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Psychology 110 Study Guide

by: Kaeley Notetaker

Psychology 110 Study Guide PSY 110

Marketplace > University of Miami > PSY 110 > Psychology 110 Study Guide
Kaeley Notetaker

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About this Document

Study guide for test on 9/19/16, covers all material from beginning of class
Intro to Psychology
Charles Carver
Study Guide
Psychology, carver, 110, Miami, study, guide, test, notes
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kaeley Notetaker on Friday September 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 110 at University of Miami taught by Charles Carver in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views.

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Date Created: 09/16/16
Psychology  Part  One  Study  Guide       Definition  of  Psychology:  The  science  of  behavior       Science:  use  of  certain  procedures  to  study  things       Psychology:     Covert:  hidden  behavior  (thoughts,  etc.)   Overt:  visible  behavior  (actions,  etc.)     Origins:     • Prehistoric  people  struggled  to  understand  and  predict  world     o Shamans:  witch  doctors,  tribal  chiefs,  religious  leaders  were  people   who  could  do  these  things     • Introspectionists  (Covert  Behavior):  Looked  inward  at  own  experience     o Personal  experiences  of  reality:  gives  a  clue  about  how  things  are  and   how  things  work     o You  can  trust  it  because  it  is  your  own  view     • Behaviorists  (Overt  Behavior)   o Can’t  trust  own  experiences  because  you’re  only  one  person  and  need   other  input  to  verify     o To  trust  reality,  it  needs  to  be  off  something  you  can  actually  observe     • Both  influence  todays  psychology     o Behaviorists  emphasis  on  observable  with  recognition  that  internal   experiences  are  important     • Active  Viewpoints  in  Society:     o Biological:  Behavior  is  a  process  of  biological  processes     o Evolutionary:  Behavior  is  based  on  adaption  through  evolution     o Psychodynamic:  Behavior  results  from  competing  internal  forces     o Behavioral:  Behavior  results  from  learning     o Cognitive:  Behavior  is  based  on  how  people  mentally  represent  the   world  and  themselves     o Humanistic:  Behavior  is  based  on  free  will  and  the  capacity  to  choose     • Philosophy  lead  to  all  scientific  psychology  (academic,  research,  basic)  and   focused  on  how  reality  is  organized  (how  things  work)   • Basic  psychology  that  examine  sub-­‐systems:     o Physiological  psychology/bio-­‐psychology/behavioral  neuroscience:   § Hormones,  internal  aspects,   o Perceptual  Psychology  (covert):   § How  humans  take  information  from  the  world  into  their  own   experiences     o Cognitive  Psychology  (overt):   § Thought  processes,  memory,  problem  solving     o Learning  Psychology:     § Processes  of  learning         • Basic  psychology  that  examine  whole  person:     o Developmental  Psychology:     § How  people  develop  and  change  across  time     o Personality  Psychology:     § Psychology  of  a  whole  person  as  an  entity     o Social  Psychology:     § People  interacting  with  other  people     • Origin  of  psychology  focused  on  applying  knowledge  to  practical  problems   § Service  (to  other  humans)  or  applied  (makes  use  of  info  in   applied  setting)  tradition  in  psychology     o Clinical  and  counseling  psychology:   § Service     § Ex:  Health  psychology  (behavior  has  an  impact  on  health)   o Industrial  and  Organizational  Psychology     § Applied     § Takes  psychological  principles  and  applies  them  to  workplace   (like  picking  the  right  person  for  a  job)     • Psychology:  not  to  be  confused  with   o Psychiatrists:  studies  how  body  works  on  a  biological  level  in  medical   school     o Psychoanalyst:  further  specialized  psychiatrist     • How  to  decide  what  reality  is?     o Simplest  approach:  single  observation  to  make  a  general  conclusion     • Problems  in  measurement     o Reliability:  Does  the  same  exact  event  repeat  itself?     § Leads  to  case  studies:  In-­‐depth  analysis  of  one  person     § Solution:  Observe  multiple  trials     o Generality:  Does  the  observation  hold  true  for  lots  of  people?     § Make  sure  observation  is  of  both  genders,  all  races,  religions,   etc.     § Solution:  Observe  multiple  people     o Validity:  Does  the  measure  you  have  mean  what  you  think  it  means?     § Pay  attention  to  all  possibilities     o Objectivity:  Are  you  sure  you  observed  what  you  think  you  did?  Can   you  prove  it?     § Subjective:  make  interpretation  before  record  –  interpretation   cannot  be  checked   § Leave  a  record  prior  to  interpretation  (audio  recording,  film,   etc.)     o Need  to  create  measures  that  are  objective,  quantified,  and  valid       • Correlation:  connection  between  two  variables  when  measured  multiple   times   § Variable:  (Dimension)  with  more  than  one  potential  value   (level)   o Positive  correlation:  Both  variables  increse     Direction  of   o Negative  correlation:  One  variable  increases  as  the   relationship   other  decreases   § Correlation  #:  0.00  –  1.00     • +1.00  (positive)     • -­‐1.00  (negative)   o Strength:  Higher  the  #,  stronger  the  relationship   • Correlations  cannot  tell  us  why  variables  go  together  our  the  causality   o Causality:  Cause  and  effect  of  variables     • Third  variable  problem:  Something  that  affects  both  1  and  2     Variable  1   Variable  2       Variable  3         • Experimental  Method   1. Hypothesis:  educated  guess/prediction  about  something     2. Independent  variable:     a. What  is  doing  the  causing     b. The  one  you  manipulate     3. Dependent  Variable:     a. What  is  being  affected     b. The  one  you  measure     4. Control  in  research:  Everything  about  situation  is  made  the  same  for   every  single  person  participating     o First  Defining  Rule:  manipulate  the  IV   § Create  the  existence  of  two  or  more  levels     o Second  Defining  Rule:  what  cannot  be  controlled  is  treated  by   random  assignment     § All  of  the  differences  will  balance  out  through  the  different   tests  taken     o Compare  two  or  more  things     § Event  and  outcome     and     § No  event  and  outcome   o Make  sure  not  to  confound  two  or  more  things   § Confound:  two  or  more  things  are  varied  at  one  time         • Overview   o Random  assignment  to  make  groups  equal     o Keep  control     o Manipulate  independent  variable  to  make  groups  different     o Measure  dependent  variable  to  find  outcome     • Statistics  in  research:     o What’s  the  chance  you  would  have  seen  this  correlation  in  reality  if   the  variables  were  unrelated  (results  may  not  represent  reality  very   well)     • Which  is  better?   o Experiments:  test  causality     § Laboratory  research  is  more  controlled     o Correlational  studies:  study  things  that  are  harder  to  see     § Field  research:  leads  to  more  natural  results     1. Things  that  take  a  long  time  to  study     2. Natural  selection     3. Things  you  cannot  do  with  humans  (ethical  problems)     • Levels  of  analysis:  Grouping  variables     § Most  complete  understanding  takes  all  levels  into  account   o Biological  bases  of  behavior:  Lower  level   § Normal  processes  (ex.  sleep  cycle),  biological  processes  (ex.   gender)     o Personal  bases  of  behavior:  Level  above   § Hypothetical  constructs  –  things  not  observed  directly  (ex.   attitudes,  personality)     o Social  bases  of  behavior:  Higher  level   § Group  norms,  social  roles  (ex.  how  you  behave  in  certain   positions   o Societal  or  cultural  bases  of  behavior:  Even  higher  level   § Cultural  values  and  systems     § Moves  more  into  sociology,  anthropology,  political  science     Theory     • Summary  statement  about  a  class  of  relationships     o Goal  1:  Explain  existing  information  systematically     o Goal  2:  Predict  new  information     • Spiral  between  theory  (ideas  for  hypothesis)  and  research  (experiment)     Neuropsychology     • CNS:  brain  and  spiral  cord     • Cortical  hemispheres:  Left  and  right  are  joined  by  corpus  callosum     o Frontal  lobe  is  where  most  activity  happens     • Complexities:     o Imaging  techniques  tell  us  what  parts  are  active  during  certain   activities   • Peripheral  nervous  system     o Somatic:  sensing  (bringing  info  in)  and  motor  (pushing  action  out)   activities   o Autonomic:  semi-­‐independent,  keeps  body  alive     § Sympathetic:  increase  arousal/energy   § Parasympathetic:  decrease  arousal/energy     • Dual  process  models  of  behavior     o Lower  level  control:  simple  emotional  reactions   which  guides  