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Geog 1113K Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Victoria Koehl

Geog 1113K Exam 1 Study Guide GEOG 1113

Marketplace > Georgia State University > GEOG 1113 > Geog 1113K Exam 1 Study Guide
Victoria Koehl
GPA 3.79

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Notes for what's going to be on the exam
Introduction to Landforms
Larry Kleitches
Study Guide
geography, Exam 1, Study Guide
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Victoria Koehl on Friday September 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GEOG 1113 at Georgia State University taught by Larry Kleitches in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 32 views.


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Date Created: 09/16/16
GEOG1113: INTRODUCTION TO LANDFORMS, GROUP TI STUDY GUIDE DR. KLEITCHES, FALL 2016 THE WEEK OF AUGUST 22, 2016  The Scientific Method- The recognition of a problem, the collection of data through  observation & experimentation, the creation of models, and the formulation and testing of a  hypothesis  The Five Themes of Geography-Location (absolute/relative), Place (area defined by  characteristics), Human­environment interaction, Movement, and Region (realm/sphere of  activity or interest)  The human characteristics and physical characteristics of place- Human: Human imprints such as the people, culture, language, religion, cities, and landmarks;  Physical: Land features, climate, mountains, plains, and bodies of water  The three human-environment interactions- Humans adapt to their  environment (clothing and crops), Humans modify their environment (dams and highways),  Humans depend on their environment (rivers­ transportation, drinking, for crops)  The three types of regions- Formal: Set by a government, boundaries, or physical  properties; Functional: Set by a predominant function such as a TV station’s viewing area, Ex­  Wheat Belt, does not need to be uniform across the whole region, defining function no longer  needs to exist; Vernacular: Perception (“The South”)  The four great spheres- Atmosphere­ gaseous layer, provides elements needed for life  and weather; Lithosphere­ Earth’s crust and a portion of the upper mantle, the outermost solid  layer that provides a platform for most life on Earth; Hydrosphere­ abiotic open systems that  includes Earth’s water; Biosphere­ the complex, interconnected web that links organisms with  their environment FIRE LAKE  Endogenic and exogenic systems- Endogenic­ Internal processes that produce  flows of heat and material from deep below the crust, powered by radioactive decay, and is the  Earth’s solid realm; Exogenic­ External processes that set air, water, and ice into motion,  powered by solar energy, shapes/reduces the landscape, and is the fluid realm of Earth  Eon; era; period; epoch- Time intervals of Earth’s history; Eon­ 1 billion years; Era­ at least 50 million years; Period­ longer than an epoch, included in an era; Epoch­ less than 10  million years  The Anthropocene- A proposed epoch that began when humans started to have a great  impact on the Earth’s geology, Will Steffen suggests starting it at either the Industrial Revolution or the Atomic Age, this epoch has not been officially approved  Uniformitarianism and catastrophism- Uniformitarianism­ The same physical  processes active in the environment today have been active throughout time, “the present is the  key to the past”; Catastrophism­ Fits the vastness of Earth’s age into a shortened time span,  considered a philosophy due to little physical evidence  Mohorovicic and Gutenberg Discontinuities- Are places where a change in  physical properties occur between two regions in the Earth’s interior. Mohorovicic­ The  boundary between the crust and the rest of the lithospheric upper mantle; Gutenberg­ Between  the mantle and the liquid outer core  The stages of compensating adjustment (isostasy)- Mountain mass slowly  sinks from erosion, this causes the crust to adjust upward, deposition from the mountain deforms  the lithosphere downward  The rock types {with examples}- Igneous: Rock that solidifies and crystalizes from a molten state, the type formed depends on original chemical composition, rate of cooling, and  the reactions that occurred in the magma (obsidian); Sedimentary­ Rock formed through  pressure, formed from existing rocks that have been weathered, eroded, and deposited  (limestone, sandstone); Metamorphic­ Any rock, igneous or sedimentary, that’s gone through  profound physical or chemical changes and increased temperature (marble, quartzite)  Alfred Wegener- German geophysicist, theory on how the Earth’s landmasses migrate,  “The Continental Puzzle”, matching fossils and rock types found on different landmasses,  regarded as the architect of the concept called the