Identification Items: Study Guide Exam II
Identification Items: Study Guide Exam II 1376
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Meredith Johnson on Saturday March 28, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 1376 at University of Houston taught by Dr. Lawrence Curry in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 630 views.
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Date Created: 03/28/15
NOTE USE THIS STUDY GUIDE BUT DEFINITELY GO OVER YOUR NOTES AND THE READINGS YOURSELF There39s a lot of information in the notes that isn t covered by this guide THIS IS JUST THE IDENTIFICATION ITEMS 1 Hamiltonian Federalism a Federalists and AntiFederalists the rst political parties in American political system b Characteristics of Hamiltonian Federalism i Favored a broad interpretation of the Constitution 1 legitimate ends justify legitimate means as in the Bank of US situation ii Favored a strong central government 1 Believed that a strong central government was necessary to quotcurbquot the states 2 National rights trump states39 rights iii Strong elitist tendencies 1 Feared the quotrule of the mobquot 2 Hamilton believed rich wellborn able quotsober men of the business communityquot were basically built to rule 3 Afraid of the masses and afraid of the people a George Cabot Federalist quotI hold democracy in its natural operation to be government by the worstquot b Hamilton quotThe voice of the people has been said to be the voice of God and however generally this maxim has been quoted and believed it is not true to fact The people are turbulent and changing they seldom judge or determine rightquot c Jeremy Belknap New England Clergyman quotLet it stand as a principle that government originates from the people but let the people be taught that they are not able to govern themselvesquot 4 Even admired England thought that people in the US had gained too much freedom 2 Hamilton s Financial Program a The Federalists clearly facing opposition quotout of stepquot with America b Decided to curb democracy and restrict the public involvement as much as possible i The solution tie the most important economic groups to the government ii Hamilton39s economic programs 1 Presented 1791 2 3 major parts a Fund national debt at par value i Repay holders of debt IOUs with full value of the original IOUs did this by giving new holders new government bonds that would redeem old IOUs ii Plan established good credit of the new nation tied merchantsbankersspeculators to the government iii Validity of the IOUs tied to the success of the new government 1 If the new government failed the holders of the IOUs got nothing b Assume state debts i Pay the debts acquired by the states during the revolution ii Goal bind economic state to the success of the government and improve the reputation of the central government c Establish a national bank i Would regulate the economy just as the Bank of England did in England ii Justi ed its establishment with an implied power necessary and proper clause 3 Whiskey Rebellion a 1794 farmers in western Pennsylvania refuse to pay whiskey excise tax b Begin quotterrorizingquot tax collectors in the region c Federal government assembled militiaman and marched into Pennsylvania i What39s the signi cance Secured the loyalty of these rebels through intimidation demonstrated the new national government39s willingness to suppress violent resistance to its laws ii Prompted antiFederalist westerners to nally accept Constitution d Raised questions about protests i Federalists believed that the government was sovereign that radical protests were not permissible ii Rebels believed that the people were now a quotcollective sovereigntyquot could therefore protest without fear of repercussions iii What was an appropriate level for protests 4 Alien and Sedition Acts a After XYZ affair Federalist popularity rose amp Jeffersonian popularity fell b Federalist party leaders passed legislation designed to keep Federalists in power i Naturalization Act of 1798 1 Purpose keep recent immigrants from voting for as long as possible 2 Provisions a Declare citizenship intentions 5 years in advance b Have to reside in the US for 14 yearsin a state for 5 years before becoming citizen C c Register with local authorities or be detained by Justice of the Peace without trial ii Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798 1 Alien Act a Peacetime authority to deport aliens President deemed dangerous to the peace and safety of the US b Never used by President Adams expired in 1800 2 Alien Enemies Act a Wartime authority to deport aliens to their native country or subject them to restraints if they are permitted to remain in the US b Still enforced 3 Sedition act a Outlawed the writing printing publishing of quotfalse scandalous or malicious criticismquot of President or Congress b This is just straightup censorship c About 10 men mostly projefferson newspaper editors imprisoned for criticizing the Federalists d Expired in 1801 Some of the most controversial legislation in US history 5 Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions a b jefferson39s response to the Alien and Sedition acts called them quotreign of terrorquot and saw them as a threat to their political way of life Turned to two state governments and passed two resolutions in an effort to undo the quotmaliciousnessquot of these acts i The Virginia Resolutions 1 Written byjames Madison 2 States multiple could decide whether a federal law was