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OK STATE / Biology / BIOL 3214 / What composes the axial skeleton?

What composes the axial skeleton?

What composes the axial skeleton?

Description

School: Oklahoma State University
Department: Biology
Course: Human Anatomy
Professor: Ben sanders
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: anatomy and Physiology
Cost: 25
Name: Chapter 7 notes
Description: Detailed chapter 7 notes.
Uploaded: 09/16/2016
16 Pages 81 Views 2 Unlocks
Reviews


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"}ol.lst-kix_yau957m0mfu-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_yau957m0mfu-8 0}.lst-kix_f21od6zeble-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_f21od6zeble-0}ol.lst-kix_k9ssrpeyo66b-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_k9ssrpeyo66b-4 0}.lst-kix_rckruylu93p9-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_rckruylu93p9-3}.lst-kix_qkrabh2ljwr1-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_qkrabh2ljwr1-3}.lst-kix_geubh9syd2gx-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_geubh9syd2gx-0}.lst-kix_a4goisvh36eh-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_a4goisvh36eh-1}ol.lst-kix_hndoq2mgwcic-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_hndoq2mgwcic-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_hndoq2mgwcic-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_hndoq2mgwcic-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_wtrffsxlt364-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_wtrffsxlt364-7 0}.lst-kix_hndoq2mgwcic-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_hndoq2mgwcic-7}ol.lst-kix_f21od6zeble-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_f21od6zeble-5 0}.lst-kix_f21od6zeble-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_f21od6zeble-7}ol.lst-kix_qkrabh2ljwr1-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_qkrabh2ljwr1-2 0}ol.lst-kix_hndoq2mgwcic-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_hndoq2mgwcic-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_hndoq2mgwcic-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_hndoq2mgwcic-1{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_hndoq2mgwcic-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ytz2m9eg0ex6-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ytz2m9eg0ex6-4}.lst-kix_k9ssrpeyo66b-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_k9ssrpeyo66b-8}ul.lst-kix_wlqsqu3fxz68-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_wlqsqu3fxz68-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_wlqsqu3fxz68-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_k9ssrpeyo66b-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_k9ssrpeyo66b-5}ul.lst-kix_wlqsqu3fxz68-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_wlqsqu3fxz68-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_wlqsqu3fxz68-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_wlqsqu3fxz68-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_wlqsqu3fxz68-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_wtrffsxlt364-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_wtrffsxlt364-0 0}ul.lst-kix_wlqsqu3fxz68-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ytz2m9eg0ex6-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ytz2m9eg0ex6-7}ol.lst-kix_wtrffsxlt364-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_wtrffsxlt364-5 0}ol.lst-kix_f21od6zeble-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_f21od6zeble-7 0}.lst-kix_a4goisvh36eh-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_a4goisvh36eh-8}.lst-kix_f21od6zeble-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_f21od6zeble-4}.lst-kix_rckruylu93p9-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_rckruylu93p9-7}.lst-kix_wtrffsxlt364-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_wtrffsxlt364-0,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_1frg6n9b6okj-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_1frg6n9b6okj-5}ol.lst-kix_wtrffsxlt364-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_wtrffsxlt364-2 0}ol.lst-kix_a4goisvh36eh-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_a4goisvh36eh-0 0}.lst-kix_qkrabh2ljwr1-5 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_qkrabh2ljwr1-5,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_geubh9syd2gx-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_geubh9syd2gx-4}ol.lst-kix_ytz2m9eg0ex6-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ytz2m9eg0ex6-0 0}.lst-kix_yau957m0mfu-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_yau957m0mfu-0,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_qkrabh2ljwr1-3 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_qkrabh2ljwr1-3,decimal) ". "}ol.lst-kix_rckruylu93p9-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_rckruylu93p9-6 0}.lst-kix_rckruylu93p9-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_rckruylu93p9-6,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_rckruylu93p9-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_rckruylu93p9-4,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_rckruylu93p9-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_rckruylu93p9-2,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_hndoq2mgwcic-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_hndoq2mgwcic-0}.lst-kix_hndoq2mgwcic-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_hndoq2mgwcic-6}ol.lst-kix_k9ssrpeyo66b-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_k9ssrpeyo66b-7 0}.lst-kix_qkrabh2ljwr1-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_qkrabh2ljwr1-7,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_k9ssrpeyo66b-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_k9ssrpeyo66b-4}ol.lst-kix_k9ssrpeyo66b-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_k9ssrpeyo66b-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_a4goisvh36eh-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_a4goisvh36eh-8,lower-roman) ". "}ol.lst-kix_k9ssrpeyo66b-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_k9ssrpeyo66b-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_wtrffsxlt364-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_wtrffsxlt364-2,lower-roman) ". "}ol.lst-kix_k9ssrpeyo66b-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_wtrffsxlt364-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_wtrffsxlt364-4,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_yau957m0mfu-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_yau957m0mfu-6,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_yau957m0mfu-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_yau957m0mfu-8,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_wlqsqu3fxz68-1 > li:before{content:"o "}.lst-kix_wlqsqu3fxz68-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_a4goisvh36eh-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_a4goisvh36eh-2,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_wtrffsxlt364-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_wtrffsxlt364-8,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_yau957m0mfu-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_yau957m0mfu-2,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_yau957m0mfu-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_yau957m0mfu-4,lower-latin) ". "}ol.lst-kix_k9ssrpeyo66b-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_k9ssrpeyo66b-6 0}.lst-kix_wlqsqu3fxz68-5 > li:before{content:"▪ "}.lst-kix_wlqsqu3fxz68-7 > li:before{content:"o "}.lst-kix_wtrffsxlt364-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_wtrffsxlt364-6,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_rckruylu93p9-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_rckruylu93p9-8,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_a4goisvh36eh-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_a4goisvh36eh-4,lower-latin) ". "}ol.lst-kix_k9ssrpeyo66b-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_k9ssrpeyo66b-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_a4goisvh36eh-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_a4goisvh36eh-6,decimal) ". "}ol.lst-kix_k9ssrpeyo66b-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_k9ssrpeyo66b-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_geubh9syd2gx-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_geubh9syd2gx-6,decimal) ". "}ol.lst-kix_qkrabh2ljwr1-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_qkrabh2ljwr1-0 0}ol.lst-kix_a4goisvh36eh-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_a4goisvh36eh-2 0}ol.lst-kix_yau957m0mfu-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_yau957m0mfu-0 0}ol.lst-kix_geubh9syd2gx-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_geubh9syd2gx-6 0}.lst-kix_geubh9syd2gx-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_geubh9syd2gx-7,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_geubh9syd2gx-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_geubh9syd2gx-1}.lst-kix_a4goisvh36eh-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_a4goisvh36eh-1,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_1frg6n9b6okj-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_1frg6n9b6okj-8}.lst-kix_geubh9syd2gx-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_geubh9syd2gx-2,lower-roman) ". "}ol.lst-kix_yau957m0mfu-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_f21od6zeble-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_f21od6zeble-3 0}.lst-kix_geubh9syd2gx-3 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_geubh9syd2gx-3,decimal) ". "}ol.lst-kix_yau957m0mfu-1{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_yau957m0mfu-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_yau957m0mfu-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_yau957m0mfu-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_qkrabh2ljwr1-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_qkrabh2ljwr1-6 0}ol.lst-kix_yau957m0mfu-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_yau957m0mfu-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_yau957m0mfu-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_yau957m0mfu-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_rckruylu93p9-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_rckruylu93p9-7 0}ol.lst-kix_yau957m0mfu-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_yau957m0mfu-5 0}.lst-kix_geubh9syd2gx-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_geubh9syd2gx-3}.lst-kix_ytz2m9eg0ex6-3 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ytz2m9eg0ex6-3,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_wtrffsxlt364-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_wtrffsxlt364-3}.lst-kix_ytz2m9eg0ex6-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ytz2m9eg0ex6-2,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_1frg6n9b6okj-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_1frg6n9b6okj-6}.lst-kix_ytz2m9eg0ex6-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ytz2m9eg0ex6-7,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_ytz2m9eg0ex6-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ytz2m9eg0ex6-6,decimal) ". "}ol.lst-kix_a4goisvh36eh-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_a4goisvh36eh-7 0}.lst-kix_hndoq2mgwcic-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_hndoq2mgwcic-2,lower-roman) ". "}ol.lst-kix_a4goisvh36eh-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_a4goisvh36eh-1 0}.lst-kix_rckruylu93p9-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_rckruylu93p9-4}ol.lst-kix_geubh9syd2gx-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_geubh9syd2gx-1 0}.lst-kix_hndoq2mgwcic-3 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_hndoq2mgwcic-3,decimal) ". "}ol.lst-kix_qkrabh2ljwr1-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_qkrabh2ljwr1-1 0}.lst-kix_yau957m0mfu-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_yau957m0mfu-6}ol.lst-kix_geubh9syd2gx-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_geubh9syd2gx-7 0}.lst-kix_wtrffsxlt364-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_wtrffsxlt364-7}.lst-kix_a4goisvh36eh-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_a4goisvh36eh-0}ol.lst-kix_f21od6zeble-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_f21od6zeble-4 0}ol.lst-kix_yau957m0mfu-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_yau957m0mfu-6 0}ol.lst-kix_a4goisvh36eh-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_a4goisvh36eh-8 0}ol.lst-kix_rckruylu93p9-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_rckruylu93p9-8 0}ol.lst-kix_geubh9syd2gx-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_geubh9syd2gx-0 