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Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Jacob Warren

Exam 1 Study Guide PSY 101

Jacob Warren

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About this Document

This will cover the first exam
Introduction to Psychology
Professor Lynda Mae
Study Guide
50 ?




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Popular in Psychology (PSYC)

This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jacob Warren on Thursday September 15, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 101 at Arizona State University taught by Professor Lynda Mae in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Arizona State University.


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Date Created: 09/15/16
Exam 1 Study Guide History of Psychology Wilhelm Wundt  Germany  Took Philosophy and Physiology to create Psychology  Psychology as a discipline  Structuralism G. Stanley Hall  United States  Founded APA  Functionalism  James’ grad student Titchner  Wundt’s grad student  Structuralism James  Functionalism  Worked with Hall Watson  Behaviorism Rogers  Humanistic  Worked with Maslow Maslow  Humanistic  Worked with Maslow Freud  Psychoanalysis First honorary psychologist  Wundt Precursors to psychology  Philosophy  Physiology Structuralism  Study of structure of consciousness  Interpretation  Supported by Wundt & Titchner  Competing school of thought with Functionalism Functionalism  Study of functions of consciousness  Nature of mental states  Supported by Hall & James  Competing school of thought with Structuralism Behaviorism  Behavior can be explained in terms of conditioning, without appeal to thoughts or feelings  Disorders are best treated by altering behavior patterns  Nothing about consciousness  Only study observable at the time  Supported by Watson  Broke off from Structuralism & Functionalism Gestalt Psychology  Explain perceptions in terms of gestalts rather than by analyzing constituents  Understand laws of our ability to acquire perceptions in our world  Broke off from Behaviorism Psychoanalysis  Person’s development is determined by forgotten events rather than inherited traits alone  Person’s attitude, mannerism, experience, and thought influenced by the unconscious  Supported by Freud  Broke off from Behaviorism Humanistic Psychology  Don’t have to be products of our environment  Humans have free will  Supported by Rogers & Maslow  Broke off from Behaviorism Biological Psychology  Neurology  Study of the mind and body Evolutionary Psychology  How we survive  Based on several generations Cognitive Revolution  Thought processes  Can now measure what is in our brain, comes from Behaviorism Transformational factors  Methodolical Revolution- measure more abstract ideas  Applied Psychology- use of psychological methods and findings to solve problems of behavior and experience  Impact of computer- cognitive revolution Research Methods Theory  System of ideas intended to explain something Hypothesis  Explanation made on the basis of limited evidence as a starting point for further investigation Qualitative research  Explore  Survey, Natural Observation, Case Study  Describe something without numbers or values Quantitative research  Describe, Compare, Test  Descriptive, Correlational, Experimental  Something that can be measured with numbers or values Qualitative Survey  To explore people’s opinions or attitudes  Through questionnaires or interviews  Limitations o Can people answer correctly? o Will people answer correctly? Natural Observation  To observe public behavior  Limitations- Do not intervene Case Study  To study unusual/infrequent phenomena  Through interviews, observations, records, testing  Limitations- Can’t generalize Descriptive Research  To learn descriptive information about a group or event  Through records, surveys, interviews, observations Mean  Average of the data Median  Middle of the data  Use if there are extremes in the data Mode  Most common data point Percentages  Parts of a whole  Use for categories of data Correlational research  To investigate possible relationships  Measure both sets of data  Limitations o Don’t know which way the causal arrow points  Which one affects the other Interpreting correlation coefficients  Range of r (-1 to 1)  No relationship from -0.2 to 0.2  Weak relationship from -0.4 to -0.2 and 0.2 to 0.4  Moderate relationship from -0.6 to -0.4 and 0.4 to 0.6  Strong relationship from -1 to -0.6 and 0.6 to 1 Experimental Research  When you wish to draw cause & effect conclusions and direction of causal arrow  Manipulate a variable under controlled conditions Independent Variable  The one the experiment manipulates  Is given to experimental group Dependent Variable  The outcome thought to be affected by the independent variable Experimental group  Receives the independent variable Control group  Doesn’t receive the independent variable  Group under normal conditions Random Assignment  Avoids bias  Data is most accurate Appropriate type of research  Experiment o Cause, lead to, results in, affects, reduces, increases  Correlational research o Relationships, related, linked, associated  Descriptive