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GPH712 Quiz 1 Study Guide

by: Danielle Kraack

GPH712 Quiz 1 Study Guide GPH 712

Marketplace > University of New England > Public Health > GPH 712 > GPH712 Quiz 1 Study Guide
Danielle Kraack


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Study guide for first quiz. Covers weeks 1 and 2.
Principles of Epidemiology
Study Guide
Public Health, Epidemiology
50 ?




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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Danielle Kraack on Friday September 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GPH 712 at University of New England taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Principles of Epidemiology in Public Health at University of New England.


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Date Created: 09/16/16
Study    uide    Week   1:  ole   o  pidemiology  i n   Public   Health    Weekly   Outcomes:  ● Assess   models   of   causal   relationships   in   order   to   understand   a   public   health   condition.  ○ Strength   f   Association  ■ A   strong   association   is   less   likely   to   be   the   result   of   errors  ■ Example:   chimney   sweeps   and   scrotal   cancer  ○ Consistency   Upon   epetition  ■ When   health   effects   have   been   observed   by   different   people   in   different  places      ifferent   times  ○ Specificity  ■ If   the   association   is   limited   to   specific   workers   and   to   specific   sites   and  types   of   disease  ■ And   no   association   between   the   work   and   other   modes   of   dying  ■ Absence   of  t his   mode   does   not   equal   refutation  ○ Time   Sequence  ■ Which   is   the    nd   which   is   the   horse?  ■ Example:   colon   cancer   and   milk  ● Does   low   milk   intake   cause   or   does   colon   cancer   make   milk   hard   to  digest?  ■ Latency   Period   ­   Duration   between   exposure   and   development  ○ Biologic   Gradient  ■ Evidence   of     dose­response   curve  ● An   increase   in   disease   risk   with   an   increase   in   the   amount   of  exposure  ○ Plausibility  ■ An   association   is   plausible   if   it   is   credible   on   the   basis   of   existing   biomedical  knowledge  ■ Like   motive  i   rime c ○ Coherence    f   Explanation  ■ Cannot   conflict   with   wh  lready  nown  ■ Data  f rom   lab   an  xperiments   useful   here  ○ Experiment  ■ Natural   experiments   can   shed   light  ● Example:   Fluoridated   water  ○ Analogy  ■ Thalidomide   and   Rubella   cause   birth   defects   so   another   disease   in  pregnancy    ill   be   eas  ccept   a ● Discuss   fundamentals   of   epidemiology   and   how   they   can   be   used   for   modern   application.   ○ Definition  ■ Factors   or   events   that   are   capable   of   bringing   about   a   change   in   health  ■ Example:   iologic   or   chem  gents  ○ Distribution  ■ Frequency   of   disease   occurrence   and   mortality   rates   vary   from   one  population   group   to   another  ● Population   sub­groups   that   have   higher   occurrence   of   adverse  health   outcomes   are   defined   as   having   health   disparities  ○ Population  ■ Epidemiology   examines   disease   occurrence   among   population   groups  rather   than   among  i ndividuals  ■ Example:   oxic   Shock   Syndrome   (TSS)  ● Clinical   description   include   specific   signs   and   symptoms  ● Epidemiological   description   includes   age   groups,   time   trends,  geographic   trends  ■ If   more   than   one   person   complains   about   a   health   problem,   the   health  provider   ma  uspect   widespread   exposure  ○ Health   Phenomena  ■ Epidemiology   is   used   to   investigate   many   kinds   of   health   outcomes  ● Infectious   disease,   chronic   disease,   disability,   injury  ○ Morbidity   an  ortality  ■ Morbidity  i ndicates   illness  ■ Mortality efers  t o   death  ● Apply   standard   methods   for   conducting   a   situation   analysis/needs   assessment   to   identify  an   important   public   health   condition.   ○ Disease  ○ History  ○ Epidemiological   triad  ○ Problem    tatement  ● Apply   concepts   of   prevention   to   a   public   health   scenario.  ○ Primary   prevention  ■ Occurs    uring  eriod   of   prepathogenesis  ■ Includes   health   promotion   and   specific   protection   against   disease  ■ Seeks   to   low  ccurrence   o  isease  ■ Examples:   Safety   glasses,   dietary   supplements,   immunizations  ○ Secondary  p  revention  ■ Occurs   during   the   pe  f   pathogenesis  ■ Emcompasses   early   diagnosis   and   prompt  t reatment  ■ Example:   Cancer   screening  rograms  ● The   cancer   is   already   present   but   early   treatment   leads   to   more  success  ○ Tertiary  revention  ■ Occurs   during   the   pe  f   late   pathogenesis  ■ Disease   has   already   occurred   and   has   been   treated  ■ Rehabilitation   is   needed   to   restore   patient   to   optimal   functional   level  ■ Examples:   Physical  t herapy;   halfway   houses    Week   2:   Quantifying   and   Comparing   Epidemiological   Measures    Weekly   Outcomes:  ● Apply   key   epidemiological   measures   to   the   health   status   of   a   population.   ○ Count   ­   The   simplest   and   most   frequently   performed   quantitative   measure.   The  number   of   cases   bei  tudied  ○ Ratio   ­   The   value   obtained   by   dividing   one   quantity   by   another  ■ Proportion   ­   A   type   of   ratio   in   which   the   numerator   is   part   of   the  denominator.    an   be   expresse  s     percentage  ● Prevalence   ­   The   number   of   existing   cases   in   a   population   at   some  designated   time.   Provides   an   indication   of   the   extent   of   a   health  problem   and   needed  ealth   services  ○ Point   Prevalence   ­   Number   of   cases   in   a   particular   point   in  time  ○ Period   Prevalence   ­   The   total   number   of   cases   that   exist  during      specified   period   of   time  ■ Rate   ­   The   numerator   consists   of   the   frequency   of   disease   over   a   specified  period   of   time.   The   denominator   is   a   unit   size   of   population  ● Incidence   Rate   ­   The   number   of   new   health­related   events   in   a  defined   population   within   a   specified   period   of   time.   The   rate   of  development   of   a   disease  ● Quantify   measures   of   morbidity   and   mortality   rates   for   public   health   conditions.   ○ Risk   is   a   statement   of   probability   or   chance   that   the   disease   will   develop  ○ The   prevalence   of   a   disease   if   proportional   to   the   incidence   rate   times   the   duration  of    isease  ● Calculate   ratios,   proportions,   and   rates   for   a   provided   case   study.   ● Apply   facets   of   descriptive   epidemiology   to   a   public   health   problem.   ○ Person  ■ Age  ■ Gender  ■ Marital   status  ■ Race/ethnicity  ■ Nativity  nd   migration  ■ Religion  ■ Socioeconomic   status  ○ Place  ■ City   vs   rural?  ■ State?  ■ Geographical,   international  ○ Time  ■ Fast   or   slow?  ■ Winter   v  ummer?  ■ Cyclic  f luctuatio  nd   seasonal   trends  ■ Common   source   epidemic   ­   An   outbreak   due   to   exposure   of   a   group   of  persons   to   a   noxious   influence   that   is   common   to   the   individuals   in   the  group  ■ Point   epidemic   ­   The   response   of   a   group   of   people   circumscribed   in   place  to   a   common   source   of   infection,   contamination,   or   other   etiologic   factor   to  which  t he  ere   exposed   almost   simultaneously  ■ Clustering   ­   An   unusual   aggregation   of   health   events   grouped   together   in  space   or   time  ● Spatial  ● Time  Readings/Videos:  ● Resources  ○  ○  ○  ○   


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