0}.lst-kix_qkrabh2ljwr1-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_qkrabh2ljwr1-8}ol.lst-kix_1frg6n9b6okj-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_yau957m0mfu-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_yau957m0mfu-8}ol.lst-kix_1frg6n9b6okj-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_1frg6n9b6okj-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_1frg6n9b6okj-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_1frg6n9b6okj-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_yau957m0mfu-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_yau957m0mfu-4 0}ol.lst-kix_a4goisvh36eh-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_a4goisvh36eh-6 0}ol.lst-kix_geubh9syd2gx-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_geubh9syd2gx-2 0}ol.lst-kix_qkrabh2ljwr1-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_qkrabh2ljwr1-4 0}ol.lst-kix_qkrabh2ljwr1-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_qkrabh2ljwr1-7 0}.lst-kix_geubh9syd2gx-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_geubh9syd2gx-8}ol.lst-kix_geubh9syd2gx-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_geubh9syd2gx-5 0}.lst-kix_k9ssrpeyo66b-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_k9ssrpeyo66b-6}ol.lst-kix_a4goisvh36eh-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_a4goisvh36eh-3 0}.lst-kix_rckruylu93p9-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_rckruylu93p9-6}ol.lst-kix_wtrffsxlt364-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_yau957m0mfu-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_yau957m0mfu-1 0}.lst-kix_hndoq2mgwcic-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_hndoq2mgwcic-6,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_qkrabh2ljwr1-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_qkrabh2ljwr1-6}ol.lst-kix_wtrffsxlt364-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_wtrffsxlt364-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_geubh9syd2gx-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_geubh9syd2gx-6}ol.lst-kix_wtrffsxlt364-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_wtrffsxlt364-1{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_wtrffsxlt364-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_wtrffsxlt364-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_wtrffsxlt364-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_wtrffsxlt364-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_wtrffsxlt364-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_wtrffsxlt364-8 0}.lst-kix_hndoq2mgwcic-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_hndoq2mgwcic-8}.lst-kix_wtrffsxlt364-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_wtrffsxlt364-5}ol.lst-kix_yau957m0mfu-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_yau957m0mfu-2 0}.lst-kix_f21od6zeble-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_f21od6zeble-2}ol.lst-kix_qkrabh2ljwr1-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_qkrabh2ljwr1-5 0}.lst-kix_f21od6zeble-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_f21od6zeble-2,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_qkrabh2ljwr1-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_qkrabh2ljwr1-2,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_qkrabh2ljwr1-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_qkrabh2ljwr1-6,decimal) ". "}ol.lst-kix_f21od6zeble-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_f21od6zeble-2 0}.lst-kix_a4goisvh36eh-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_a4goisvh36eh-5}.lst-kix_rckruylu93p9-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_rckruylu93p9-7,lower-latin) ". "}ol.lst-kix_f21od6zeble-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_f21od6zeble-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_f21od6zeble-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_f21od6zeble-6,decimal) ". "}ol.lst-kix_f21od6zeble-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_f21od6zeble-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_f21od6zeble-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ytz2m9eg0ex6-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ytz2m9eg0ex6-2}ol.lst-kix_f21od6zeble-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_1frg6n9b6okj-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_1frg6n9b6okj-1}ol.lst-kix_f21od6zeble-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_rckruylu93p9-3 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_rckruylu93p9-3,decimal) ". "}ol.lst-kix_f21od6zeble-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_geubh9syd2gx-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_geubh9syd2gx-4 0}ol.lst-kix_a4goisvh36eh-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_a4goisvh36eh-4 0}ol.lst-kix_f21od6zeble-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_wtrffsxlt364-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_wtrffsxlt364-1,lower-latin) ". "}ol.lst-kix_f21od6zeble-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_f21od6zeble-1 0}.lst-kix_qkrabh2ljwr1-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_qkrabh2ljwr1-1}.lst-kix_wtrffsxlt364-5 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_wtrffsxlt364-5,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_yau957m0mfu-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_yau957m0mfu-1}.lst-kix_wlqsqu3fxz68-2 > li:before{content:"▪ "}.lst-kix_yau957m0mfu-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_yau957m0mfu-1,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_yau957m0mfu-5 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_yau957m0mfu-5,lower-roman) ". "}ol.lst-kix_geubh9syd2gx-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_geubh9syd2gx-3 0}ol.lst-kix_1frg6n9b6okj-1{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_a4goisvh36eh-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_a4goisvh36eh-5 0}ol.lst-kix_1frg6n9b6okj-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_a4goisvh36eh-5 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_a4goisvh36eh-5,lower-roman) ". "}ol.lst-kix_1frg6n9b6okj-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_1frg6n9b6okj-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_yau957m0mfu-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_yau957m0mfu-3 