Exam 1 Study Guide/Review
Exam 1 Study Guide/Review Psyc 287
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ashley Choma on Friday September 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psyc 287 at University of Nebraska Lincoln taught by Dr. Pearce in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 216 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Personality in Psychology at University of Nebraska Lincoln.
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Date Created: 09/16/16
Exam 1 Study Guide Data Types o S-Data: self-report; efficacy expectations Usefulness: can reflect complex aspects of character that no other data source could access Advantages Large amount of information, access to thoughts, feelings, & intentions, self-verification, simple & easy Disadvantages Maybe they won’t/can’t tell you, too simple & too easy o I-Data: informant; other individuals will provide their insight; someone who knows you/the participant Usefulness: allows for outside opinion on the individual’s personality Advantages Real-world basis, common sense, causal force, definitional Disadvantages Limited behavioral information, lack of access to private experience, error, bias o L-Data: life outcomes; any kind of public information Usefulness: verifiable, concrete, may hold psychological significance Advantages Objective & verifiable, psychological relevance, intrinsic importance, multi-determination Disadvantages Hard to tell cause o B-Data: behavior; watching/observing people (sometimes can be collected in experiments Allows you to collect your own observations on the individual’s personality Advantages Range of contexts, appearance of objectivity Disadvantages Difficult & expensive, uncertain interpretation Types of Research o Case Studies: involves a very close examination of a person or event Advantages A well-chosen case study can be a source of ideas, sometimes the method is absolutely necessary Disadvantages/weaknesses The degree to which its findings can be generalized as unkown o Experimental: have to randomly assign to two or more groups; manipulate the factor interested in Advantages Gains insight into methods of instruction, researcher can have control over variables, intuitive practice shaped by research Disadvantages Subject to human error, sample may not be representative, human response can be difficult to measure o Correlational: an associational research study; no experimental groups, everybody is treated the same Advantages Allows to collect much more data than experiments, the results tend to be more applicable to everyday life Disadvantages/weaknesses Cannot provide a conclusive reason for a relationship, causation cannot be determined Key Statistical Concepts o Correlation: (r) represents the strength of the linear relationship between two variables o Factor Analysis: identifies groups of things that seem to have something in common o Null hypothesis significance testing: the most common method used to determine whether or not scientific results matter Tells us what % of the time we would find the same relationship between variables o Effect Size vs/ Statistical Significance Correlations are a measure of effect size, they tell us the goodness of fit between data & least square lines o Data aggregation: measuring personality across situations o Binomial effect size display: a way of expressing effect size based on probability Key Research Concepts o Reliability: a reliable measure gives you a result you can trust o Validity: measuring what you intend to measure o Generalizability: do your measures work on everyone? o What problems can affect these research concepts and how do researchers address them? Reliability Problems – participant error, experiment error, distractions, situations & temporary states Improvements – data aggregation, clear/carefully designed experimental protocol Validity Problems – when something doesn’t measure what it intends to measure, no validity w/o reliability Improvements – attempting new tests Generalizability Problems – will it continue to apply across time, ethnicity, gender, culture Improvements – adapt measures to fit different cultures Person vs. Situation Debate o Walter Mischel’s role in debate Reviewed personality studies & found that correlations between personality traits & behavior in different situations fell under .30 Caused psychologists to question whether the concept of personality traits was useful o Funder’s research responding to debate Reanalyzed classic social psychology studies o Personality’s influence on situations (strong vs. weak) Strong situations: situations where nearly all people act the same way; personality is useless Weak/ambiguous situations: situations that allow for variations in behavior; personality is useful o The Personality Coefficient: the .30 from Mischel’s studies is labeled the “personality coefficient” o Contexts in which personality or situational variables are better at predicting behavior Personality Personality traits influence the situations a person finds herself in Personality traits influence how situations unfold Classic interaction: 2 variables in combination have meaningful effect Situational Situational variables are better at predicting how people act in an array of situations o Has led to data aggregation o Interactions between personality & situations (moderator variables) Moderator variable: a 3 variable that affects the strength of the relationship between a dependent & independent variable Need for consistency – higher = greater predictive power of situations Age – older = greater stability in personality traits Self-monitoring – higher = greater predictive power of situations Personality Assessment o Projective tests: objectively meaningless stimuli elicit responses that provide insight into the respondent’s personality Advantages Allow psychologists to assess unconscious aspects of personality, not transparent Disadvantages Questionable reliability & validity Data obtained: B-Data o Objective tests: responses are less open to interpretation than projective tests, though pure objectivity is elusive The Rational method: write items that relate obviously to whatever you measure Advantages o Client capable of self-assessment Disadvantages o Not useful when items are unclear/invalid Factor Analysis Method: Confirmatory testing: can be used to confirm whether test items fall into hypothesized groups Exploratory testing: can be used to explore whether test items fall into sensible groups Advantages o Helps with correlation Disadvantages o Harming factors is subjective, sometimes factor structure is difficult to interpret Pure Empirical Methods: based on experimentation or observation Advantages o Very difficult to “fake” Disadvantages o Validation is crucial, difficult to justify if challenged Type of data obtained = S-Data/B-Data o Discriminatory use of personality tests in employment Griggs v. Duke Power Power Co. had five branches of the company by race; the white man was paid more & worked less The workers had to take subjective/objective tests (sorted) The Power Co. was sued for racism before Title 9 was created Personality Judgments o Consequences Opportunities can be expanded or limited Expectancy effects – intellectual/social – occurs when an assessment of your personality allows you to act in the way of assessment Intellectual: target of the expectations need not know about them to be affected Social: a study suggested that our behavior w/ other people is influenced by how they expect us to act (Snyder & colleagues 1977) Stereotype threat: when people are place in situations where they might confirm negative stereotypes, they tend to perform poorly on tasks o Accuracy of Personality Judgments First impressions – based on face, fashionableness (extraversion), loud voice (extraversion), music preference Moderators of accuracy – skill level of the judge, reliability of the target, the trait under consideration, amount of available information, quality of available information o Realistic accuracy model – relevance, availability, detection, utilization Trait Theory o The 3 approaches to studying traits Single-trait: Self-monitoring: addresses fundamental issues concerning the relationship between one’s private inner reality & the external self, presented to others Narcissism: usually negative Many-trait: California Q-Set (100 phrases), word use (certainty words), depression, political orientation Essential-trait: reducing the many to a few (traits) o Personality Types Somatotypes: ectomorph (long, thin limbs), mesomorph (wide shoulders, narrow waist), endomorph (increased fat storage) Well-adjusted: flexible, resourceful, successful, interpersonal relationships Maladjusted over-controlling: self-deprivation, difficulty maintaining interpersonal relationships Maladjusted under-controlling: impulsive o Big Five personality traits: neuroticism, extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, & openness o Correlations between big 5 personality traits & behavior/life outcomes Neuroticism: people who score high on this trait tend to deal ineffectively w/ problems in their lives & react more negatively to stressful events Openness: people scoring high are viewed by others as creative, imaginative, open-minded, & clever Conscientiousness: organized, dependable, self-discipline Agreeableness: compassionate, cooperative, trusting Extraversion: positive emotions, assertiveness, sociability
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