Psychology of Personality
Week Four Notes
9/13 in class notes
Personality Judgments – Chapter 5 continued
∙ Apply what you learned next week:
o Convergent validity: seek to obtain assessments in more than one situation
o Interrater reliability: seek to obtain assessment from more than one judge
o Who should observe the person?
More than one judge
Pick someone to be the judge who people identify as a good judge of personality
Mae sure the judge is paying attention and trying to make a good assessment
o Observe the Person
From first impression: what can you judge reliably from your first impression?
What kinds of situations should you observe the person in? ∙ Weak situations will allow for more expressions of
personality in behavior
Talk to the person
∙ Advice to friend:
o Determine traits of interest
o Select situation that will allow for a range of behaviors relevant to the trait of interest If you want to learn more check out What are the three names that refer to the study of biological bases of behavior?
o Pay attention to the person’s behavior
o Consider situation and behavior and draw sound inferences about the traits of interest
o Remember that you will be judged too
Chapter 6: Personality Types and Traits
∙ Personality Traits vs. Types
o Main focus: personality traits
o Personality trait refers to characteristics of a person relative to others Don't forget about the age old question of What is the substitute in plane equation?
A person may have more than one trait
We also discuss several other topics like What are the elements of visual design?
Emphasis is on quantitative differences between people o Personality types refer to different varieties of individuals Generally, a person only has one type
Emphasis is on qualitative differences between people
∙ Personality Types
o Carl Jung’s typology
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
o William Herbert Sheldon’s somatotypes
o Origins in embryology
Ectoderm (skin & nerves)
Mesoderm (digestive tract
o Somatotypes are body types associated w/ these fundamental elements
Long, thin limbs
Low fat storage
Typically perceived as intelligent but fearful
Muscular w/ low fat storage
Typically perceived as popular & hardworking
Increased fat storage
Stereotyped as slow, lazy, messy, funny
o Somatotype theory is now regarded as invalid, but stereotypes based on body type persist
∙ Modern Personality Type Research
o 3 types tend to emerge in different studies involving people in different countries: We also discuss several other topics like What percent of data will lie within 2 standard deviation of the mean?
well-adjusted (flexible, resourceful, successful,
maladjusted over-controlling (self-deprivation difficulty maintaining interpersonal relationships) We also discuss several other topics like What does high silica content mean?
If you want to learn more check out Hat part in function syntax is used to provide inputs to the method?
maladjusted under-controlling (impulsive)
o the 3 types are said to represent qualitative differences in people o they do not predict behavior that is not explained by the trait approach
∙ Type vs. Traits continued
o Type approach = qualitative differences, individual focus o Trait approach = quantitative differences, traits related to group ∙ 3 general approaches to studying traits:
o single-trait approach, many-trait approach, essential-trait approach