constitutional ii The Kentch Resolutions 1 Written anonymously by ThomasJefferson 2 One state could decide whether a federal law was constitutional iii Attempted to have the states overturn the Acts c The Resolutions failed not a single other state agreed d Why were they important Discussed something the Constitution had not made clear i Which was sovereign the state or national government 1 Later answered by the Supreme Court 6 XYZ Affair a Major dispute with France b Due to rising antiFrench sentiment Presidentjohn Adams sends a 3 man American commission to France to try diplomacy c When commission reached Paris 3 unnamed agents of French government X Y and Z asked for essentially a 250k bribe and a 12mil US loan h PLUS an of cial apology for antiFrench sentiments they claimed John Adams had made in a statement to Congress These demands must be met before agents could even talk to foreign minister i Such bribes were common in this time but commission thought this was too high just to talk to the minister ii Refused reported to John Adams Adams responded with fury reported the full affair to Congress amp to America i American populace outraged ii Newspapers quotMillions for defense not one cent for tributequot The AntiFrench feelings of the XYZ affair spilled onto the Republicans i quotWe hate the French Jefferson loves the French we hate Jeffersonquot Led to the rise in Federalist popularity that led to the Alien and Sedition acts 7 Jeffersonian Republicanism a An interest in states and states rights b BasicJeffersonian principles C d i Limited government ii Accountability of public officials iii Dispersal of power iv Respect for individual privacy v Education Organized itself around the political philosophy ofJefferson i Nationalist sentiments in Washington ii Some objected to the direction Washington was taking in domestic and foreign affairs decided that Washington administration excessively nationalistic in control iii Hamilton s program focusing too much on bene ting the elite iv Objected to the quotmonarchicalquot tendencies of the Feds v Originally organized to oppose certain Hamiltonian measures Republicans also called the quotAntiFederalistsquot Essential elements ofJeffersonian Republicanism i Moderate Nationalists 1 Not narrow ocaists 2 But strict constructionists ii Madison father of constitution pushed for a more powerful central government 1 Favored strong nationalism but not too strong 2 Concluded that Hamiltonian federalists were making central government too strong iii Jeffersonians seized on ocaism and looked to the constitution to nd what bene ted oca interests 1 Parts of it that emphasized power to the states if Constitution was read narrowly 2 So emphasized the narrow reading of the Constitution 3 Argued that central government only has explicit powers and implied powers are unconstitutional iv Not anarchists but stressed limited government 1 quotThat government is best which governs leastquot a quotA wise and frugal government is one which will restrain men from injuring one another which will leave them otherwise free to regulate their own pursuits of industry and improvement and shall not take from the mouth of labor the bread which it has earnedquot 2 Believed limited power allowed more liberty for the people 3 More important to understand the ends of government not the means 4 Considered the Why to be more important than the how 8 ThomasJefferson a Idealist b A child of the enlightenment in uenced byJohn Locke and others i Belief in natural rights progress ii Optimist hope for perfectibility iii Believed education was necessary for all men an quotessential ingredient of any good societyquot c Developed a very individualist attitude i Faith in selfemployed individuals yeomanfarmers ii Fear of urban working class amp dependent slaves mostly blind to the industrial revolution sweeping Europe d Concept of a good society which idealized the independent family farmer i Agrarianism caused him to believe that nature nurtured virtue ii quotCorruption of morals among farmers is a phenomenon of which no age or nation has produced an examplequot farmers are incorruptible iii ldeal society was independent selfsuf cient family farmers iv Believed rural society encouraged intelligence and morality and weakened the inclination to corruption 9 quotThose who labor in the earth are the chosen people of God if ever he had a chosen people whose breasts he has made his peculiar deposit for substantial and genuine virtuequot a Quote from Jefferson just more idealizing of yeomanfarmers b Wow he really liked those guys 10Louisiana Purchase a According to Prof Curry Jefferson39s quotgreatest achievementquot b Contributed in the long run to a much stronger central government c Louisiana Territory i Large area of land between Mississippi and Rocky Mountains ii Doubled the size of the US and made US second largest nation in the world with total area iii No other single nation had as much tillable land bene ted the yeomanfarmers that the Jeffersonians idolized iv Provided enough new land for all an quotempire for libertyquot v Made US a potential world power d Strengthened the Jeffersonians39 sense of nationalism e Jefferson himself had constitutional scruples i Did not think buying land was quotlegitimatequot ii Consulted Constitution 1 Found nothing that said government could buy land 2 Buying land he believed was not a result of power granted by the constitution 3 In the end said essentially quotif the people don39t like it they can