Psychology 110 Study Guide
Psychology 110 Study Guide PSY 110
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kaeley Notetaker on Friday September 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 110 at University of Miami taught by Charles Carver in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views.
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Date Created: 09/16/16
Psychology Part One Study Guide Definition of Psychology: The science of behavior Science: use of certain procedures to study things Psychology: Covert: hidden behavior (thoughts, etc.) Overt: visible behavior (actions, etc.) Origins: • Prehistoric people struggled to understand and predict world o Shamans: witch doctors, tribal chiefs, religious leaders were people who could do these things • Introspectionists (Covert Behavior): Looked inward at own experience o Personal experiences of reality: gives a clue about how things are and how things work o You can trust it because it is your own view • Behaviorists (Overt Behavior) o Can’t trust own experiences because you’re only one person and need other input to verify o To trust reality, it needs to be off something you can actually observe • Both influence todays psychology o Behaviorists emphasis on observable with recognition that internal experiences are important • Active Viewpoints in Society: o Biological: Behavior is a process of biological processes o Evolutionary: Behavior is based on adaption through evolution o Psychodynamic: Behavior results from competing internal forces o Behavioral: Behavior results from learning o Cognitive: Behavior is based on how people mentally represent the world and themselves o Humanistic: Behavior is based on free will and the capacity to choose • Philosophy lead to all scientific psychology (academic, research, basic) and focused on how reality is organized (how things work) • Basic psychology that examine sub-‐systems: o Physiological psychology/bio-‐psychology/behavioral neuroscience: § Hormones, internal aspects, o Perceptual Psychology (covert): § How humans take information from the world into their own experiences o Cognitive Psychology (overt): § Thought processes, memory, problem solving o Learning Psychology: § Processes of learning • Basic psychology that examine whole person: o Developmental Psychology: § How people develop and change across time o Personality Psychology: § Psychology of a whole person as an entity o Social Psychology: § People interacting with other people • Origin of psychology focused on applying knowledge to practical problems § Service (to other humans) or applied (makes use of info in applied setting) tradition in psychology o Clinical and counseling psychology: § Service § Ex: Health psychology (behavior has an impact on health) o Industrial and Organizational Psychology § Applied § Takes psychological principles and applies them to workplace (like picking the right person for a job) • Psychology: not to be confused with o Psychiatrists: studies how body works on a biological level in medical school o Psychoanalyst: further specialized psychiatrist • How to decide what reality is? o Simplest approach: single observation to make a general conclusion • Problems in measurement o Reliability: Does the same exact event repeat itself? § Leads to case studies: In-‐depth analysis of one person § Solution: Observe multiple trials o Generality: Does the observation hold true for lots of people? § Make sure observation is of both genders, all races, religions, etc. § Solution: Observe multiple people o Validity: Does the measure you have mean what you think it means? § Pay attention to all possibilities o Objectivity: Are you sure you observed what you think you did? Can you prove it? § Subjective: make interpretation before record – interpretation cannot be checked § Leave a record prior to interpretation (audio recording, film, etc.) o Need to create measures that are objective, quantified, and valid • Correlation: connection between two variables when measured multiple times § Variable: (Dimension) with more than one potential value (level) o Positive correlation: Both variables increse Direction of o Negative correlation: One variable increases as the relationship other decreases § Correlation #: 0.00 – 1.00 • +1.00 (positive) • -‐1.00 (negative) o Strength: Higher the #, stronger the relationship • Correlations cannot tell us why variables go together our the causality o Causality: Cause and effect of variables • Third variable problem: Something that affects both 1 and 2 Variable 1 Variable 2 Variable 3 • Experimental Method 1. Hypothesis: educated guess/prediction about something 2. Independent variable: a. What is doing the causing b. The one you manipulate 3. Dependent Variable: a. What is being affected b. The one you measure 4. Control in research: Everything about situation is made the same for every single person participating o First Defining Rule: manipulate the IV § Create the existence of two or more levels o Second Defining Rule: what cannot be controlled is treated by random assignment § All of the differences will balance out through the different tests taken o Compare two or more things § Event and outcome and § No event and outcome o Make sure not to confound two or more things § Confound: two or more things are varied at one time • Overview o Random assignment to make groups equal o Keep control o Manipulate independent variable to make groups different o Measure dependent variable to find outcome • Statistics in research: o What’s the chance you would have seen this correlation in reality if the variables were unrelated (results may not represent reality very well) • Which is better? o Experiments: test causality § Laboratory research is more controlled o Correlational studies: study things that are harder to see § Field research: leads to more natural results 1. Things that take a long time to study 2. Natural selection 3. Things you cannot do with humans (ethical problems) • Levels of analysis: Grouping variables § Most complete understanding takes all levels into account o Biological bases of behavior: Lower level § Normal processes (ex. sleep cycle), biological processes (ex. gender) o Personal bases of behavior: Level above § Hypothetical