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Science and the Modern World - Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Haley Bullock

Science and the Modern World - Exam 1 Study Guide PHIL 2640

Marketplace > East Tennessee State University > PHIL 2640 > Science and the Modern World Exam 1 Study Guide
Haley Bullock

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Science and the Modern World
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Haley Bullock on Friday September 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PHIL 2640 at East Tennessee State University taught by Robinson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views.


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Date Created: 09/16/16
PHIL 2640­003 Exam 1 Study Guide 1. What is the hypothetico­deductive method? A proposed description of scientific method. According to it, scientific inquiry proceeds by formulating  a hypothesis in a form that could conceivably be falsified by a test on observable data. 2. What did Semmelweis require medical students to do, prior to assisting pregnant women? Hand­cleaning and excessive hand­washing to prevent the spread of bacteria and infection 3. Which historical figure is usually associated with first formulating the problem of induction? David Hume 4. What is the problem of induction? We naturally reason inductively:  We use experience (or evidence from the senses) to ground beliefs we  have about things we haven’t observed. 5. What is a deductively valid argument? We call an argument deductively valid (or, for short, just "valid") when the conclusion is entailed by, or  logically follows from, the premises. Validity is a property of the argument's form. It doesn't matter what the premises and the conclusion  actually say. It just matters whether the argument has the right form. So, in particular, a valid argument  need not have true premises, nor need it have a true conclusion. The following is a valid argument: a) All cats are reptiles. b) Bugs Bunny is a cat. c) So Bugs Bunny is a reptile 6. Why is it important to think about the nature of scientific inquiry? An important aspect of scientific inquiry is that science is only one of many ways people explore,  explain, and come to know the world around them. There are threads of inquiry and discovery in almost  every way that humans know the world. All of the ways of knowing contribute to humanity’s general  body of knowledge. 7. What is the problem of demarcation? How to distinguish science from non­science or pseudoscience 8. What, according to Popper, characterizes a pseudoscientific theory? A theory that fails to meet the adherence of the empirical method and scientific standards, in addition it  fails to support falsifiability 9. Who is usually credited with having refuted the hypothesis of spontaneous generation? Louis Pasteur 10. Why, according to critics of the spontaneous generation hypothesis, did life develop from sterilized  matter when fresh air was introduced into the system? Because of organic matter 11. Why, according to proponents of the spontaneous generation hypothesis, did life develop from sterilized  matter when fresh air was introduced into the system? Because they believe that life develops from life 12. How were yeast and hay infusions sterilized by Pasteur and his contemporaries? Low temperatures 13. What methods were used by Pasteur and Pouchet to sterilize air supplies? Air supply, temperature and high altitude 14. Why did Pasteur conduct experiments at higher altitudes? He believed that it was more sterile 15. What process, widely used by the dairy industry, did Pasteur develop? Pasteurization  16. Had Pouchet persevered with his experiments he would very probably have continued to produce  evidence of spontaneous generation. Why is this? His results were opposite of what he hypothesized, so he discontinued the experiment 17. How might advocates of the spontaneous generation hypothesis have explained away apparent  counterexamples? 18. Why does Kuhn’s description of change within normal science not fit with standard empiricist attitudes  towards scientific change? Because Kuhn’s description of change was assumed to be true without the change of revisions or  changes 19. Why does Kuhn’s description of change within revolutionary science not fit with standard empiricist  attitudes towards scientific change? Because his description of change did was not guided by data, results, and observation 20. What is the main difficulty with Kuhn’s account of crisis states within scientific communities? Kuhn’s idea of what normal science is 21. Why are rival paradigms incommensurable, according to Kuhn? Because they consider different problems using a different type of language on a different basis of  standards 22. What are some of the main ways in which Kuhn’s attitude towards science differs from traditional  empiricism? Kuhn established many ideas and theories that cannot be refuted such as the description of change in  normal science and revolutionary science 23. Kuhn believed that his account of the