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Towson - REL 105 - Class Notes - Week 2

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Towson - REL 105 - Class Notes - Week 2

School: Towson University
Department: Philosophy
Course: Intro to the Study of Religion
Professor: Carl Yamamoto
Term: Fall 2015
Tags: Religious Studies and Hinduism
Name: RLST 105 Week two notes
Description: These notes cover what we learned in week two of the Hinduism lecture.
Uploaded: 09/16/2016
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background image Kayla Wisotzkey Hinduism CLASSICAL PERIOD ­The Gupta empire was in charge at this time, and they gave money and support to Hindus  ­prosperity and social stability
­arts, architecture, literature, and philosophy developed 
­New things of the period: 1) New texts 
a) epics: long narrative poems containing a warrior hero and a villain
­Mahabarata: story of the Barata family, ancestoral, 100,000 couplets(long story), war between  the Kauravas and Pandavas, found in the Bhagavad Gita
­Ramayana: story of Rama, war between Rama and Ravana… Sita(Rama’s wife) is abducted by 
Ravana and the god Hanuman and his army of monkeys helped Rama get her back b) Legal­ethical texts: a person’s duties ­Laws of Manu: the “three fours”, the four purposes of life, the four stages of life, and the four 
classes
2) New single­deity secs (worship of only one god) a. The goddess Devi: originally just a partner of a male god, but later she was  worshipped independently ­she is both benign and terrifying 
­Durga: the terrifying version of Devi
b. Shiva: “creator and destroyer” ­followers were called “Shaivas” or Shaivites c. Vishnu: incarnations are Rama and Krishna ­followers are called “Vaishnavites” or “Vaishnavas” ­the Vaishnavites were given partronage and money by the Gupta Empire 3) New popular movements  a. Bhakti: devotion, relies on the energy of a group  ­bhakti poet­saints wrote devotional songs that were targeted at single deities, written 
in a common language, created a personal religious feeling. GOD=LOVER mentality
MUSLIM PERIOD
­ruled by the Mughal Empire
background image ­Emperor Akbar: 3 rd  Mughal Emperor, he had religious tolerance and wanted to start a  religion that combined Islam and Hinduism (syncretism) MODERN PERIOD
­Britain had control of most of India
­period of modernization and “western enlightenment”
­British law and educated were introduced to India
­Some Indians embraced Westernization, some rejected it
­Also, Hinduism came to the West…philosophy, yoga, etc. Philosophy of Hinduism
1) The Upanishads
a. Samsara­Karma cosmology ­cosmology: study of the NATURE of the universe  ­cosmogony: study of the ORIGIN/BIRTH of the universe
­samsara: cyclic existence, you are reincarnated
­karma: the actions that you do that determine what class you will be born into  your next life ­moksha: getting out of samsara, liberation, the way to achieve this is through  knowledge b. Internalization of the sacrifice ­Hindus valued yoga and meditation ­ “tapas”: “inner heat,” breathing practices that actually raise the body  temperature ­oblation=breath c. Atman=Brahman  ­The Brahman is the eternal, ultimate reality that is the purpose of life
­all beings came from the Brahman, and want to rejoin the Brahman by achieving 
individual liberation
2) Classical Hinduism ­healing social and religious divisions ­conflicts faced by classical Hinduism: a) Conflicting views of the absolute: what is the nature of Brahman? ­The views of the householders and the renouncers were put together, and the 
conclusion was the Brahman is both an “it” and a “him/her”
­2 natures of Brahman:
1. Brahman without qualities: “nirguna”
2. Brahman with qualities: “saguna”: more single deity secs were formed because 
people wanted a single god to worship 

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School: Towson University
Department: Philosophy
Course: Intro to the Study of Religion
Professor: Carl Yamamoto
Term: Fall 2015
Tags: Religious Studies and Hinduism
Name: RLST 105 Week two notes
Description: These notes cover what we learned in week two of the Hinduism lecture.
Uploaded: 09/16/2016
4 Pages 47 Views 37 Unlocks
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  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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