impulsive  reactions     § Ex.  scared  –  scream  and  run     Always  in   o Higher  level  control:  deeper  analysis  of  what  to  do   competition     § Uses  more  mental  resources     § Can  be  shut  down  (ex.  lack  of  sleep,  alcohol)     • Neurons:  basic  unit  in  nervous  system     o                     § Dendrite  picks  up  stimulation  (an  electrical  charge)     § Electrical  charge  is  sent  down  axon  (some  are  have  myelin  to   aid  in  speed)     §                             § Neurotransmitter:  chemical  that  conveys  message,  passes  from   axon  to  dendrite,  becomes  electrical  again  into  next  neuron   § Different  neurotransmitters  fit  with  different  receptors         o Sensory  neurons  take  from  outside,  carry  to  CNS   o Motor  neurons  are  behavior  or  actions  from  peripheral     • Biopsychology   o Endocrine  system:  interacts  with  immune  system     § Adrenal  medulla  creates  adrenaline     § Cortisol  prepares  for  action   These  two   § Inflammatory  cytokines  heal  damage     suppress     each  other     Perception  and  Cognition   • Reception  and  processing  of  information     Information  is  conveyed  in:   • Environmental  energy  (heat,  sound,  left,  etc.)   • Internal  nervous  impulses     o Some  are  extensions  of  perception  going  to  consciousness     o Some  are  generated  from  within:  memory  –  consciousness   (cognition)   • Input  process  in  perception   o Receptor  cells  transduce  outside  energy  and  send  to  sensory  neurons   § Transduce:  Change  form  of  info  to  electrical  for  neuron     o Sense  organs:  accumulated  group  of  receptor  cells     § React  to  specific  energy  and  variations  of  it     § Ex:  Eyes:  light  energy                                                                                                    Ears:  sound  energy,  compression  and  decompression  of  air   into  waves     o Lots  of  processing  before  it  reaches  awareness,  not  all  info  makes  it     • Gestalt  Principles     § Principles  about  totality     § Argument:  All  entities  are  automatically  grouped  together   before  we  even  know  it     o Similarity:     § Similar  elements  tend  to  be  grouped  together     o Proximity:     § Elements  physically  close  together  tend  to  be  grouped  together     o Closure:       § Fills  the  gaps  in  perception  that  we  never  get     o Figure-­‐ground  relationship:   § Something  is  more  important  than  other   background  this     § Ex.  Paying  attention  to  the  teacher  in  class   and  not  everything  else  around  you     o Effects  in  context:     § Perception  is  influenced  by  context     o Effects  of  expectancy:     § What  you  expect  changes  what  you   see  at  first     o Shape  and  size  consistency:     § Shape:  shape  of  an  object  from  all  angles  remains  the  same   § Size:  things  farther  away  aren’t  smaller  (ex.  depth  perception)   o Is  perception  automatically  wired  or  is  it  learned?   § Visual  cliff  experiment:  younger  walk  across  glass,  older   recognize  consequences  of  cliff       Cognition  and  Memory   • Encoding:     o Sematic  (meaning),  acoustic,  visual:  putting  something  into  your   memory     • Storage:     o Retention:  retain  memories  across  years     • Retrieval:     o Putting  memory  into  awareness     • 3  layers  of  memory:     o Sensory  store:  shortest  layer   § Holds  <1  second  to  take  info  in     o STM:  working  memory   § <20  seconds,  holds  things  active  while  you  need  them   § Selective  attention:  Extracting  some  info  instead  of  other  info   § Pre-­‐attentive  processing:  Processing  out  of  awareness     o So  many  things  are  trying  to  get  through  to  attention  that  only  one   can  pass  at  a  time  (multi-­‐tasking  is  not  correct)     o Cocktail  party:     § One  person  can  extract  another  voice  from  all  other  noise   (selective  attention)   § If  they  hear  their  name  somewhere  else,  they  pay  attention  to   that  but  not  both     o Chunking:  Remembering  one  piece  of  information  to  help  remember   another  piece  of  info     o Rehearsal:  Holds  STM  longer     § Sometimes  tries  to  encode  into  LTM     • 3  types  of  memory:     o Episodic:  event  memory   o Semantic:  meaning  memory:  episodic  is  event,  putting  event  into   words  is  semantic  memory     o Procedural:  doing  memory  (ex.  riding  a  bike,  tying  a  shoe)     • Organization  of  memories   o Schemas  with  default  values     § Schema:  organization  of  info  about  class  of  experience     § Default  values:  elements  that  are  assumed     § Ex.  