0}.lst-kix_wlqsqu3fxz68-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_k9ssrpeyo66b-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_k9ssrpeyo66b-0,decimal) ". "}ol.lst-kix_hndoq2mgwcic-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_hndoq2mgwcic-5 0}.lst-kix_k9ssrpeyo66b-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_k9ssrpeyo66b-1,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_k9ssrpeyo66b-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_k9ssrpeyo66b-4,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_k9ssrpeyo66b-3 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_k9ssrpeyo66b-3,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_k9ssrpeyo66b-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_k9ssrpeyo66b-2,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_k9ssrpeyo66b-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_k9ssrpeyo66b-8,lower-roman) ". "}ol.lst-kix_geubh9syd2gx-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_geubh9syd2gx-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_k9ssrpeyo66b-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_k9ssrpeyo66b-7,lower-latin) ". "}ol.lst-kix_geubh9syd2gx-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_geubh9syd2gx-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_geubh9syd2gx-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_geubh9syd2gx-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_1frg6n9b6okj-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_1frg6n9b6okj-8,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_1frg6n9b6okj-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_1frg6n9b6okj-7,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_k9ssrpeyo66b-5 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_k9ssrpeyo66b-5,lower-roman) ". "}ol.lst-kix_wtrffsxlt364-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_wtrffsxlt364-1 0}.lst-kix_geubh9syd2gx-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_geubh9syd2gx-2}.lst-kix_k9ssrpeyo66b-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_k9ssrpeyo66b-6,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_hndoq2mgwcic-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_hndoq2mgwcic-5}.lst-kix_1frg6n9b6okj-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_1frg6n9b6okj-7}.lst-kix_k9ssrpeyo66b-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_k9ssrpeyo66b-3}.lst-kix_rckruylu93p9-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_rckruylu93p9-1}ol.lst-kix_f21od6zeble-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_f21od6zeble-6 0}ol.lst-kix_ytz2m9eg0ex6-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ytz2m9eg0ex6-8 0}.lst-kix_wtrffsxlt364-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_wtrffsxlt364-0}ol.lst-kix_hndoq2mgwcic-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_hndoq2mgwcic-0 0}ol.lst-kix_qkrabh2ljwr1-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_qkrabh2ljwr1-3 0}ol.lst-kix_k9ssrpeyo66b-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_k9ssrpeyo66b-3 0}.lst-kix_1frg6n9b6okj-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_1frg6n9b6okj-0}.lst-kix_qkrabh2ljwr1-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_qkrabh2ljwr1-5}.lst-kix_wtrffsxlt364-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_wtrffsxlt364-4}.lst-kix_1frg6n9b6okj-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_1frg6n9b6okj-4,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_1frg6n9b6okj-3 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_1frg6n9b6okj-3,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_1frg6n9b6okj-5 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_1frg6n9b6okj-5,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_1frg6n9b6okj-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_1frg6n9b6okj-2,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_1frg6n9b6okj-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_1frg6n9b6okj-6,decimal) ". "}ol.lst-kix_wtrffsxlt364-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_wtrffsxlt364-6 0}ol.lst-kix_geubh9syd2gx-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_a4goisvh36eh-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_a4goisvh36eh-3}ol.lst-kix_geubh9syd2gx-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_geubh9syd2gx-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_hndoq2mgwcic-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_hndoq2mgwcic-1}.lst-kix_1frg6n9b6okj-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_1frg6n9b6okj-0,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_1frg6n9b6okj-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_1frg6n9b6okj-1,lower-latin) ". "}ol.lst-kix_qkrabh2ljwr1-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_qkrabh2ljwr1-8 0}ol.lst-kix_ytz2m9eg0ex6-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ytz2m9eg0ex6-3 0}.lst-kix_1frg6n9b6okj-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_1frg6n9b6okj-3}.lst-kix_rckruylu93p9-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_rckruylu93p9-8}.lst-kix_wtrffsxlt364-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_wtrffsxlt364-8}ol.lst-kix_k9ssrpeyo66b-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_k9ssrpeyo66b-5 0}ol.lst-kix_k9ssrpeyo66b-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_k9ssrpeyo66b-8 0}.lst-kix_f21od6zeble-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_f21od6zeble-5}.lst-kix_ytz2m9eg0ex6-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ytz2m9eg0ex6-6}.lst-kix_1frg6n9b6okj-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_1frg6n9b6okj-4}.lst-kix_ytz2m9eg0ex6-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ytz2m9eg0ex6-5}ol.lst-kix_yau957m0mfu-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_yau957m0mfu-7 0}.lst-kix_hndoq2mgwcic-5 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_hndoq2mgwcic-5,lower-roman) ". "}ol.lst-kix_ytz2m9eg0ex6-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ytz2m9eg0ex6-1 0}.lst-kix_hndoq2mgwcic-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_hndoq2mgwcic-7,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_a4goisvh36eh-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_a4goisvh36eh-7}ol.lst-kix_geubh9syd2gx-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_geubh9syd2gx-8 