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OLEMISS / Religion / REL 101 / What is it called to escape the cycle of reincarnation?

What is it called to escape the cycle of reincarnation?

What is it called to escape the cycle of reincarnation?


School: University of Mississippi
Department: Religion
Course: Intro to Religion
Professor: Kristy slominski
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Religious Studies
Cost: 25
Name: Ch. 4 Hinduism Continued 2.0
Description: These notes are from lecture 9/15/16. They wrap up chapter 4 with the rest of the Hindu history and the practices of Hinduism.
Uploaded: 09/16/2016
2 Pages 53 Views 1 Unlocks


What is it called to escape the cycle of reincarnation?

Chapter 4: Hinduism  

Pgs. 125-140

Age of the Guptas (320 – 540 CE)  

∙ “Golden Age”

∙ Temples  

o Bhakti – devotion to gods; grew out of efforts to sponsor religion ∙ Tantra – a movement that orginated in this time period  

Tantric Movements (500 CE onward)

∙ Techniques for quick liberation – getting out of the cycle of rebirth  faster (which usually takes many lifetimes)  

o Through rituals you can “transgress” to get to the spiritual reality ∙ Transgression – rituals to transgress boundaries; often caste  boundaries to access the sacred energy beyond this world; to become  one with the deities or gaining spiritual insight  

What happened during the partition of pakistan and india in 1947?

o Initiation – probably by a guru; guru would give you the  information, tasks, or tools for transgression  

o Mantras – sayings, noises e.g. ohm  

o Mandalas – pictures that focused the mind  

o Taboo substances – eating beef, or impure substances  

 o Sexual union  

Hindu-Muslim Encounters  

∙ Images and beef  

∙ Mughal Empire (1500 – 1800) – Islamic empire that overlapped the  “territory” of the Hindus; caused many issues because of the many  differences between the religions  

∙ 1947 partition of India – Indian independence from Britain; became  Pakistan and India (Pakistan later becomes Pakistan and Bangladesh)  

What is the main problem that hinduism tries to resolve?

British Raj (1858 – 1947)  

∙ Critiques of Hinduism – found it barbaric, too disorganized, not  monotheistic, etc.  

∙ 19th century Hindu reformers – response to the British critiques; many  gained European educations to elevate the importance of many Hindu  aspects in order to get it to make sense to the Europeans  If you want to learn more check out How did the gupta empire make money?

o Swami Vivekananda – a reformer who was English-educated  who was sent to the U.S. to represent Hinduism; defended  Hinduism at a convention so well that he became a bit of a  celebrity within Hinduism


Mohandas Ghandi (1869 -1948)  

∙ A reformer who “fought” for Indian independence and the social  structure of Hinduism  

o Known for non-violent protesting  

∙ An English educated lawyer at first  

Goals of Practice  

∙ Union of Atman and Brahman (ultimate reality) (mostly monistic view) ∙ Liberation from effects of karma – consequences of karma are often the reason you cannot be released from the cycle of samsara  

o Moksha – liberation  

o Better rebirth – so that you may focus more on your spiritual life  

Ritual contexts

∙ Mandir (temple) - public; institutional realm of worship  ∙ Home altars – a private place of worship  


∙ Bhakti – devotion to the gods; offerings to the gods. One of the paths  ∙ Puja – worship ceremony either at home or in a temple; ritual involved in giving offerings  Don't forget about the age old question of How to describe the vector position on curve?
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∙ Arati – the waving of lights or candles in front of the gods  ∙ Darshan – sight, vision, or view; viewing the deity and being seen by  the deity  Don't forget about the age old question of How do you know if a distribution is symmetric or skewed?
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∙ Yoga (to yoke) – techniques to quiet the body for mental  concentration; concentration to gain spiritual insight; gaining insight by eliminating distractions through breathing and body positions o Body positions (asanas)

o Breath control – connects you to the spirits  

o Mantras – sacred sounds

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