Schema  on  all  dogs:  four  legs,  two  ears,  a  tail     o Scripts  of  common  events     § Schema  about  class  of  events     § Something  happens  and  you  assume  certain  events     § Ex.  Someone  goes  to  dinner  and  you  assume  they  looked  at  a   menu,  talked  to  a  waiter,  paid  the  bill,  etc.     o Node  with  spreading  activation:     § Networks  of  interrelated  information     § Node:  (when  active)  info  that  holds  in  STM     § Spreading  activation:  causes  info  in  related  node  to  come   closer  to  STM     • Ex.  schema  about  dogs  –  doghouses,  puppies,  cats,  etc.   o Context  and  state  dependent  memories:   § Context  dependent:  connects  to  cues  that  relate  to  memory  –   retrieves  memory     § State  dependent:  Alcohol  and  drug  use  can  bring  up  certain   memories     o Retrieval  of  memory  as  reconstruction:     § Reconstruct  memories  into  STM     • Can  be  influenced  by  things  not  part  of  original  memory   (words,  questions,  personal  influences)  –  contaminates   original  memory     o Cognition,  Reasoning,  Problem  Solving   § Judgmental  heuristics:       • Heuristics:  mental  short-­‐cut,  doing  less  than  thinking   everything  through   o Beneficial:  saves  mental  energy,  close  to  being   right     o Consequences:  influenced  by  irrelevant  factors     • Anchoring  and  Adjustment:     o Reliance  on  first  estimate  as  general  guide     § Adjust  answer,  but  first  answer  always   influences  adjustment     • Availability:     o Using  mental  availability  as  guide  to  likelihood     § Other  factors  influence  availability     § Mean-­‐end  analysis:     • Determine  desired  end,  what  do  you  need  to  get  there?   (means)   § Insight:     • Struggling  with  something  and  the  answer  pops  into   your  head     § Modes  of  cognition:     • Low-­‐order:  automatic     • High-­‐order:  planned  out         § Language:  Psycholinguistics   • Deep  structure:  meaning   • Surface  structure:  string  of  words   • Communicators  mind  –  language  –  to  receiver’s  mind     o There  could  be  2  different  meanings  from  the   same  string  of  words  depending  on   interpretation     Motivation     • Initiation  of  behavior:  why  do  they  start  something?   • Direction  of  behavior:  Why  they  choose  one  choice  over  another   • Intensity  of  behavior:  how  fast,  careful,  vigorous  action  is  completed     • Drive  habit  theory:     o Biological  needs  have  to  be  satisfied     § Any  unsatisfied  need  builds  aversive  tension  (Drive)   § Drive:  creates  behavior  and  energizes  it,  behavior  is  done  more   intensely     § Direction  of  behavior  comes  from  habit     § Specific  drive:  partly  habit,  partly  drive   § Sometimes  we  increase  stimulation  instead  of  flee   • Homeostasis:   o Some  level  is  preferred/optimal  for  you     § Deviations  are  countered  to  return  to  normal     o Low  stimulation:  want  more  (getting  bored)   o High  stimulation:  escape  (stress)   • Expectancy-­‐incentive  theory:   o Incentives:  what  you  want  to  get  out  of  something   o Expectancy:  recognize  effects  of  actions  that  provide  desired   outcomes   • Degree  of  motivation:     o You  have  incentive  and  the  expectancy  is  high     • There  are  things  you  want  and  you  are  pulled  towards  them   o Motivation:     § Motivation:  setting  and  reaching  goals     § Motivation:  stay  away  from  threats   o Left  side  of  cortex:  involved  in  incentive  pursuit   o Right  side  of  cortex:  involved  in  threat  avoidance       Emotion     • Evaluative  responses     o Affect:  valenced  response  to  event   o Valence:  positive  or  negative     • May  also  have  physiological  responses       Learning     • Things  that  stay  for  a  long  period  of  time   • Takes  place  in  nervous  system  and  is  reflected  in  behavior     • 3  kinds  of  learning     o Classical  conditioning:  Pavlovian  conditioning  (Passive)   § Reflex:  stimulus  produces  automatic  response     § US:  unconditional  stimulus  (produces  response  every  time)   § UR:  unconditional  response     § CS:  conditioned  stimulus  (produces  no  response)   § CR:  conditioned  response  (produced  after  conditioning)   • US  -­‐>  UR   • CS  and  US  -­‐>  UR   • CS  -­‐>  CR   § Emotional  conditioning   • Classical  