scientific method was both descriptively and normatively superior. Why did he think this? Kuhn believed that his idea of the scientific method fit within the basic standards of science as well as  was irrefutable  24. What two conditions are required, according to Kuhn, for one paradigm to replace another? A critical mass of anomalies and rival paradigm has revealed itself 25. What is the title of Kuhn’s most influential book? A Structure of Science Revolutions 26. Which planet was discovered independently by Le Verrier and Adams? Neptune 27. What is the standard philosophical definition of knowledge? Which part of the definition is a central  motivation for philosophers to think about scientific methods? Knowledge is found in a justified, true belief. How can we prove through the scientific method that  one’s knowledge is 100% true and justified? 28. It is sometimes suggested that establishing why a car won’t start involves something akin to the  scientific method. Why might this be misleading? 29. In what year did Copernicus die? 1543 30. Galileo and Bacon both insist that science must be based on ______________, not authority. Experience 31. What is phlogiston? An element is the process of combustion 32. What does it mean to say that observations are theory­laden? When observations are affected by the observer’s own biases and personal perceptions of the world 33. What did Galileo describe, when he observed Saturn through his telescope? What did Huygens observe? How is the example used to make trouble for empiricists? Galileo thought that Saturn’s rings were the existence of two moons, sitting on either side of Saturn. He  described them as “arms”.  Huygens believed that the rings were disks, sitting around the surface of  Saturn.  34. What did Rene Blondlot claim to have discovered? A type of radiation called N rays 35. What is confirmation bias? Our tendency as human beings to interpret new evidence as what we already see, know, and believe 36. What is the placebo effect? A phenomenon in which a patient or client’s expectations of a particular experiment or study influence  the effect or outcome of the trial 37. What is experimenter’s bias? When the experimenter slightly indicates or communicates their expected outcome to participants in an  experiment 38. What four terrestrial substances are there, according to Aristotle? Earth, water, air, fire 39. What is pseudoscience? A collection of ideas based on science that are often times believed but not based on the scientific  method 40. Why is waiting for experts to agree on a scientific issue sometimes a risky strategy? Because experts will never collectively agree on an issue, it would take a tremendous amount of time 41. What does it mean to say that science is a product and a process? Imagine you sitting and envisioning your life in your mind. You thinking about your life is the  PROCESS. But the PRODUCT is your life itself, what you wish to accomplish and one day achieve. 42. What does it mean to think of science as our most reliable way of knowing, rather than as  historically/socially/institutionally defined? Science can be tested, retested, proven, and challenged.  43. What’s a descriptive theory of science? Accurate, repeatable theories of science 44. What’s a normative theory of science? A theory that is developed based on a particular preference of a policy or set of policies 45. Are there reasons to think we shouldn’t solve the problem of demarcation? What are they? 46. What is the Mechanistic philosophy? The philosophical idea that living things are like machines made of parts that work together 47. Who was Gregor Mendel? Scientist who established the new science of genetics. Famous for his genetic research on pea plants. 48. Who was Francis Bacon? Philosopher in the Renaissance period that wrote about empiricism and natural sciences and philoshophy Know the meanings of these terms: Empiricism­ the idea of getting knowledge from experience  Natural place­ meaning geographically up or down Geocentric­ in reference to the center of the earth Heliocentric­ meaning “resolves around” Deductively valid argument = premise, premise, then conclusion Singular statement­ pertaining to a particular place  Universal statement­ meaning all places and at all times Pre­paradigm science­ the development of science in which people begin to observe different phenomenons  such as the earth is not flat Paradigm­ the guided principles and assumptions of science Incommensurability – immeasurable or incomparable in size or value Gestalt switch­ the idea of completely altering one’s view of a particular topic as if you’ve never seen it from  that perspective before. Such as taking electronic pieces of a computer but not realizing it is made to construct  such an instrument of technology but rather seeing it as a bunch of mechanical parts. Relativism­ the idea that knowledge is not absolute Theory ladenness of observation­ idea t that everything one observes is interpreted through a prior  understanding of other theories and concept


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