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Study Guide for Exam GSC 103

by: Natalie Land

Study Guide for Exam GSC 103 GSC 103

Marketplace > University of Miami > Science > GSC 103 > Study Guide for Exam GSC 103
Natalie Land
GPA 4.0

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Detailed chapter by chapter study guide
GSC 103
Study Guide
GSC, gsc103, rocks
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Natalie Land on Friday September 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GSC 103 at University of Miami taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 152 views. For similar materials see GSC 103 in Science at University of Miami.


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Date Created: 09/16/16
Studyguide  Lecture One: Introduction o Empiricism:  Scientific method: based on observations (empirical)  Hypothesis: an observation and test it by making a prediction, if its correct it becomes a theory  Theory is the highest level of truth in science but never proven and only corroborated o Falsifiability  Karl Popper argued that a theory is only scientific if it is falsifiable which means that it can be argued and there is a possibility it can be proven false  Lecture Two: Structure of the Earth o Digging holes in the Earth  The deepest hole ever to be dug is the Kola super deep: about 12,000 miles’ deep  In some places volcanic or tectonic processes bring rocks from the deep up to earths surface o How we know what’s inside the earth: density, and mantle rocks at the surface  We know what’s inside the earth because for example the density of the entire earth is much greater than that of stone which tells us that there must be some metal hidden inside of the earth  At the surface of the earth there is also mantle rocks because of this stone like material that we observe o How we know what is inside the earth: chondritic, stony, and metal meteorites  Condritic meteorites: a mixture of metal (mostly iron) and stony (mostly silicon and oxygen) material  We see that the outside of earth is rich in stony material and poor in metal compared to the condritic meteorites so how did these two materials split? o The stony meteorites are almost pure stone and the iron meteorites are almost pure metal so this shows that there is some mechanism for splitting the metal and stone  All these things crashing together generates a lot of heat and a lot of radioactive stuff inside earth  malten stone and metal don’t mix like vinegar and oil so then the question is where did stony and iron meteorite come from?  Well there is a frost line and the planets that are inside the frost line, “mercury, Venus, earth and mars” have very few gases compared to the ones outside the frost line “Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and neptune o Accretion and Differentiation of the Earth  Differentiation: a process early in planets history during which dense iron alloy melted and sank downward to form the core, leaving the less dense mantle behind  Accretion forms a large planetesimal, and then homogenous propoplanet forms  o Frost Line, Outer planets and inner planets  Frost line: the line dividing the planets where soil is exposed to freezing  Outer planets: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune  Known as the giant planets, made of solid water, helium and gas  Inner planets:  Closer to sun and small  Terrestrial shell of rock and metal ball  Mercury, venus, earth and mars o General composition and origin of the atmosphere  Earth is about 4.5 billion years old compared to a 13 billion year old universe  The earth’s outer atmosphere extends to around 600 km or 370 miles  Made of dry air o Mostly nitrogen, oxygen, some argon and a little bit of carbon dioxide o When you heat up rocks nitrogen and carbon dioxide come out and this comes rom volcanoes but oxygen is a really reactive gas that comes from photosynthesis: light and energy into carbon dioxide and oxygen o Where earths water comes from?  We have vast amount of water beneath earths surface over 400 miles  It comes from comet ( lose snow ball of rocks and dust) and also comes from meteors that hit the earth o How earthquakes tell us about interior of the earth  Andrija was a meteorologist that realized that earthquake waves move at different speeds through different layers of earth  So the vibrations on earth that are waves either reflect or retract and move at different speeds, the waves change direction from one material to another showing us there is different layers on earth  Differences in speed of waves tell us of the rigidity of a layer and some waves only move through solids and others through liquids so we noticed that there are layers o Crust and mantle vs lithosphere and asthenosphere  The crust and mantle are separated by Moho  Mantle has more metal than crust  Continental crust much thicker than oceanic crust  Lithosphere: rigid crust plus rigid upper layer of mantle  Asthenosphere: hotter, softer o What earths magnetic field tells us about the core of the earth  It is evidence for a core that is liquid and metal and protects us from space radiation o Diamond anvil cells  Lecture Three: Plate Tectonics o Earth’s bimodal surface  o Composition of continental and oceanic crust o


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