0}ol.lst-kix_1frg6n9b6okj-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_1frg6n9b6okj-8 0}.lst-kix_f21od6zeble-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_f21od6zeble-6}ol.lst-kix_rckruylu93p9-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_rckruylu93p9-3 0}.lst-kix_f21od6zeble-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_f21od6zeble-1,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_yau957m0mfu-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_yau957m0mfu-5}ol.lst-kix_qkrabh2ljwr1-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_qkrabh2ljwr1-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_qkrabh2ljwr1-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_qkrabh2ljwr1-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_qkrabh2ljwr1-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_f21od6zeble-3 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_f21od6zeble-3,decimal) ". "}ol.lst-kix_qkrabh2ljwr1-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_qkrabh2ljwr1-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_wtrffsxlt364-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_wtrffsxlt364-3 0}.lst-kix_f21od6zeble-5 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_f21od6zeble-5,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_f21od6zeble-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_f21od6zeble-7,lower-latin) ". "}ol.lst-kix_qkrabh2ljwr1-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_wtrffsxlt364-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_wtrffsxlt364-4 0}ol.lst-kix_qkrabh2ljwr1-1{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_f21od6zeble-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_f21od6zeble-8 0}.lst-kix_qkrabh2ljwr1-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_qkrabh2ljwr1-4}.lst-kix_yau957m0mfu-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_yau957m0mfu-4}ol.lst-kix_rckruylu93p9-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_rckruylu93p9-5 0}.lst-kix_geubh9syd2gx-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_geubh9syd2gx-8,lower-roman) ". "}ol.lst-kix_rckruylu93p9-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_rckruylu93p9-1 0}ol.lst-kix_ytz2m9eg0ex6-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ytz2m9eg0ex6-5 0}.lst-kix_rckruylu93p9-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_rckruylu93p9-2}.lst-kix_yau957m0mfu-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_yau957m0mfu-2}ol.lst-kix_rckruylu93p9-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_rckruylu93p9-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_geubh9syd2gx-5 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_geubh9syd2gx-5,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_a4goisvh36eh-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_a4goisvh36eh-2}ol.lst-kix_rckruylu93p9-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_rckruylu93p9-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_rckruylu93p9-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_rckruylu93p9-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_rckruylu93p9-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_rckruylu93p9-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_rckruylu93p9-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_geubh9syd2gx-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_geubh9syd2gx-0,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_a4goisvh36eh-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_a4goisvh36eh-0,decimal) ". "}ol.lst-kix_hndoq2mgwcic-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_hndoq2mgwcic-2 0}.lst-kix_geubh9syd2gx-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_geubh9syd2gx-1,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_geubh9syd2gx-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_geubh9syd2gx-4,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_wtrffsxlt364-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_wtrffsxlt364-1}.lst-kix_qkrabh2ljwr1-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_qkrabh2ljwr1-2}.lst-kix_hndoq2mgwcic-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_hndoq2mgwcic-2}.lst-kix_k9ssrpeyo66b-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_k9ssrpeyo66b-0}ol.lst-kix_1frg6n9b6okj-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_1frg6n9b6okj-1 0}.lst-kix_ytz2m9eg0ex6-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ytz2m9eg0ex6-0,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_qkrabh2ljwr1-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_qkrabh2ljwr1-0}.lst-kix_ytz2m9eg0ex6-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ytz2m9eg0ex6-1,lower-latin) ". "}ol.lst-kix_k9ssrpeyo66b-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_k9ssrpeyo66b-1 0}.lst-kix_qkrabh2ljwr1-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_qkrabh2ljwr1-0,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_qkrabh2ljwr1-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_qkrabh2ljwr1-1,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_a4goisvh36eh-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_a4goisvh36eh-4}.lst-kix_f21od6zeble-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_f21od6zeble-0,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_ytz2m9eg0ex6-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ytz2m9eg0ex6-8,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_ytz2m9eg0ex6-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ytz2m9eg0ex6-4,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_ytz2m9eg0ex6-5 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ytz2m9eg0ex6-5,lower-roman) ". "}ol.lst-kix_1frg6n9b6okj-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_1frg6n9b6okj-7 0}ol.lst-kix_a4goisvh36eh-1{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_a4goisvh36eh-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_yau957m0mfu-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_yau957m0mfu-0}.lst-kix_hndoq2mgwcic-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_hndoq2mgwcic-0,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_rckruylu93p9-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_rckruylu93p9-0}.lst-kix_hndoq2mgwcic-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_hndoq2mgwcic-1,lower-latin) ". "}ol.lst-kix_hndoq2mgwcic-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_hndoq2mgwcic-7 