x itquot 4 Proves more devoted to the ends of government than means a The Why Life Liberty Happiness more important than the How f Stimulated American nationalism 11John Marshall a Virginian Federalist b Served as chiefjustice of the Supreme Court from 1801 to 1835 c Appointed by Adams onto Supreme Court one of the last things Adams did as President i Lifelong political enemy ofJefferson d Almost singlehandedly preserved Federalist party39s devotion to aggressive nationalism by quotmastery of the Supreme Courtquot i Marbury v Madison discussed later don39t worry ii Fletcher v Peck 1 US courts superiority to state courts established iii Dartmouth v Woodward 1 Prohibited states from interfering with contractual obligation between parties iv McCulloch v Maryland 1 lmplied powers con rmed as part of quotsupreme law of the landquot Hamilton found when he read the Constitution state of Maryland tried to tax the bank of the US out of existence Marshall used broad construction of Constitution to defend bank of the US from action by a state denying Maryland the right amp power to tax the bank a 39Plagiarized39 Hamilton s defense of the bank quotLet the end be legitimate let it be constitutional and all means which are appropriate which are plainly adapted to that end which are not prohibited but consistent with the letter and spirit of the Constitution are constitutionalquot b quotThe power to tax is the power to destroy and states do not have the right to destroy federal agenciesquot 2 Established federal supremacy over the states in areas implicity reserved to the federal government by the constitution under the quotnecessary and properquot clause v Gibbons v Ogden 1 Federal control of interstate commerce established 2 Supreme Court declared that the federal government had control over interstate commerce which included not just buyingselling goods but transportation of goods through states e His decisions often very unpopular I Strongly nationalistic bias ii Seemed very elitist favored the quothavesquot rather than the quothave notsquot iii Re ected apparent mistrust of the people s ability to rule themselves iv However decisions signi cant because they increased the federal power over states Hamiltonian federalism ourished on the supreme court in early 19th century 12Marbury v Madison a Judicial review established Supreme Court declared an act by Congress to be unconstitutional Supreme Court not any other branch of government nor states group of states can declare law by president or congress to be constitutional or not Called Supreme Court39s quotsupreme powerquot impied mentioned nowhere in the constitution i Interesting note applied for the rst time in Marbury v Madison but never used doctrine again during Marshall s time as chief justice to declare federal laws unconstitutional just state laws Hmm 13War of 1812 a Background war between Great Britain and France led to harassment of US ships to prevent trade between US and either country i US claimed that as a free country they had the right to trade with anyone without restrictions ii Some ofjefferson39s advisors advised war with Great Britain France or both iii jefferson attempted embargo which cut off trade with France and England but the embargo failed and he repealed it a few days before his second term ended Madison as president what should the US do about the continued harassment by both French and English ships i Violated national honor caused economic depression in South and West denied US rightful place in world affairs Americans resented both English and French but resented English more i Greater control of the seas harassing American ships more ii Represented a patronizing attitude towards the former English colonies Madison could not nd a peaceful solution asked Congress to declare war which they did on june 18th 1812 i Madison39s reason British had violated America39s neutral rights 1 Impressed forcefully recruited American sailors interfered with mutual shipping ii Vote was not unanimous 1 Although most affected by harassment a large number of congressmen from New England voted against the declaration of war seemed unrealistic knew that the US was too weak to ght against British navy a Jeffersonians had reduced the size of the army and navy 2 Support mostly came from westerners and southerners younger members of Congress came to be called quotwar hawksquot Why support from these a Not freedom of the seas Henry Clay leader of the War Hawks in Congress two main goals acquire new land in the westand possibly Canada b Fighting and defeating the English who were arming and supporting lndians on American frontier would open more land for American settlement in the west and Canada iii Congress declared war but adjourned without voting any taxes to pay for it e Performance in the war i US suffered many defeats attacked Canada but failed to capture it suffered major attacks from the British ii August 3914 in retaliation for US attacks on Canada the British attack and capture DC burn the White House Capitol other cities iii British fail to capture Fort McHenry in Baltimore Harbor 1 StarSpangled Banner written by an observer of the battle against Fort McHenry Francis Scott Key f Some historians the 1812 is a quotcomicopera conflictquot i Came to an end when British and Americans sign the Treaty of Ghent in 1815 ii Status Quo Ante Belum a return to the state before the war g The quotgreat victoryquot of America over British the Battle of New Orleans occurred after the treaty had