continental drift  The three types of plate boundaries- Divergent: Seafloor spreading centers,  where upwelling of material from the mantle forms new seafloor and crustal plates are spread  apart; Convergent: Collision zones, where continental/oceanic crust collide; Transform: Occur  where plates slide past each other at right angles to a seafloor spreading center, no volcanic  eruptions TECTONICS  The primary sources of radioactive decay- From natural occurring chemical  elements such as uranium, thorium, and potassium  Tectonic plate locations- In subduction zones  The terms for heartland regions, those areas where heartland regions are exposed at the surface, and crustal pieces that have attached themselves to larger plates. Cratons­ old crystalline rock, low in  elevation; Continental shields­ exposed by erosion; Terranes­ formed due to accretion GEOG1113: INTRODUCTION TO LANDFORMS, GROUP TI STUDY GUIDE DR. KLEITCHES, FALL 2016  The San Andreas Fault- A strike­slip fault, at the edge of California, a fracture in rocks  along which appreciable displacement has taken place  The process of pumping water, sand, and other materials under extremely high pressure into a well in order to extract oil and natural gas. Fracking  Specific locations where seismic activity connected to the above process has allegedly occurred. Earthquakes from fracking in Dallas, Texas and  Jones, Oklahoma  Orogenesis; orogeny; orogens: Orogenesis­ meaning “the birth of mountains”, the  process of mountain building; Orogeny­ A mountain­building episode that thickens continental  crust; Orogens­ Earth’s major chains of folded and faulted mountains  The Andes Mountains- Formed from the oceanic plate­continental plate collision type of orogenesis which occurred along the Pacific coast and the Americas  The underground source of energy released from an earthquake- The  focus  Aftershocks; foreshocks; primary and secondary waves; tsunamis: Aftershock­ Adjustments that follow a major earthquake creating smaller earthquakes;  Foreshock­ Small earthquakes that occur before a major earthquake by days or even years;  Primary waves­ Push­pull motion, changing the volume of intervening material, can travel  through solids, liquids, and gases; Secondary waves­ Shake motion at right angles to the  direction they travel at, travel slower than primary waves, travel only through solids; Tsunamis­  Seismic sea waves, destructive waves that are often, incorrectly, called tidal waves, result from  vertical displacement along an ocean fault or large undersea landslide  Magnitude and intensity- Two measurements that describe the size of an earthquake, Magnitude­ Estimates the amount of energy released at the source of an earthquake; Intensity­  Measure of the degree of earthquake shaking based on the amount of damage  Caldera; cinder cone; composite volcano; shield volcano: Caldera­ A  large basin­shaped depression formed when summit material on a volcanic mountain collapses  inward after eruption; Cinder­cone­ Small cone­shaped hills with a truncated top formed from  cinders that predominantly accumulate during an eruption; Composite volcano­ A mountain  formed from an explosive eruption due to blockage in the magma conduit, have steep sides and  are more conical; Shield volcano­ A mountain built from an effusive (gentle) eruption, gently  sloped, gradually rising to a summit crater, similar in outline to a shield on armor BREAKING UP IS HARD TO DO  Erosion; weathering; deposition; undermining: Erosion­ The  process where sediments are transported by wind, gravity, man, glaciers, and  running water; Weathering­ The breakdown of rocks into smaller pieces, or  sediments; Deposition­ The process where sediments are dropped off at another  location; Undermining­ Erosion at a waterfall  The soil horizons- A­Horizon (top soil): Dark surface soil that contains a  lot of living material and dead animal/plant remains (humus), has nutrients needed for plant life; B­Horizon (subsoil): Lighter colored soil with less nutrients and  more clay: C­Horizon (regolith): Larger rock fragments that sit on top the  bedrock  Suspension; Solution; Saltation: Suspension­ Clay sized/colloids are carried along with water during erosion, suspended in the middle of running  water; Solution­ The smallest particles of weathering dissolve in the water and are transported in a solution; Saltation­ Solid sediments are rolled and bounced along  the bottom of the river or stream because they are more dense  Vertical and horizontal sorting: Vertical sorting­ Where larger  particles settle on the bottom and smaller particles settle towards the top;  Horizontal sorting­ Where slow moving water enters a larger, still body of water  which cause larger particles to be deposited closer to the shoreline; YOUR SYLLABUS


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