0}.lst-kix_geubh9syd2gx-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_geubh9syd2gx-5}ol.lst-kix_a4goisvh36eh-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_a4goisvh36eh-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_hndoq2mgwcic-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_hndoq2mgwcic-4,lower-latin) ". "}ol.lst-kix_a4goisvh36eh-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_a4goisvh36eh-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_a4goisvh36eh-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_a4goisvh36eh-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_f21od6zeble-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_f21od6zeble-1}ol.lst-kix_a4goisvh36eh-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ytz2m9eg0ex6-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ytz2m9eg0ex6-1{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ytz2m9eg0ex6-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_a4goisvh36eh-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_a4goisvh36eh-6}.lst-kix_ytz2m9eg0ex6-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ytz2m9eg0ex6-1}ol.lst-kix_1frg6n9b6okj-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_1frg6n9b6okj-0 0}ol.lst-kix_rckruylu93p9-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_rckruylu93p9-2 0}ol.lst-kix_hndoq2mgwcic-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_hndoq2mgwcic-1 0}.lst-kix_k9ssrpeyo66b-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_k9ssrpeyo66b-2}ol.lst-kix_hndoq2mgwcic-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_hndoq2mgwcic-8 0}.lst-kix_hndoq2mgwcic-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_hndoq2mgwcic-4}ol.lst-kix_1frg6n9b6okj-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_1frg6n9b6okj-6 0}ol.lst-kix_ytz2m9eg0ex6-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ytz2m9eg0ex6-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ytz2m9eg0ex6-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ytz2m9eg0ex6-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ytz2m9eg0ex6-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ytz2m9eg0ex6-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_k9ssrpeyo66b-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_k9ssrpeyo66b-7}.lst-kix_geubh9syd2gx-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_geubh9syd2gx-7}.lst-kix_yau957m0mfu-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_yau957m0mfu-7}ol.lst-kix_1frg6n9b6okj-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_1frg6n9b6okj-2 0}ol.lst-kix_k9ssrpeyo66b-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_k9ssrpeyo66b-2 0}.lst-kix_hndoq2mgwcic-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_hndoq2mgwcic-8,lower-roman) ". "}ol.lst-kix_ytz2m9eg0ex6-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ytz2m9eg0ex6-4 0}.lst-kix_1frg6n9b6okj-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_1frg6n9b6okj-2}ol.lst-kix_hndoq2mgwcic-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_hndoq2mgwcic-6 0}ol.lst-kix_1frg6n9b6okj-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_1frg6n9b6okj-5 0}.lst-kix_f21od6zeble-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_f21od6zeble-3}ol.lst-kix_hndoq2mgwcic-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_hndoq2mgwcic-3 0}ol.lst-kix_rckruylu93p9-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_rckruylu93p9-0 0}.lst-kix_wtrffsxlt364-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_wtrffsxlt364-6}ol.lst-kix_1frg6n9b6okj-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_1frg6n9b6okj-4 0}.lst-kix_qkrabh2ljwr1-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_qkrabh2ljwr1-4,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_rckruylu93p9-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_rckruylu93p9-5}.lst-kix_f21od6zeble-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_f21od6zeble-8}.lst-kix_f21od6zeble-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_f21od6zeble-4,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_ytz2m9eg0ex6-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ytz2m9eg0ex6-8}.lst-kix_ytz2m9eg0ex6-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ytz2m9eg0ex6-3}.lst-kix_f21od6zeble-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_f21od6zeble-8,lower-roman) ". "}ol.lst-kix_k9ssrpeyo66b-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_k9ssrpeyo66b-0 0}.lst-kix_rckruylu93p9-5 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_rckruylu93p9-5,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_qkrabh2ljwr1-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_qkrabh2ljwr1-8,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_rckruylu93p9-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_rckruylu93p9-1,lower-latin) ". "}ol.lst-kix_ytz2m9eg0ex6-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ytz2m9eg0ex6-7 0}ol.lst-kix_hndoq2mgwcic-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_hndoq2mgwcic-4 0}.lst-kix_a4goisvh36eh-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_a4goisvh36eh-7,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_wlqsqu3fxz68-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_wtrffsxlt364-3 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_wtrffsxlt364-3,decimal) ". "}ol.lst-kix_ytz2m9eg0ex6-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ytz2m9eg0ex6-6 0}.lst-kix_yau957m0mfu-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_yau957m0mfu-7,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_wtrffsxlt364-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_wtrffsxlt364-7,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_a4goisvh36eh-3 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_a4goisvh36eh-3,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_wlqsqu3fxz68-4 > li:before{content:"o "}.lst-kix_wlqsqu3fxz68-8 > li:before{content:"▪ "}.lst-kix_qkrabh2ljwr1-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_qkrabh2ljwr1-7}ol.lst-kix_1frg6n9b6okj-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_1frg6n9b6okj-3 0}.lst-kix_yau957m0mfu-3 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_yau957m0mfu-3,decimal) ". "}

