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study guide #1

by: Celeste Barnard

study guide #1 2210-04

Celeste Barnard
GPA 3.85

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social psychology study guide #1
Psychology of Social Behavior
John T Pennington
Study Guide
social, Psychology
50 ?




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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Celeste Barnard on Friday September 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 2210-04 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by John T Pennington in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Social Behavior in Psychology (PSYC) at Middle Tennessee State University.

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Date Created: 09/16/16
Social Psychology ­­ PSY 2210 ­­ Study Guide #1 1.  What is social psychology and how does it compare to personality psychology and     sociology?   Do   social   psychologists   answer   questions   by   relying   on   common   sense? Authority?  Personal experience?  Be able to distinguish between how social psychologists, personality psychologists, and sociologists explain human behavior.  2.  Describe specific events that occurred during WWII that helped create the field of  social psychology and the topics it examines.  What is Gestalt Psychology and how did it    shape Kurt Lewin’s ideas?  Briefly describe Lewin’s B = P X E formula. 3.  Describe, in detail, the steps/procedures of the scientific method.  What is an independent variable?  A dependent variable?  Be able to come up with your own examples of operational and theoretical definitions of both types of variables. 4.  Provide examples of an “observational method” and an “archival study” (aka archival analysis).  What is a correlational study?  What do we mean if we say that 2 variables are positively (or negatively) correlated?  Be able to determine the largest and smallest of a series of correlation coefficients. 5. Why is it useful to know that 2 variables are correlated?  Why do we care whether a correlation is weak or strong?   Can we infer causality from the findings of correlational studies? Why or why not? 6.  What are the steps of an experiment?  What is random assignment to condition?  Why is it important? What are experimental confounds?         7. Rest & recuperate by spending time with friends and family.      8.  Be able to distinguish between correlational studies from experiments.  How does the goal of applied research differ from that of basic research?  9.   According to Hovland’s research on persuasion, what is credibility and what are the various ways one can maximize it?  Be sure to discuss the research on this covered in class. Describe the steps one takes when persuading via “fear­arousing messages”.  10. What is cognitive dissonance?  When will we experience it?  How can we reduce it?  The  textbook covers this at length – please refer to it.  According to lecture, what sort of message is most persuasive for those who hold extreme attitudes or opinions?  Why?  What about moderate attitude holders? 11. Describe, in specific terms, the ways people can avoid being influenced by persuasive messages (e.g., attitude inoculation), as discussed in chapter 7. 12. Describe ways one could exploit the “norm of reciprocity” and the “norm of commitment and consistency” to persuade others.  Describe research that supports such techniques. On Test Day ­­ Offer animal sacrifices and prayers to the Test Gods! Social Psychology Study Guide #1 1. Social psychology is the scientific study of the in which people’s thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the real or imagined presence of other people, like parents, friends, employers, teachers, and strangers. Social psychology and sociology share an interest in the way the situation and the larger society influence behavior. Social psychologists pay more attention to the psychological makeup of individuals. Both, social psychology and personality psychology, emphasize the psychology of the individual rather than focusing on what makes people different, but social psychology has more of a focus on the psychological processes. 2. The control of Hitler and Churchill during World War II helped to create the field of social psychology. Topics that were examined during these events were leadership, propaganda, and persuasion. Gestalt psychology is a school of psychology stressing the importance of studying the subjective way in which an object appears in people’s minds rather than the objective, physical attributes of the object. This school helped Lewin to shape the American social psychology, directing it toward a deep interest in exploring the causes and cures of prejudice and ethnic stereotyping. 3. The Scientific Method: a. Develop a theory: a theory describes how 2 or more variables are related b. Generate a hypothesis: a hypothesis is a specific, testable prediction derived from the theory c. Run an experiment: design an experiment and run it d. Collect data: see what the experiment has come up with e. Compare hypothesis and data: see if the data matches up with the hypothesis Independent variable: the variable a researcher changes or varies to see if it has an effect on some other variable Dependent variable: the variable a researcher measures to see if it is influenced by the independent variable; the researcher hypothesizes that the dependent variable will depend on the level of the independent variable 4. The observational method is the technique whereby a researcher observes people and systematically records measurements or impressions of their behavior. An archival study is a form of the observational method in which the researcher examines the accumulated documents, or archives, of a culture. A correlation study is the technique whereby two or more variables are systematically measured and the relationship between them is assessed. A positive correlation is when one variable increases and the other variable also increases or when both decrease. A negative correlation is when one variable increases, the other decreases. 5. It is useful to know when two variables correlate so that you can know if one variable is a cause of another variable. We care whether a correlation is weak or strong because a weak correlation means that less people fit with the pattern and a strong correlation means that more people fit the pattern and that allows us to make more accurate predictions. Correlation does not equal causation because it only tells us whether or not two variables are related, it does not mean that one variable causes another. 6. Steps of an experiment: a. Make an observation b. Form a question c. Form a hypothesis d. Conduct an experiment e. Analyze data and draw conclusions 7. BREAK 8. Applied research are studies designed to solve a particular social problem. Basic research are studies that are designed to find the best answer to the question of why people behave as they do and that are conducted purely for reasons of intellectual curiosity. 9. Credibility equals expertise and honesty. We can maximize this by surrounding ourselves with authority “trapping”, speaking quickly, and initiating touch. 10. Cognitive dissonance is a drive or feeling of discomfort, originally defined as being caused holding two or more inconsistent cognitions and subsequently defined as being caused by performing an action that is discrepant from one’s customary, typically positive self- conception. This happens when you are trying to justify something that is going on within your life. 11. Persuasive communication is communication advocating a particular side of an issue. Attitude inoculation is making people immune to attempts to change their attitudes by initially exposing them to small doses of the arguments against their position. Other ways to avoid being persuaded is being alert to product placement, resisting peer pressure, and the reactance theory. 12. They could find examples where these norms are not going to work unless they do what they are trying to do.


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