GPH712 Quiz 1 Study Guide
GPH712 Quiz 1 Study Guide GPH 712
Popular in Principles of Epidemiology
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Danielle Kraack on Friday September 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GPH 712 at University of New England taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Principles of Epidemiology in Public Health at University of New England.
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Date Created: 09/16/16
Study uide Week 1: ole o pidemiology i n Public Health Weekly Outcomes: ● Assess models of causal relationships in order to understand a public health condition. ○ Strength f Association ■ A strong association is less likely to be the result of errors ■ Example: chimney sweeps and scrotal cancer ○ Consistency Upon epetition ■ When health effects have been observed by different people in different places ifferent times ○ Specificity ■ If the association is limited to specific workers and to specific sites and types of disease ■ And no association between the work and other modes of dying ■ Absence of t his mode does not equal refutation ○ Time Sequence ■ Which is the nd which is the horse? ■ Example: colon cancer and milk ● Does low milk intake cause or does colon cancer make milk hard to digest? ■ Latency Period Duration between exposure and development ○ Biologic Gradient ■ Evidence of doseresponse curve ● An increase in disease risk with an increase in the amount of exposure ○ Plausibility ■ An association is plausible if it is credible on the basis of existing biomedical knowledge ■ Like motive i rime c ○ Coherence f Explanation ■ Cannot conflict with wh lready nown ■ Data f rom lab an xperiments useful here ○ Experiment ■ Natural experiments can shed light ● Example: Fluoridated water ○ Analogy ■ Thalidomide and Rubella cause birth defects so another disease in pregnancy ill be eas ccept a ● Discuss fundamentals of epidemiology and how they can be used for modern application. ○ Definition ■ Factors or events that are capable of bringing about a change in health ■ Example: iologic or chem gents ○ Distribution ■ Frequency of disease occurrence and mortality rates vary from one population group to another ● Population subgroups that have higher occurrence of adverse health outcomes are defined as having health disparities ○ Population ■ Epidemiology examines disease occurrence among population groups rather than among i ndividuals ■ Example: oxic Shock Syndrome (TSS) ● Clinical description include specific signs and symptoms ● Epidemiological description includes age groups, time trends, geographic trends ■ If more than one person complains about a health problem, the health provider ma uspect widespread exposure ○ Health Phenomena ■ Epidemiology is used to investigate many kinds of health outcomes ● Infectious disease, chronic disease, disability, injury ○ Morbidity an ortality ■ Morbidity i ndicates illness ■ Mortality efers t o death ● Apply standard methods for conducting a situation analysis/needs assessment to identify an important public health condition. ○ Disease ○ History ○ Epidemiological triad ○ Problem tatement ● Apply concepts of prevention to a public health scenario. ○ Primary prevention ■ Occurs uring eriod of prepathogenesis ■ Includes health promotion and specific protection against disease ■ Seeks to low ccurrence o isease ■ Examples: Safety glasses, dietary supplements, immunizations ○ Secondary p revention ■ Occurs during the pe f pathogenesis ■ Emcompasses early diagnosis and prompt t reatment ■ Example: Cancer screening rograms ● The cancer is already present but early treatment leads to more success ○ Tertiary revention ■ Occurs during the pe f late pathogenesis ■ Disease has already occurred and has been treated ■ Rehabilitation is needed to restore patient to optimal functional level ■ Examples: Physical t herapy; halfway houses Week 2: Quantifying and Comparing Epidemiological Measures Weekly Outcomes: ● Apply key epidemiological measures to the health status of a population. ○ Count The simplest and most frequently performed quantitative measure. The number of cases bei tudied ○ Ratio The value obtained by dividing one quantity by another ■ Proportion A type of ratio in which the numerator is part of the denominator. an be expresse s percentage ● Prevalence The number of existing cases in a population at some designated time. Provides an indication of the extent of a health problem and needed ealth services ○ Point Prevalence Number of cases in a particular point in time ○ Period Prevalence The total number of cases that exist during specified period of time ■ Rate The numerator consists of the frequency of disease over a specified period of time. The denominator is a unit size of population ● Incidence Rate The number of new healthrelated events in a defined population within a specified period of time. The rate of development of a disease ● Quantify measures of morbidity and mortality rates for public health conditions. ○ Risk is a statement of probability or chance that the disease will develop ○ The prevalence of a disease if proportional to the incidence rate times the duration of isease ● Calculate ratios, proportions, and rates for a provided case study. ● Apply facets of descriptive epidemiology to a public health problem. ○ Person ■ Age ■ Gender ■ Marital status ■ Race/ethnicity ■ Nativity nd migration ■ Religion ■ Socioeconomic status ○ Place ■ City vs rural? ■ State? ■ Geographical, international ○ Time ■ Fast or slow? ■ Winter v ummer? ■ Cyclic f luctuatio nd seasonal trends ■ Common source epidemic An outbreak due to exposure of a group of persons to a noxious influence that is common to the individuals in the group ■ Point epidemic The response of a group of people circumscribed in place to a common source of infection, contamination, or other etiologic factor to which t he ere exposed almost simultaneously ■ Clustering An unusual aggregation of health events grouped together in space or time ● Spatial ● Time Readings/Videos: ● Resources ○ http://wonder.cdc.gov/ ○ http://globocan.iarc.fr/Default.aspx ○ http://seer.cancer.gov/ ○ http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.imr
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