research o Describe, demographics, composition  Qualitative survey o Opinions, attitudes  Natural Observation o Public behavior  Case Study o Unusual or infrequent phenomena Significance Testing  Compare two or more means  Group means, group variability o n= number of subjects per group o N= total number of subjects in experiment Interpreting p-values  p< .05= significantly different  p> 0.1= not significant  .05>p>0.1= marginally significant o You need to collect more data Biological Psychology Phrenology  Humans have different shaped skulls  Study of the bumps on the head o Different parts of the brain act in different ways  Franz Gall Glia cells  Provide nutrients, oxygen, structure, insulation, repair  Gooey substance  Extremely high amount of Glia cells in the body, more cells than neurons Neurons  Receive, integrate, transmit information  Our thoughts  10,000,000 neurons in our body  Figure 3.2 on page 68 Resting potential of Neurons  About -70 mV (millivolts) o Inside of neuron is 70 mV less than the outside Acting potential of Neurons  More positive charge causes firing  Travels down axon  Absolute refractory period Absolute refractory period  Stronger than normal stimulus is needed to elicit neuronal excitation  If strong enough, stimuli are given to the neuron  May respond again by generating action potentials Postsynaptic potentials  Voltage changes at receptor sit  Excitatory o More positive (+) o More likely to fire  Inhibitory o More negative (-) o Less likely to fire Terminal button (bouton)  Distal terminations of the branches of an axon Reuptake  Neurotransmitters (NT’s) are sponged up Enzyme activation  Neurotransmitters (NT’s) are broken down Neurotransmitters  Dopamine o Schizophrenia= too much  Serotonin o Depression = not enough  Norepinephrine o Anxiety = too much  GABA o Overeating = not enough  Endorphins o Reduces pain  Acetylcholine o Dementia or memory loss = not enough Agonists  By mimicking  By blocking reuptake Antagonists  By inhibiting release of NT  By blocking receptors NTs & Botox and black widow spider bites  Affect release of acetylcholine, lessen muscle movement  Endorphins would reduce pain of bite Central Nervous System (NS)  Nerves in the brain and spinal cord Peripheral Nervous System (NS)  Rest of the nerves o Somatic Nervous System- to/from voluntary muscles & sensory receptors  Afferent fibers- to brain  Efferent fibers- from brain o Autonomic Nervous System- to/ from autonomic functions, reflex  Sympathetic NS-mobilizes resources  Start as more relaxed  Parasympathetic NS- conserves resources  Start as more mobile Brain/Body Communication  Through the Central Nervous System Speed  Fast- sensation goes straight back- thin fibers  Slow- long lasting, pain travels to the brain- thicker fibers Contralaterality  Property of the brain such that one side of the body is controlled by the opposite hemisphere of the brain  FIGURE PAGE The Lobes  Frontal lobe- Higher level functioning (decision-making, movement, impulse control)  Parietal lobe- Tactile  Occipital lobe- Visual  Temporal lobe- Olfactory, auditory, gustatory, language Lower brain functions & Structures  Consists of cerebellum, medulla, pons, reticular formation  Unconscious life functions Higher brain functions & Structures  Emotions, drives, memory  Cerebrum o Cerebral cortex- Complex thought  Thalamus- way station  Hypothalamus- drives  Fighting, fleeing, eating, mating o Cerebral hemispheres o Corpus callosum- left brain can’t communicate with right brain  Amygdala- fear  Limbic System- pleasure centers Hemisphere Specialization  Left- Verbal o Wernicke’s area- language comprehension o Broca’s area- language production  Right-Non verbal o Perceiving emotions, multitasking  Not exclusive, just specialization Plasticity of brain  Ability to change throughout life  Ability to reorganize itself by forming new connections between brain cells (neurons) Cool Tools  EEG-measures electrical voltage (brain waves) o Used for sleep  CAT & MRI- x-ray of brain structures  PET- measures brain activities o Blood flow- radioactive  fMRI- measures brain activity without need for radioactive injection Chromosomes  DNA o Genes  Alleles-version of a gene Genetic  Monogenic- A character trait determined by a single gene  Polygenic- A trait for which the phenotype (appearance) depends on alleles at many different genes  Genotype- set of genes that an organism carries  Phenotype- all of the observable characteristics Genes and Behavior  Genes account for 20-70% of variations in every human behavior  PKU- monogenetic, double recessive  Huntington’s disease-monogenetic, dominant  Schizophrenia- polygenetic, nature/nurture Major Endocrine Glands  Pineal gland- secretes hormone like substance  Pituitary gland- controls growth and development  Hypothalamus- complex thought- drives- fighting, fleeing, eating, mating Robert Tryon  Behavioral psychologist  Study of hereditary trait inheritance and learning in animals  Used rats Cooper & Zubeck  Used rats in a maze to see how fast they could find their way through Sensation and Perception Sensation  Stimulation of a sense organ by outside stimuli  Objective


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