constructs – things not observed directly (ex. attitudes, personality) o Social bases of behavior: Higher level § Group norms, social roles (ex. how you behave in certain positions o Societal or cultural bases of behavior: Even higher level § Cultural values and systems § Moves more into sociology, anthropology, political science Theory • Summary statement about a class of relationships o Goal 1: Explain existing information systematically o Goal 2: Predict new information • Spiral between theory (ideas for hypothesis) and research (experiment) Neuropsychology • CNS: brain and spiral cord • Cortical hemispheres: Left and right are joined by corpus callosum o Frontal lobe is where most activity happens • Complexities: o Imaging techniques tell us what parts are active during certain activities • Peripheral nervous system o Somatic: sensing (bringing info in) and motor (pushing action out) activities o Autonomic: semi-‐independent, keeps body alive § Sympathetic: increase arousal/energy § Parasympathetic: decrease arousal/energy • Dual process models of behavior o Lower level control: simple emotional reactions which guides impulsive reactions § Ex. scared – scream and run Always in o Higher level control: deeper analysis of what to do competition § Uses more mental resources § Can be shut down (ex. lack of sleep, alcohol) • Neurons: basic unit in nervous system o § Dendrite picks up stimulation (an electrical charge) § Electrical charge is sent down axon (some are have myelin to aid in speed) § § Neurotransmitter: chemical that conveys message, passes from axon to dendrite, becomes electrical again into next neuron § Different neurotransmitters fit with different receptors o Sensory neurons take from outside, carry to CNS o Motor neurons are behavior or actions from peripheral • Biopsychology o Endocrine system: interacts with immune system § Adrenal medulla creates adrenaline § Cortisol prepares for action These two § Inflammatory cytokines heal damage suppress each other Perception and Cognition • Reception and processing of information Information is conveyed in: • Environmental energy (heat, sound, left, etc.) • Internal nervous impulses o Some are extensions of perception going to consciousness o Some are generated from within: memory – consciousness (cognition) • Input process in perception o Receptor cells transduce outside energy and send to sensory neurons § Transduce: Change form of info to electrical for neuron o Sense organs: accumulated group of receptor cells § React to specific energy and variations of it § Ex: Eyes: light energy Ears: sound energy, compression and decompression of air into waves o Lots of processing before it reaches awareness, not all info makes it • Gestalt Principles § Principles about totality § Argument: All entities are automatically grouped together before we even know it o Similarity: § Similar elements tend to be grouped together o Proximity: § Elements physically close together tend to be grouped together o Closure: § Fills the gaps in perception that we never get o Figure-‐ground relationship: § Something is more important than other background this § Ex. Paying attention to the teacher in class and not everything else around you o Effects in context: § Perception is influenced by context o Effects of expectancy: § What you expect changes what you see at first o Shape and size consistency: § Shape: shape of an object from all angles remains the same § Size: things farther away aren’t smaller (ex. depth perception) o Is perception automatically wired or is it learned? § Visual cliff experiment: younger walk across glass, older recognize consequences of cliff Cognition and Memory • Encoding: o Sematic (meaning), acoustic, visual: putting something into your memory • Storage: o Retention: retain memories across years • Retrieval: o Putting memory into awareness • 3 layers of memory: o Sensory store: shortest layer § Holds <1 second to take info in o STM: working memory § <20 seconds, holds things active while you need them § Selective attention: Extracting some info instead of other info § Pre-‐attentive processing: Processing out of awareness o So many things are trying to get through to attention that only one can pass at a time (multi-‐tasking is not correct) o Cocktail party: § One person can extract another voice from all other noise (selective attention) § If they hear their name somewhere else, they pay attention to that but not both o Chunking: Remembering one piece of information to help remember another piece of info o Rehearsal: Holds STM longer § Sometimes tries to encode into LTM • 3 types of memory: o Episodic: event memory o Semantic: meaning memory: episodic is event, putting event into words is semantic memory o Procedural: doing memory (ex. riding a bike, tying a shoe) • Organization of memories o Schemas with default values § Schema: organization of info about class of experience § Default values: elements that are assumed § Ex. Schema on all dogs: four legs, two ears, a tail o Scripts of common events § Schema about class of events § Something happens and you assume certain events § Ex. Someone goes to dinner and you assume they looked at a menu, talked to a waiter, paid the bill, etc. o Node with spreading activation: § Networks of interrelated information § Node: (when active) info that holds in STM § Spreading activation: causes info in related node to come closer to STM • Ex. schema about dogs – doghouses, puppies, cats, etc. o Context and state dependent memories: § Context dependent: connects to cues that relate to memory – retrieves memory § State dependent: Alcohol and drug use can bring up certain memories o Retrieval of memory as reconstruction: § Reconstruct memories into STM • Can be influenced by things not part of original memory (words, questions, personal influences) – contaminates original memory o Cognition, Reasoning, Problem Solving § Judgmental heuristics: • Heuristics: mental short-‐cut, doing less than thinking everything through o Beneficial: saves mental energy, close to being right o Consequences: influenced by irrelevant factors • Anchoring and Adjustment: o Reliance on first estimate as general guide § Adjust answer, but first answer always influences adjustment • Availability: o Using mental availability as guide to likelihood § Other factors influence availability § Mean-‐end analysis: • Determine desired end, what do you need to get there? (means) § Insight: • Struggling with something and the answer pops into your head § Modes of cognition: • Low-‐order: automatic • High-‐order: planned out § Language: Psycholinguistics • Deep structure: meaning • Surface structure: string of words • Communicators mind – language – to receiver’s mind o There could be 2 different meanings from the same string of words depending on interpretation Motivation • Initiation of behavior: why do they start something? • Direction of behavior: Why they choose one choice over another • Intensity of behavior: how fast, careful, vigorous action is completed • Drive habit theory: o Biological needs have to be satisfied § Any unsatisfied need builds aversive tension (Drive) § Drive: creates behavior and energizes it, behavior is done more intensely § Direction of behavior comes from habit § Specific drive: partly habit, partly drive § Sometimes we increase stimulation instead of flee • Homeostasis: o Some level is preferred/optimal for you § Deviations are countered to return to normal o Low stimulation: want more (getting bored) o High stimulation: escape (stress) • Expectancy-‐incentive theory: o Incentives: what you want to get out of something o Expectancy: recognize effects of actions that provide desired outcomes • Degree of motivation: o You have incentive and the expectancy is high • There are things you want and you are pulled towards them o Motivation: § Motivation: setting and reaching goals § Motivation: stay away from threats o Left side of cortex: involved in incentive pursuit o Right side of cortex: involved in threat avoidance Emotion • Evaluative responses o Affect: valenced response to event o Valence: positive or negative • May also have physiological responses Learning • Things that stay for a long period of time • Takes place in nervous system and is reflected in behavior • 3 kinds of learning o Classical conditioning: Pavlovian conditioning (Passive) § Reflex: stimulus produces automatic response § US: unconditional stimulus (produces response every time) § UR: unconditional response § CS: conditioned stimulus (produces no response) § CR: conditioned response (produced after conditioning) • US -‐> UR • CS and US -‐> UR • CS -‐> CR § Emotional conditioning • Classical conditioning where CR produces emotional response • Creates preferences (positive and negative feelings about things) o Anticipation learning: § New conditional response seems like an anticipation of original stimulus o Association learning: § Requires association between 2 stimuli § Involuntary and pervasive o Extinction: § Extinguish conditioned response • Present CS repeatedly without US • Overtime CR fades out § Spontaneous recovery • Spontaneously resurfaces after it goes away and each time it resurfaces weaker and weaker o Operant Conditioning Instrumental conditioning (Active) § Organism operates on outside world in search of “end goal” § Law of effect: Behavior that is rewarded in some way is likely to be repeated again § Reinforcers: • Things that strengthen likelihood to redo behavior that preceded • Kinds of reinforcers: 1. Physical nature (food, water) 2. Intrinsic (response comes from within) 3. Social (smiles, attention, etc.) 4. Feedback (of being correct) § Positive: adding something good Both work to make § Negative: taking something aversive away reward more satisfying § Punisher: • Things that weaken 1. Pain 2. Social (disapproval, rejection) 3. Withdrawal of reinforcement § Trial and Error learning: • Event is followed by either reinforcement or punishment (leads to repeated or opposite behavior) § Free operant situation: • Behavior is continuous stream of acts over time • Ex. skinner box example § “Superstitious behavior” • Belief that specific unrelated action leads to reinforce § Primary and Secondary reinforcers • Secondary is associated with primary or • Secondary lets you obtain primary (money, etc.) § Linking behavior: • One behavior leads to another, which leads to another, which leads to reinforcement § Successive approximation: • Rewarding rough approximation of desired behavior which slowly brings subject closer to real “end-‐goal” § Discrimination: responding in different ways to different stimuli • Learn discrimination: learning to respond differently § Generalization: responding similarly to different stimuli • Ex. a situation resembles another that you already know how to respond to, so you react in the same way § Under stimulus control: • Presence of particular stimulus controls what behavior occurs § Extinction: • Behavior followed by nothing leads to nothing § Punishment: • 2 consequences: o If not immediate, can be hard to link to certain behavior o Can lead to learning discrimination § Ex. learning to do bad behavior when no one is looking o Can teach that punishing is a good way to control others behavior § Partial reinforcement: Intermittent • Reinforcement doesn’t allows follow behavior o Leads to slower learning o Leads to PRF effect § PRF effect: • Resistance to extinction when learned through partial reinforcement o Observational Learning: § Saves a lot of time and effort § Involves 2 people: • Model: performs actions • Observer: observes actions so they may repeat it § Acquisition: • Encoding information about how to do behavior somewhere in memory • DOES NOT depend on reinforcement of model • By observing, you automatically learn what to do § Performance: • Doing the behavior spontaneously later on • DOES depend on reinforcement of model • What you do depends on how model was reinforced § Vicarious instrumental conditioning: • Lets others experiences inform you without you having to do anything • Vicarious reinforcement shapes behavior of observer o Vicarious reinforcement: § Reinforcement shown to someone else which influences you § Modeling: broadest term • Includes observational learning, vicarious instrumental conditioning, etc. § Disinhibition (and Inhibition): Action mimicry • Mindlessly repeat action you observe without learning something new or seeing reinforcement §
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