organizations that work to end sex trafficking, what is a frequent response of law enforcement to these cases? Law enforcement, as a whole, does not look at the children as victims How is the official response to foreignborn sex trafficked children different from the response to sex trafficked children who are native U.S. citizens? American children are not seen as victims like the foreignborn children are. It is often presumed that native children “chose” to live that way. Under federal law what is the difference between “sex trafficking” and “severe trafficking?” Sex trafficking is obtaining, recruiting, etc., with the purpose of a commercial sex act. Severe trafficking is any commercial sex act induced by force, coercion, etc., and obtaining labor or services through force, coercion, etc. According to those who work with children freed from sex trafficking, what is the best available place to house those children? Domestic violence shelters What is the problem with requiring victims of child sex slavery to testify in court in order for them to receive services? Choosing to testify in court or participate in the investigation is a very mature decision that should not be put on children. Also while all of these things are going on children aren’t receiving proper care How does the government treat domestic and foreignborn victims of child sex slaves differently? The government gives more time and money to the cases of foreign born children than to domestics. How does the U.S. rank among nations as a destination for women and children trafficked for sex? It is the world’s largest destination (after Germany) What are some of the objections to treating all prostitution as a form of slavery? Not all woman who are prostitutes were forced into the work. Also funds are being taken from “real” trafficking What is the view of the authors regarding applying the term trafficking to a range of behaviors that do not include coercion or force? He does not agree. He believes that slavery and trafficking begins with violence Chapter 5: New Business Models How did the Chinese government respond to news that Chinese acrobats in Las Vegas were being held as slaves? The Chinese government denied the claims How were deaf residents of Mexico lured to the U.S. and put into slavery? A woman dressed in nice clothing would go their homes and sell them a better life in America How did the deaf residents raise money for the traffickers? They would sell cheap trinkets on the streets Why would the traffickers of deaf Mexicans sometimes take them to Disneyworld or other tourist attractions? They would take them there to show families back home that their family members were fine How did the deaf Mexicans finally get free of the traffickers? 4 men (who were chosen) came in contact with another deaf man who helped them write a letter to the police. What eventually happened to the people who kept the deaf Mexicans in slavery? The family members got time in federal prison What eventually happened to the people who enslaved the Zambian Acapella Boys Choir? Nothing happened to these people. The original man in the operation, however, died of a brain tumor. What kind of things did the couple do to the mentally ill they had enslaved? They forced them to work in the nude and sometimes be subjected to sexual abuse. One man was shot with a stun gun in his testicles and also his penis. What eventually happened to the couple who enslaved the mentally ill? Arlan received 30 years in prison (31 counts) while Linda received 7 (7). They also had to pay 534,810 dollars Where might clothing labeled “Made in America” actually be made? In American territories where labor is cheap Chapter 6: Eating, Wearing, Walking, and Talking Slavery What are some of the products you use every day that might have been produced by slavery? The clothes we wear, cell phones (and other technology) we use, and the food we eat, pretty much anything and everything could have been made by a slave How does the seafood industry use slave labor? The seafood industry uses children What are some of the natural resources obtained through slave labor? We obtain gold, diamonds (and other gems), timber Which country provides the U.S. with the largest amount of products made with slave labor? China How do the prison factories in China get around a U.S. ban on importing items made with prison labor? The prison factories in China are given different names so that it doesn’t look like the goods are from a prison How can consumers know which of their products were made with slave labor? There really is no way to know whether or not your product was slavemade. What do the authors think about general or broad boycotts of products that might have been made with slave labor? He thinks it would do more harm than good because it could talk business away from small farms What do they think about targeted boycotts? They think that there is a place for targeted boycotts in America In the end, who shares responsibility for slavery? Everyone from the consumer to the slave holder shares the responsibility Before the Civil War what kinds of things did Congress do regarding slavery? One provision was that there could be no ban on slavery until 20 years after 1787. The other was that slaves would be considered 3/5 of a person. Then in the 1790s congressed outlawed foreign slave trade and the building of slave ships What did the SmootHawley Tariff of 1930 have to do with slavery? It banned all goods produced or slavery What did the chocolate industry do in response to slavery in the harvesting of cocoa? They created the International Cocoa Initiative (ICI) What do the authors think of buying “Fair Trade” goods as a way to avoid products made with slave labor? The author thinks that buying “Fair Trade” goods is positive and effective What is “Rugmark” and what does it require carpet makers to do? Rugmark is a charity that inspects and licenses looms. They require carpet makers to not employ children younger than 14 and pay adult workers minimum wage. They give the money they earn to schools and rehabilitation programs for children. How much of an impact does slavery have on the overall U.S. economy? The effect of slavery on America’s economy is small in the grand scheme of things but it is still significant.
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