conditioning  where  CR  produces  emotional   response     • Creates  preferences  (positive  and  negative  feelings   about  things)   o Anticipation  learning:   § New  conditional  response  seems  like  an  anticipation  of  original   stimulus     o Association  learning:     § Requires  association  between  2  stimuli     § Involuntary  and  pervasive     o Extinction:     § Extinguish  conditioned  response     • Present  CS  repeatedly  without  US     • Overtime  CR  fades  out     § Spontaneous  recovery     • Spontaneously  resurfaces  after  it  goes  away  and  each   time  it  resurfaces  weaker  and  weaker     o Operant  Conditioning  Instrumental  conditioning  (Active)   § Organism  operates  on  outside  world  in  search  of  “end  goal”   § Law  of  effect:  Behavior  that  is  rewarded  in  some  way  is  likely   to  be  repeated  again     § Reinforcers:     • Things  that  strengthen  likelihood  to  redo  behavior  that   preceded   • Kinds  of  reinforcers:     1. Physical  nature  (food,  water)     2. Intrinsic  (response  comes  from  within)     3. Social  (smiles,  attention,  etc.)     4. Feedback  (of  being  correct)       § Positive:  adding  something  good   Both  work  to  make   § Negative:  taking  something  aversive  away     reward  more     satisfying     § Punisher:   • Things  that  weaken     1. Pain     2. Social  (disapproval,  rejection)     3. Withdrawal  of  reinforcement     § Trial  and  Error  learning:     • Event  is  followed  by  either  reinforcement  or   punishment  (leads  to  repeated  or  opposite  behavior)     § Free  operant  situation:     • Behavior  is  continuous  stream  of  acts  over  time     • Ex.  skinner  box  example     § “Superstitious  behavior”   • Belief  that  specific  unrelated  action  leads  to  reinforce   § Primary  and  Secondary  reinforcers     • Secondary  is  associated  with  primary   or   • Secondary  lets  you  obtain  primary  (money,  etc.)   § Linking  behavior:     • One  behavior  leads  to  another,  which  leads  to  another,   which  leads  to  reinforcement     § Successive  approximation:     • Rewarding  rough  approximation  of  desired  behavior   which  slowly  brings  subject  closer  to  real  “end-­‐goal”   § Discrimination:  responding  in  different  ways  to  different   stimuli     • Learn  discrimination:  learning  to  respond  differently   § Generalization:  responding  similarly  to  different  stimuli     • Ex.  a  situation  resembles  another  that  you  already  know   how  to  respond  to,  so  you  react  in  the  same  way     § Under  stimulus  control:     • Presence  of  particular  stimulus  controls  what  behavior   occurs     § Extinction:     • Behavior  followed  by  nothing  leads  to  nothing   § Punishment:     • 2  consequences:     o If  not  immediate,  can  be  hard  to  link  to  certain   behavior     o Can  lead  to  learning  discrimination   § Ex.  learning  to  do  bad  behavior  when  no   one  is  looking     o Can  teach  that  punishing  is  a  good  way  to  control   others  behavior         § Partial  reinforcement:  Intermittent     • Reinforcement  doesn’t  allows  follow  behavior     o Leads  to  slower  learning     o Leads  to  PRF  effect     § PRF  effect:     • Resistance  to  extinction  when   learned  through  partial   reinforcement     o Observational  Learning:     § Saves  a  lot  of  time  and  effort   § Involves  2  people:   • Model:  performs  actions     • Observer:  observes  actions  so  they  may  repeat  it   § Acquisition:       • Encoding  information  about  how  to  do  behavior   somewhere  in  memory     • DOES  NOT  depend  on  reinforcement  of  model     • By  observing,  you  automatically  learn  what  to  do   § Performance:     • Doing  the  behavior  spontaneously  later  on     • DOES  depend  on  reinforcement  of  model     • What  you  do  depends  on  how  model  was  reinforced   § Vicarious  instrumental  conditioning:     • Lets  others  experiences  inform  you  without  you  having   to  do  anything   • Vicarious  reinforcement  shapes  behavior  of  observer     o Vicarious  reinforcement:     § Reinforcement  shown  to  someone  else   which  influences  you     § Modeling:  broadest  term   • Includes  observational  learning,  vicarious  instrumental   conditioning,  etc.     § Disinhibition  (and  Inhibition):  Action  mimicry   • Mindlessly  repeat  action  you  observe  without  learning   something  new  or  seeing  reinforcement     §              


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