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Psych-102 Chapters 3-4 Study Guide

by: Kristine Luengas

Psych-102 Chapters 3-4 Study Guide PSY 102

Marketplace > Grand Canyon University > PSY 102 > Psych 102 Chapters 3 4 Study Guide
Kristine Luengas

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About this Document

These notes cover what's going to be on the Chapter 3 and 4 exam.
General Psychology
Laura Terry
Study Guide
Psychology, REM, sleep
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kristine Luengas on Thursday September 15, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 102 at Grand Canyon University taught by Laura Terry in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views.


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Date Created: 09/15/16
PSY 102: Chapters 3-4 Study Guide Definitions:  Define sensation - The process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment.  Define perception 1 Process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events.  Define an altered state of consciousness (describe how it differs from consciousness). 1 Having different levels of awareness can range from alertness to non-alertness. EX: sleep, meditation, drugs, alcohol, and hypnosis  Define absolute threshold 1 The minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50% of the time.  Define difference threshold 1 The minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50% of the time. We experience the difference threshold as a just noticeable difference.  Define monocular cues and binocular disparity 1 Monocular Cues 1 Distance cues available to either eye alone. 2 Binocular Disparity 1 The difference between two retinal images of the same scene. Disparity is the basis for stereopsis, a vivid perception of the three-dimensionality of the world that is not available with monocular vision.  Define insomnia, sleep apnea, and narcolepsy 1 Insomnia 1 Difficulty falling asleep accompanied by frequent awakenings; occurs in 12-20%. 2 Sleep Apnea 1 Disorder in which a person stops breathing while asleep; results in frequent awakenings. 3 Narcolepsy 1 Sudden, irresistible sleep attacks for short periods of time while a person is awake.  Define Weber’s Law 1 The principle that, to be perceived as different, two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage.  Define REM 1 Stage of sleep characterized by rapid eye movements, high level of brain activity, deep relaxation of the muscles, and dreaming behind closed eyelids.  Define the Gate Control Theory of Pain 1 The theory that the spinal cord contains a neurological gate that blocks pain signals or allows them to pass on to the brain. The gate is opened by the activity of pain signals traveling up small nerve fibers and is closed by activity in larger fibers and is closed by activity in larger fibers or by information coming from the brain.  Define unconscious wish fulfillment theory, activation synthesis theory, and dream-for-survival theory 1 Unconscious wish fulfillment theory 1 Desires screaming to be heard. It’s expressing yourself. Royal rode to the unconscious mind. Expressing yourself, protecting your conscious mind. 2 Activation synthesis theory 1 Your brain become very active, and it just randomly hits all these memories, but humans like things to make sense. Than brain you make it to a story, and make it make sense. 3 Dream-for-survival theory 1 (Information Processing): When we dream, we are processing important information we learned during the day. That is going to enhance our survival. Lists:  List and describe the four drug classifications and provide examples of each. 1 Depressants- Alcohol, Valium, Xanax, Librium, and Barbiturates. 2 Hallucinogens- LSD, PCP, MDMA, and Marijuana. 3 Opiates- Heroin, Morphine, Codeine, and OxyContin. 4 Stimulants- Cocaine, Methamphetamine, MDMA, Nicotine, and Caffeine.  List the four stages of sleep and their definitions 1 Stage 1: Transition between wakefulness and sleep 2 Stage 2: Deeper sleep; less sensitive to external stimuli; momentary interruptions: K- complexes and sleep spindles. 3 Stage 3 & 4: Progression of deep sleep continues; recent research marks these two stages as one stage due to nearly identical brain activity.  List Gestalt’s Laws of Organization. Define. 1 gestalt psychologists theorized that perception is more than the result of accumulating sensory data. Gestalt means "shape" or "form". As used in psychology, it means "organized whole". Gestalt psychologists postulated a series of laws to explain how our brains group the perceived features of a visual scene into organized wholes. Gestalt psychology holds that our brains use innate principles to organize sensory information. These principles explain why we perceive "a car" and not "metal, tires, glass, door handles etc." an object exists as a unit, not as a collection of features.  List and describe the color vision theories. 1 Trichromatic Theory of Color Vision 1 Three kinds of cones exist in the retina (One most responsive to blue-violet, one to green, and one to yellow-red). 2 Opponent Process Theory of Color Vision 1 Receptor cells are linked in pairs (Blue-Yellow, Red-Green, and Black- White.)  List the four basic tastes qualities. 1 Sweet, Sour, Salty, and Bitter Examples:  Provide examples of sensory adaptation (for each of the five senses). o Light/Dark Adaptation  Vision adjusts automatically; EX: entering a dark building after exposure to the sunlight o Noise Adaptation  Adapting to the noise surrounding you; EX: Living next to an area with traffic a person learns to adapt to the noise so it no longer bothers them. o Smell Adaptation  Smokers don’t notice the smell of cigarettes, nonsmokers do. o Temperature (Touch) Adaptation  How fast our bodies adjust to the water temperature when taking a bath. o Taste Adaptation  Growing up eating spicy food, as you grow you’ll need a stronger spice to give you that burning sensation.  Provide examples to illustrate perceptual constancy, o Palm covering a bus from a distances but gets bigger as it comes closer.  When are hypnosis and mediation used and why? o Meditation  A way to resolve disputes between two or more parties with concrete effects. o Hypnosis  Used when someone is needed to be put in a suggestive state.  Examples of top-down and bottom-up processing. o Top-down processing  context, knowledge, expectations to help recognize a pattern; using context of what is around to see what word is. o Bottom-up processing  start with something simple and build up to something complex, driven by something in the environment, data- driven, stimulus-driven. Fill In The Blank: Olfactory Cells are the receptor cells of the neurons of the nose, which are spread across the nasal cavity. A complete sleep cycle lasts for about 90 minutes if it is not interrupted.


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