Chapter 7: Axial SelectionIf you want to learn more check out Who often determines how long an employee stays with the company?

80 bones of head and trunk make up Axial Skeleton

Axial Skeleton 

  • forms the longitudinal axis of the body (Axial = axis)
  • has 80 bones (40% of the bones in body)
  • Axial components are:
  1. The Skull (8 cranial bones and 12 facial)
  2. Bones associated with skull (6 auditory ossicles & hyoid bone)
  3. Vertebral column (24 vertebrae, sacrum, & coccyx [tailbone])
  4. Thoracic cage (sternum & 24 ribs)
  • provides framework that supports & protects the brain, spinal cord, & organs in the subdivisions of the ventral body cavity.
  • Provides extensive surface area for attachment of muscles that
  1. Adjust positions of head, neck, & trunk
  2. Perform respiratory movements
  3. Stabilize or position parts of the appendicular skeleton (support limbs)

Joints of the axial skeleton permit limited movement but they are very strong and heavily reinforced with ligaments.Don't forget about the age old question of How is insurance premium calculated?

Skull

  • These bones protect the brain and guard entrances to digestive and respiratory systems.

  • Contains 22 bones
  1. 8 Form the cranium – aka braincase
  2. 14 are associated with face

If you want to learn more check out Why are uk taxes so high?

  • 7 others bones are associated with the skull
  1. Six auditory ossicles are located within the temporal bones of cranium
  2. Hyoid bone- connected to inferior surfaces of temporal bones pair of ligaments

8 Cranial Bones

  • The occipidal bone, frontal bone, sphenoid, ethmoid, and parietal and temporal bones.
  • Enclose cranial cavity chamber supporting brain
  • A joint between the occipital bone and first vertebrae of neck stabilized positions of brain and spinal cord.
  • Joints between the vertebrae of neck permit wide range of head movements

Facial Complex

  • Facial Bones protect and support the entrances to digestive and respiratory tracts.
  • Superficial facial bones (paired maxillae, lacrimal, nasal and xygomatic bones and mandible) provide areas for attachment of muscles that control facial expressions and assist in manipulating food

  1.  deeper facial bones (paired palatine bones and inferior nasal conchae and the single median vomer)  help separate oral and nasal cavities, or help form the nasal septum (wall)  - subdivides nasal cavity

If you want to learn more check out What are the steps in making a hearty potato salad?