been signed and the war was over 14Hartford Convention a One of two events which con rmed the Federalists39 abandonment of nationalism and the republicans39 embrace of nationalism b Hartford Connecticut winter 18141815 i Federalists protest against the war of 1812 plan a convention of states to revise the US constitution ii Some quotArchFederalistsquot openly discuss secession 1 quotour country is too big for union too sordid for patriotism too democratic for libertyquot iii Moderate feds stopped all talk of secession but approved the idea of states making amendments to the constitution when they felt a powerful and dangerous infraction had occurred iv War was ending while this convention was occurring 15Battle of New Orleans a January 81815 b Occurred after the of cial end of the war c In late December of 3914 British general Packingham began major military campaign against New Orleans then defended by a much smaller American force of militiamen under command ofJackson d 2 weeks later Packingham ordered allout assault on NO the outcome shocked all e Total defeat for the British army over 2000 British soldiers killed or wounded i Including Packingham amp 2 other generals f 500 more British soldiers captured 8Americans killed 14 wounded Jackson seemed to symbolize the greatness of American people quotglorious termination of the most glorious war ever waged by any peoplequot i More Praise quotI cannot sir perhaps language cannot do justice to the merit of General Jackson and the men under his command it was the yeomen of the country marching towards New Orleans leaving their women and children at the reside at a moment39s notice the farmers of the country defeating the conquerors of the conqueror lcame IsaW lconquered says the American farmer fresh from his plow enemies scattered as chaff before the wind Europe will see that it is only necessary that we employ the means that God and nature have bountifully placed at our disposalquot ii American Farmers led by Old Hickory represented goodness and naturally God is on America s side i Marked the emergence of Andrew Jackson as a popular hero 16Monroe Doctrine a Assertion of American nationalism b Based on a statement of Monroe in his annual state of the union message in 1823 i Based on fear at the time many Americans feared that some conservative European nations France Austria Russia had plans to interfere with the western hemisphere mainly Spain ii Not just about the US pledged that if Europe stayed out of western hemisphere US would stay out of Europe 1 quotdon39t mess with us we won t mess with youquot 270 c So what i Europe knew the US had very little power to back it up regarded it as a joke ii Therefore doctrine had little effect at the time dramatic statement all but forgotten within a few years iii Historically signi cant despite little immediate effect 1 STRONG STATEMENT of growing nationalistic spirit in 18205 set forth a historic claim to future American dominance of the western hemisphere 2 Established the idea that the us was to be the dominant power in the western hemisphere 3 When statement rediscovered years later would be accepted as authoritative statement of American foreign policy for western hemisphere 17quotBut it was the People s Day and the People s President and the People would rulequot a Quote from Margaret Bayer Smith39s description ofJackson39s inauguration b Jackson essentially mobbed at the reception by the common people quotLadies and gentlemen only had been expected not the people en massequot i His status as the People s President stemmed from his fame as a war hero and his image as a simple frontiersman the people practically worshiped the guy ii More on this under Andrew Jackson c Jackson39s supporters were delighted by the behavior of quotthe people en massequot i Celebrated the rise of the common man ii Contrasted sharply with the view of the elitist founding fathers iii Re ected the political changes occurring in America 18Andrew Jackson a Became a symbol for the age of democracy i Symbol of politics for the common man ii Honored by putting him on the 20 bill woo hah b Seemed to personify America s new democratic spirit c Was the symbol for the quotrise of the common manquot i Born in a log cabin rose from rags to riches had no college education was not from Virginia or Massachusetts every other president had been ii Represented a new quotcoonskin capquot America no longer dressed in powdered wigs or silverbuckled shoes iii Had let the yeomanfarmers against the British in New Orleans d In passing i Is he really an accurate symbol Questionable ii Hofstadter quotwhen Jackson became president he was not a crude simple frontiersman that39s how he was represented by his political handlersquot really a quotblend of pioneer and aristocrat iii The Hermitage surrounded by a thousand acres of prime real estate iv Over the course of his life owned over 300 slaves in fact one of the wealthiest of all American presidents v Only George Washington and Thomas Jefferson had more money thanJackson 1 Estimated wealth 120 million H e Supporters ofJackson dropped quotRepublicanquot from their name and became the modern Democratic party f Jackson won againstJohn Q Adams in 1828 began the Age ofJackson g In office Jackson one of the most forceful and dominating president in history Had a violent temper pride would not allow him to forget or forgive an insult real or imagined man of strong passions did not try to hide 1 Once killed a man in a duel over an insult When