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Psych 3322- Exam 1

by: Madilene Williams

Psych 3322- Exam 1 Psych 3322 (Psychology: Brain and Behavior.)

Madilene Williams
Texas State

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About this Document

This study guide cover topic 3 for Exam 1.
Brain and Behavior
Carmen Westerberg
Study Guide
psych, 3322, brain, and, behavior, exam1, Ch.2, topic3
50 ?




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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Madilene Williams on Friday September 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 3322 (Psychology: Brain and Behavior.) at Texas State University taught by Carmen Westerberg in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Brain and Behavior in Psychology And Social Behavior at Texas State University.

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Date Created: 09/16/16
Friday, September 16, 2016 Psych 3322- Exam 1 Topic 3 - The difference between the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system= central = brain and spinal cord/ peripheral = every where else. - Nerve= Bundle of axons traveling together. - The two main functions of the peripheral nervous system= To detect environmental info (sensory nerves); transmitting info to muscles and glands (motor nerves) - The 2 main subdivisions of the peripheral nervous system=- Somatic nervous system- cranial nerves/ spinal nerves; autonomic nervous system ( not as much control) - Cranial nerves// how many pairs do we have, and do they have sensory or motor functions? nerves that connect directly to the brain/ 12 pairs/ some are solely sensory, carrying info into the brain; motor is carrying info out to the muscles. NO NEED to memorize the sensory/ motor names and functions. - Spinal nerves and their names= Nerves connecting directly to the spinal cord/ 31 pairs/ Called C1 for the cervical section of the spinal cord (ex.) all have both sensory AND motor parts connecting to the vertebra. (Know how they are named, not the numbers) Names= cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal. (Pg. 32 shows the diagram.) - All of the pairs of spinal nerves// sensory or motor functions= 12 pair/ some are solely sensory, some solely motor, some both. 1 Friday, September 16, 2016 - Autonomic nervous system and the 2 subdivisions= Controls our internal organs automatically- sympathetic and parasympathetic. - Function of the sympathetic nervous system= “Fight or flight” because it prepares you for action. (controlling the four F’s) - Ganglion= Group of cell bodies. - Sympathetic ganglia location= they are in a row along side the spinal cord/ In a chain fashion, “the chain ganglion” (uses the digestion energy) - Function of the parasympathetic nervous system and how the are ganglia organized= It helps you relax, “Rest and digest division”/ the ganglia are not in a chain form. (increasing digestion) - Three main functions of the central nervous system= Recognizes stimuli, analyzes info, and send outgoing messages (ex.)= peripheral recognizes that there is a sound, the brain then understands whats happening and the messages go from the central nervous sys. to the muscles to get the door. - Difference between gray matter and white matter// why is white matter white? Gray matter = cell bodies/ white matter = myelated axons- white because they are being covered. - Corpus callosum= Bundle of fibers that connect the two hemispheres. - The 3 planes of brain orientation= 3 different views of the brain: sagittal (side view), coronal (top to bottom view), horizontal (front to back view) - +Know the angles - Medial vs. lateral refer to= Medial- towards the middle, Lateral- towards the side. 2 Friday, September 16, 2016 - Ipsilateral vs. contralateral refer to= Ipsilateral = on the same side, contralateral = opposite sides - Superior vs. inferior refer to= Superior = upper part of brain, inferior = lower. - Anterior vs. posterior refer to= Anterior = towards front, posterior = towards the back. - The 3 developmental divisions of the brain= Develop from the neural tube- Forebrain, Midbrain, and Hindbrain - The 2 main subdivisions of the forebrain= In Humans= telencephalon (over time gets bigger and covers the dienceph.) and diencephalon. - Three parts make up the telencephalon= Cortex, limbic system, and the basal ganglia. - Difference between a gyrus and a sulcus= Wrinkled up bumps is Gyri= gyrus/ grooves are sulk = sulcus - The 4 lobes of the cerebral cortex= Frontal lobe, Parietal L, Occipital L, and Temporal L. - Executive functions= Cortex: responsible for our cognitive processes (perception, attention, memory, language), Occipital: visual perception, Parietal: spacial perception (where your body is in next to something else) and attention, Temporal: visual and auditory perception/ language, Frontal: executive functions (supervise and regulate the other processes).— working memory (remembering things throughout the day), inhibitory control, mental flexibility (being able to adapt). 3 Friday, September 16, 2016 - know where the 4 lobes are and their functions. - Two major structures of the limbic system and the function of each= Know that this is apart of the ticephelon; Amygdala (processing of emotions), Hippocampus (seahorse one- spatial/ long-term memory) - Function of the basal ganglia= Involved in controlling our movements (amplitude and direction) and helps with muscle-tone and posture. If damaged, causes Huntingtons disease. - Huntington’s disease and its cause= degeneration of cells in the basal ganglia- people start to uncontrollably move their limbs (jerky, extra movements) / develop deminstia (age 40) it is a dominant gene. - Two structures form the diencephalon and the function of each= encephalon (brain) di (two)- Thalamus (relays sensory info to the cortex); ex. skin to thalamus to cortex), Hypothalamus (controls the release of [hormones (chemicals that travel through the blood stream)]. - Function of structures in the midbrain= does basic processing of sensory and outgoing motor info. - 3 structures comprise the hindbrain, and their functions= cerebellum (involved in learning and motor coordination, ex. learning a new dance move/ alcohol affects this), pons (basic sensory and motor functions/ small region that is involved with some sleep), medulla (respiration- breathing/ and heart rate). - How many ventricles are there, and what is each one called= lateral ventricles (where cerebral spinal fluid is made/ lined with choroid plexus which makes the fluid)// Third ventricle// Fourth ventricle. 4 Friday, September 16, 2016 - Two functions of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF), and where its made= Cerebral Spinal fluid (flows thru ventricles and spinal cord/ helps with shock and cushioning the brain; provides nutrients) - The most important thing the brain receives from blood= cells need blood because of the oxygen it contains, so oxygen is the most important thing. - What happens when blood vessels in the brain become blocked= no oxygen= stroke because the blood vessels are blocked which cuts off oxygen circulation. - The blood-brain barrier= refers to how things can pass from blood vessels to brain tissue (brain capillaries have tighter junctions than other places in the body), oxygen can pass thru but other things cannot? bad side of it: if you have cancer, the brain chemical cant pass thru because of the tight junctions. - 3 layers comprise the meninges, and what can be dangerous about the meninges= protective layers over the brain- skull then Dura mater (glia cells contribute to this one), Arachnoid membrane (cerebral spinal fluid in it and looks like a web), inner most later= Pia mater (very delicate)— these can sometimes attract an infection= meningitis (cause by bacteria). Note: Topic 4 is also posted; I have uploaded all 4 topics for Exam 1! - Don’t forget to check the book for pictures and diagrams that will help you understand where some of these terms are located in the body brain!! - Good luck! 5


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