Air-Filled Chambers (Sinuses)

  • 2 major functions:
  1. Make a bone weigh less than it would otherwise.
  2. The mucous membrane lining them produces mucous that moistens and cleans the air in and adjacent to the sinus.

Don't forget about the age old question of What are megaliths?

Joints or articulations

  • Form where two bones interconnect except manible  connection to cranium the connections between skull bones are immovable joints called sutures.  At sutures, bones are tied firmly together with fibrous connect tissue.
  • 4 Major Sutures:
  1. Lambdoid – separates occipital bone from 2 parietal one or more sutural bones may be present along lambdoid suture.
  2. Coronal – attaches frontal bone to the parietal bones of either side. Occipital, parietal, and frontal bones form the calvaria or skullcap
  3. Sagittal – extends from lambdoid suture to coronal suture between parietal bones.
  4. Squamous- on each side of skull forms boundary between the temporal bone and parietal bone of that side.

If you want to learn more check out What is stated in the spontaneous generation theory?

Orbital and Nasal Complexes

Orbital Complex

  • Orbits are bony recesses that contain the eyes
  • Seven bones of the orbital complex form each orbit.
  1. Frontal bone (roof)
  2. Maxilla (Floor)
  3. Maxillary, lacrimal, and ethmoid bones (orbital rim and medical wall)
  4. Sphenoid and palatine bones

Bones of Nasal Complex

  • Includes bones that enclose the nasal cavities and paranasal sinuses—air-filled chambers connected to nasal cavities
  • Frontal bone, sphenoid and ethmoid form superior wall of nasal cavities.
  • Much of anterior margin of nasal cavity is formed by soft tissues of the noese but the bridge of the nose is supported by maxillae and nasal bones.

Paranasal Sinuses

  • Air-filled chambers connected to the nasal cavities (sphenoid, ethmoid, frontal bone, and paired palatine and maxillae)
  • Lighten skull bones
  • Provide mucous epithelium (flushes nasal cavaties)

Fontanelles

  • Non-ossified areas between cranial bones allowing brain growth.
  • Anterior Fontanelle is the largest fontanelle lies at intersection of frontal, sagittal, and coronal sutures in anterior portion of skull; soft spot. (disappear 1-2 months after birth)
  • Occipital Fontanelle – at junction between lambdoid and sagittal sutures (disappear 1-2 months after birth)
  • Sphenoidal Fontanelles –  at junctions between squamous sutures and coronal suture (disappear 1-2 months after birth)
  • Mastoid Fontanelles- at junctions between squamous sutures and lambdoid suture (disappear 1-2 months after birth)
  • Infant skull grows rapidly is large compared to body and has many ossification centers.
  • Fusion isn’t complete at birth:
  1. 2 frontal bones
  2. 4 occipital bones
  3. Several sphenoid and temporal elements
  • Fontanelles areas of fibrous connect tissue (soft spots)
  1. Cover unfused sutures in infant skull
  2. Allows skull to flex during birth

Vertebral Column

  • Four spinal curves
  • Consists of 26 bones – the vertebrae (24), the sacrum, and coccyx (tailbone)
  • Protect spinal cord and maintain posture
  • Supports head, neck, and trunk, and transferring weight to appendicular skeleton of the lower limbs.

Spinal Curvative

  • Four (4) Spinal Curves:
  1. Cervical
  2. Thoracic
  3. Lumbar
  4. Sacral
  • Thoracic and Sacral Curves are called primary curves (because they’re present during fetal development) also accommodation curves (accommodate internal organs, the thoracic and abdominopelvic uscera)
  • Lumbar and Cervical Curves are known as secondary curves don’t appear until several months after birth aka compensation curves help shift weight to permit upright posture.

The Vertebrae

  • Neck – 7 cervical vertebrae
  • Upper Back – 12 thoracic vertebrae, each articulates with one or more ribs
  • Lower back – 5 lumbar vertebrae
  • Sacrum and Coccyx – 5th lumbar vertebrae articulates with sacrum and sacrum articulates with coccyx.
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