he left in 1837 two regrets 1 Sorry he didn t shoot Henry Clay and hang John C Calhoun lntolerant of opposition no exibility could not compromise Late in his life 1 quotl have an opinion of my own in all subjectsquot Examples 1 South Carolina in 1832 advancing the states39 rights argument passed an ordinance nullifying 2 federal tariffs a Reacted by denouncing nulli cation as quottreasonous threat to the survival of the Unionquot asked congress for authority to use federal troops b South Carolina rescinding nulli cation ordinance 2 Trail of Tears use of Federal Troops to force Cherokee Indians to move to Oklahoma Territory 3 Most important and most controversial use of power quotTHE Bank Warquot 19The Bank War a Background When Jackson became president the concept of democracy was being transformed from one that was mainly Jeffersonian and agrarian to one that was more Hamiltonian and nancialindustrial Basic concepts of democracy were changing From agrarianism to something more like laissezfaire By 1829 young men who had been born on farms were becoming businessmen determined not to surrender freedoms they might have enjoyed had they remained farmers Hofstadter quotExpectant capitalistsquot wanted it all Business opportunities freedom from restraint quotrural capitalistsquot quotvillage entrepreneursquot b The Second Bank of the US seen by many quotrural capitalistsquot as restriction of their freedoms although bank was being run well c Andrew Jackson and his supporters saw bank as a monopoly Thought it was elitist bene ting only special interest groups ii Jackson the bank was quota hydra of corruptionquot d Bankers complain to Jackson about economic problems his response quotRelief sir come not to me sir go to the monster the bank it is folly sir to talk to Andrew Jackson The government will not bow to the monster Jackson yet lives to put his foot on the head of the monster and crush him to the dust Jackson would never recharter that monster of corruption sooner than live in a country where such a power prevail he would seek asylum in the wilds of Arabiaquot Nicholas Biddle leader of the bank asks for a recharter Jackson39s response quotthe bank is trying to kill me but I will kill itquot e Vowed to kill the bank amp he did vetoed the congressional bill to recharter the bank Veto message said the bank was unconstitutional because it was a monopoly a grant of exclusive privilege that excluded most of the American people from participating and therefore a menace to the country39s liberty and independence At the end of his veto message quotit is to be regretted that the rich and powerful often too bend the acts of government to their sel sh purposes distinctions in society will always exist under any just government equality of talents of education or of wealth cannot be produced by human institutions there are no necessary evils in government lts evils exist only in its abuses If it would con ne itself to equal protection and as Heaven does its rains shower its favors alike on the high and the low the rich and the poor it would be an unquali ed blessingquot But Jackson was not a revolutionary his views expressed instead the philosophy of the rising middle class the quotexpectant capitalistsquot f TheJacksonian position vi Did not want to redistribute wealth but did wage a war against economic privilege special interests monopoly Wanted to get rid of governmentgranted privileges for special interest groups Provide quotfair play and an open eldquot for all Americans Competition Yes Monopoly No Always defended his actions in the context of quotthe will of the majorityquot demonstrated the popularity of America39s growing commitment to democracy or at least the appearance of such WhetherJackson is a proper symbol for democracy might not matter much but American people saw him as a symbol thought of him as a symbol and remember What people think is more important than the real truth Perception de nes reality g However the bank39s destruction terrible economic mistake Plunged the nation into an economic depression 1 Hurt most the people he was trying to help But remember the people thought the bank was undemocratic and what the people thought was undemocratic had to go quotthe real signi cance ofJacksonian democracy was that the power and in uence of the common man increased while he remained a common manquot 20The American System a Proposed by Henry Clay a Whig a federal protective tariff would protect the new American industries from foreign competition believed that it would encourage the growth of industry i Government would also pay for internal improvements improve the national communication system therefore facilitate internal trade among the states ii A strong national bank that would ensure stable currency and also facilitate trade both foreign and domestic b On paper simplicity itself Nation would become selfsuf cient and there would be harmony among all sections of the country c Democrats opposed this said the government would have to give special favors to special interest groups deny all citizens in favor of the few d Too elitist 21 Charles River Bridge v Warren Bridge a Massachusetts legislature had incorporated Charles River Bridge company in 1785 to construct a bridge and collect tolls established in 1828 the Warren Bridge Company to free bridge nearby i New bridge deprived old bridge of traf c and tolls ii Charles River Bridge led suit claiming the legislature defaulted on original contract b Was ruled against c 52 decision that the state had not entered a contract that prevented another bridge39s construction d The legislature could not give exclusive control over the river and had not invaded corporate privilege by interfering with Charles River Bridge39s pro ts e Ruled against the Charles River Bridge s monopoly 22Presidential election of 1840 quotLog Cabin and Hard Ciderquot a Democrat incumbent Martin Van Burn b Whigs William Henry Harrison i Packaged by the Whigs as a Westerner like Jackson c What were the issues i Log cabin and hard cider ii Supporter of Van Buren wrote sarcastically quotTippecanoe was a simple soul three things a government pension a log cabin and hard ciderquot iii Turned against them took it genuinely Whig party became the party of quotlog cabins and hard ciderquot that became the main symbol of Harrison and the Whig party iv The campaign was characterized by emotionalism ignored the political issues geared their campaign towards mass appeals and high voter turnout v Real issues got lost 1 Daniel Webster quotThe time has come when the cries change every grievance says change we have fallen upon hard times and the remedy seems to be hard ciderquot vi Harrison39s campaign also marked the beginning of campaign souvenirs 1 Old Cabin whiskey in cabinshaped bottles 2 From EC Booze the distillery gave its name to a new slang word Nice d Harrison rst president to campaign on his own behalf i quotThis is General Harrison look him Look at his bright and beaming eyequot ii Introduced like a circus animal iii Pioneered important campaign axiom quotthe more you talk the less you should sayquot 1 When he did speak mostly denounced the Democrats 2 Whig Congressman wrote speechbook a quotThe Royal Splendor of the Presidential Palacequot b Attacked the democratic president for being too aristocratic the white house quotis a palace as splendid as that of the Caesars and as richly adorned as the proudest Asiatic mansionquot c Climax of the speech Van Buren had a bathtub installed in the White House 3 This speech set the tone for the entire debate simple life of the Whig candidate v the quotaristocraticquot Van Buren 4 Issues if discussed at all written in very simple terms e Signi cance i Whigs won the election in large measure because they39d learned that the lesson for victory was appealing to the people 1 Narrow margin in the popular vote Harrison won overwhelmingly in the electoral college ii Incredible voter turnout 80 of eligible voters more than twice than in the 3928 election iii Marked nal emergence of twoparty system iv First great quotimage campaignquot image trumped issues 1 The campaign did NOT clarify any of the major issues simply got quotlost in the shuf equot v A new era in American politics from then on politics would have a broad popular base vi Ideas of individualism and democracy seemed here to stay 1 But belief in individualism often masked conformity 2 Often not democracy but a parody of democracy vii YET Americans believed they were democratic and individualistic embedded in American life but not American practices viii John Quincy Adams quotwhere will it all endquot 1 Moved from the 28 election based on Jacksons charisma to the 1840 bandwagon and imagecampaigning 23The Whigs a Who were they i NeoHamiltonian elitists party of respectability of businessmen ii Ancestors of the modernday republicans iii National party with members in all parts of the country iv Party of established specialinterest groups b Origin i quotWhigquot is a word from British politics ii In 18th and 19th century Whigs were politicians who opposed excessive royal power in Britain iii Whig party in US grew out of remnants of national republican party opposed to Andrew jackson39s quotabusequot of political power iv Accused Jackson of acting monarchical called him quotKing Andrew the firstquot c What did the Whigs really think about democracy i The members of the Whig party found it quotpolitically necessaryquot to talk and act like democratic individualists even if they didn39t really mean it ii Knew that if they were going to win elections they had to at least sound democratic had to quotfool the peoplequot iii Adopted the language of individualism even if they didn39t really beHeveit 24Nat Turner revolt a Most famous slave revolt b Virginia August 1831 c Nat Turner 30yearold slave who lived on owner39s farm seemed humble docile with slight education considered a quotgood slavequot i Had a religious experience and developed messianic complex believed he was chosen by God to deliver slaves from bondage ii Revolt lasted about 48 hours iii 70 slaves joined Turner s revolt altogether killed 60 whites d The revolt was put down by the Virginia militia e Bloodiest slave insurrection f Politicalsignificance i Caused fear of slaves to spread throughout the South ii The South increased the severity of its slave codes iii Emancipation movement in South collapsed 25Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass a Historically valuable because it is one of the few accounts of slavery not written by white slaveowners b Any other identi cation things you should probably just read the book Look it up on Project Gutenberg for a free eBook or a browser version you can read or print out GOOD LUCK ON THE TEST EVERYONE As a favor from one student to another if you bought this study guide please send me a message to let me know how well you liked it and what I need to improve Good luck again and thanks
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